In biological taxonomy, the type genus is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name.
According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the 'type genus'; the family-group name is based upon that of the type genus."
Any family-group name must have a type genus (and any genus-group name must have a type species, but any species-group name may, but need not, have one or more type specimens). The type genus for a family-group name is also the genus that provided the stem to which was added the ending -idae (for families).
In botanical nomenclature, the phrase "type genus" is used, unofficially, as a term of convenience. In the ICN this phrase has no status. The code uses type specimens for ranks up to family, and types are optional for higher ranks.The Code does not refer to the genus containing that type as a "type genus".
The 2008 Revision of the Bacteriological Code states, "The nomenclatural type […] of a taxon above genus, up to and including order, is the legitimate name of the included genus on whose name the name of the relevant taxon is based. One taxon of each category must include the type genus. The names of the taxa which include the type genus must be formed by the addition of the appropriate suffix to the stem of the name of the type genus[…]."In 2019, it was proposed that all ranks above genus should use the genus category as the nomenclatural type. This proposal was subsequently adopted for the rank of phylum.
Pseudomonadota is a major phylum of Gram-negative bacteria. The renaming of several prokaryote phyla in 2021, including Pseudomonadota, remains controversial among microbiologists, many of whom continue to use the earlier name Proteobacteria, of long standing in the literature. The phylum Proteobacteria includes a wide variety of pathogenic genera, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia, Legionella, and many others. Others are free-living (non-parasitic) and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.
Nanoarchaeota is a proposed phylum in the domain Archaea that currently has only one representative, Nanoarchaeum equitans, which was discovered in a submarine hydrothermal vent and first described in 2002.
The Thermoproteota are prokaryotes that have been classified as a phylum of the Archaea domain. Initially, the Thermoproteota were thought to be sulfur-dependent extremophiles but recent studies have identified characteristic Thermoproteota environmental rRNA indicating the organisms may be the most abundant archaea in the marine environment. Originally, they were separated from the other archaea based on rRNA sequences; other physiological features, such as lack of histones, have supported this division, although some crenarchaea were found to have histones. Until recently all cultured Thermoproteota had been thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms, some of which have the ability to grow at up to 113°C. These organisms stain Gram negative and are morphologically diverse, having rod, cocci, filamentous and oddly-shaped cells.
The Aquificota phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings. The name Aquificota was given to this phylum based on an early genus identified within this group, Aquifex, which is able to produce water by oxidizing hydrogen. They have been found in springs, pools, and oceans. They are autotrophs, and are the primary carbon fixers in their environments. These bacteria are Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods. They are true bacteria as opposed to the other inhabitants of extreme environments, the Archaea.
The Thermodesulfobacteriota are a phylum of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria.
The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea. It denotes the rules for naming taxa of bacteria, according to their relative rank. As such it is one of the nomenclature codes of biology.
The Myxococcota are a phylum of bacteria known as the fruiting gliding bacteria. All species of this group are Gram-negative. They are predominantly aerobic genera that release myxospores in unfavorable environments.
In the taxonomy of microorganisms, the Methanomicrobiales are an order of the Methanomicrobia. Methanomicrobiales are strictly carbon dioxide reducing methanogens, using hydrogen or formate as the reducing agent. As seen from the phylogenetic tree based on 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project the family Methanomicrobiaceae is highly polyphyletic within the Methanomicrobiales.
Methanomicrobiaceae are a family of archaea in the order the Methanomicrobiales.
Chloracidobacterium is a genus of the Acidobacteriota. It is currently assigned to the family Acidobacteriaceae, but phylogenetic evidence suggests that it belongs in Blastocatellia.
The Synergistota is a phylum of anaerobic bacteria that show Gram-negative staining and have rod/vibrioid cell shape. Although Synergistota have a diderm cell envelope, the genes for various proteins involved in lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis have not yet been detected in Synergistota, indicating that they may have an atypical outer cell envelope. The Synergistota inhabit a majority of anaerobic environments including animal gastrointestinal tracts, soil, oil wells, and wastewater treatment plants and they are also present in sites of human diseases such as cysts, abscesses, and areas of periodontal disease. Due to their presence at illness related sites, the Synergistota are suggested to be opportunistic pathogens but they can also be found in healthy individuals in the microbiome of the umbilicus and in normal vaginal flora. Species within this phylum have also been implicated in periodontal disease, gastrointestinal infections and soft tissue infections. Other species from this phylum have been identified as significant contributors in the degradation of sludge for production of biogas in anaerobic digesters and are potential candidates for use in renewable energy production through their production of hydrogen gas. All of the known Synergistota species and genera are presently part of a single class (Synergistia), order (Synergistiales), and family (Synergistaceae).
The phylum Elusimicrobiota, previously known as "Termite Group 1", has been shown to be widespread in different ecosystems like marine environment, sewage sludge, contaminated sites and soils, and toxic wastes. The high abundance of Elusimicrobiota representatives is only seen for the lineage of symbionts found in termites and ants.
Caldithrix is a genus of thermophilic and anaerobic bacteria, currently assigned to its own phylum.
The Coriobacteriia are a class of Gram-positive bacteria within the Actinomycetota phylum. Species within this group are nonsporulating, strict or facultative anaerobes that are capable of thriving in a diverse set of ecological niches. Gordonibacter species are the only members capable of motility by means of flagella within the class. Several species within the Coriobacteriia class have been implicated with human diseases that range in severity. Atopobium, Olsenella, and Cryptobacterium species have responsible for human oral infections including periodontitis, halitosis, and other endodontic infections. Eggerthella species have been associated with severe blood bacteraemia and ulcerative colitis.
Coprothermobacterota is a phylum of nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria.
Jatrophihabitans is a genus of Actinomycetota.
Bdellovibrionota is a phylum of bacteria.
The Ignavibacteriales are an order of obligately anaerobic, non-photosynthetic bacteria that are closely related to the green sulfur bacteria.
The Kiritimatiellota are a phylum of bacteria.
The Holophagae is a class of Acidobacteriota.