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Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Name transcription(s)
  Chinese广西壮族自治区 (Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū)
  Abbreviation (Pinyin: Guì)
   Zhuang Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih
   Yue Jyutping Gwong2sai1 Zong3zuk6 Zi6zi6keoi1
Guangxi in China (+all claims hatched).svg
Map showing the location of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Coordinates: 23°36′N108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3
Country China
Named for 广 guǎng - "Wide"
西 - "West"
Lit. "Western Expanse"
(and largest city)
Divisions14 prefectures, 109 counties, 1396 townships
  Type Autonomous region
  Body Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regional People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Lu Xinshe
   Congress chairmanLu Xinshe
  Gov't Chairman Lan Tianli
   CPPCC chairman Sun Dawei
  Total237,600 km2 (91,700 sq mi)
Area rank 9th
Highest elevation2,141 m (7,024 ft)
  Rank 11th
  Density200/km2 (530/sq mi)
  Density rank 20th
  Ethnic composition Han – 62%
Zhuang – 32%
Yao – 3%
Miao – 1%
Dong – 0.7%
Vietnamese – 0.6%
Gelao – 0.4%
  Languages and dialects Zhuang, Yue languages (mainly Cantonese), Southwestern Mandarin, Pinghua
ISO 3166 code CN-GX
GDP (2017) CNY 2.04 trillion [1] USD302.09 billion (17th)(List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP)
 • per capita CNY 41,955 (List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita)
HDI (2018)Increase2.svg 0.726 [2]
high · 24th
Website Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
(Simplified Chinese)
Guangxi (Chinese characters).svg
Guǎngxī in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 广西
Traditional Chinese 廣西
Hanyu Pinyin Loudspeaker.svg Guǎngxī
Postal Kwangsi
Literal meaningAn abbreviation of "Guǎng(nán)xī (Circuit)"
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Simplified Chinese 广西 自治区
Traditional Chinese 廣西 自治區 or 廣西僮族自治區 [3]
Hanyu Pinyin Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū
Postal Kwangsi Chuang Autonomous Region
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Quảng Tây
long: Khu tự trị dân tộc Choang Quảng Tây
Zhuang name
Zhuang Gvangjsih
long: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih
1957 orthography Gvaŋзsiƅ
long: Gvaŋзsiƅ Bouчcueŋƅ Sɯcigiƅ
Sawndip 广西佈僮自治区
English name
English /ˈɡwɑːŋˈs/ [4]

Guangxi ( [kwàŋ.ɕí] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); alternately romanized as Kwanghsi; Chinese :广西; Zhuang : Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam (Hà Giang, Cao Bằng, Lạng Sơn and Quảng Ninh Provinces) and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning. [5]


Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of Chinese history. The current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in 226 AD. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan dynasty, but even into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory. The abbreviation of the region is " " (pinyin :Guì; Zhuang : Gvei), which comes from the name of the city of Guilin, the provincial capital during both the Ming dynasty and the Qing dynasty.

Guangxi contains the largest population of China's ethnic minorities, in particular the Zhuang people, who make up 32% of the population. Various regional languages and dialects such as Pinghua, Zhuang, Cantonese, Hakka and Min are spoken alongside Mandarin Chinese. [6]


"Guǎng" (simplified Chinese :广; traditional Chinese :) means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. [7] Guangxi and neighboring Guangdong literally mean "expanse west" and "expanse east". Together, Guangxi and Guangdong are called Loeng gwong (Liangkwang; traditional Chinese :兩廣; simplified Chinese :两广; pinyin :liǎng guǎng; Cantonese Yale :léuhng gwóng; lit. 'Two Expanses', Vietnamese: Lưỡng Quảng, QuangTay province). During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Xīlù (廣南西路; 广南西路; 'vast south west region') and Guǎngnán Dōnglù (廣南東路; 广南东路; 'vast south east region'), which became abbreviated as Guǎngxī Lù (廣西路; 广西路) and Guǎngdōng Lù (廣東路; 广东路).


Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue ("Hundred Yue", Vietnamese : Bách Việt), the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han Chinese general Zhao Tuo (Vietnamese : Triệu Đà) claimed most of southern China for Qin Shi Huang before the emperor's death. The ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Nanyue ("Southern Yue"). Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han dynasty control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" (和集百越) until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han dynasty.[ citation needed ]

The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province (廣州) of the Eastern Wu, who controlled southeastern China during the Three Kingdoms period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies.[ citation needed ]

Under the Tang dynasty, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Nanzhao in Yunnan, which successfully repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was then divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.[ citation needed ]

After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han (Nanhan) in Xingwangfu (modern Guangdong). Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song dynasty in 971. The name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse") Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people. His independent kingdom was short-lived, however, and the tattooed Song general Di Qing returned Guangxi to China.[ citation needed ]

The Yuan dynasty established control over Yunnan during its conquest of the Dali Kingdom in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians then established Guangxi ("Western Expanse") as a proper province. The area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming dynasty to employ the different local groups against one another. At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported.[ citation needed ]

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, parts of Guangxi were ruled by the powerful Cen () clan. The Cen were of Zhuang ethnicity and were recognized as tusi or local ruler by the Chinese emperors.

The Qing dynasty left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed the Jintian Uprising, the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion, in January 1851 and the Da Cheng Rebellion in April 1854. The execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Louis Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Largely ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass (modern Friendship Pass) on 23 March 1885.[ citation needed ]

Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911. The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan, initially remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Old Guangxi clique overran Hunan and Guangdong as well and helped lead the National Protection War against Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1920 and 1921 Guangdong–Guangxi War. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years [8] until Li Zongren's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, and Bai Chongxi.[ citation needed ]

Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peifu led to the Zhuang GPA becoming known as the "Flying Army" and the "Army of Steel." After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed Tang Jiyao's revolt and joined the Northern Expedition establishing control over other warlords by the Republic of China (1912–49). His was one of the few Kuomintang units free from serious Communist influence and was therefore employed by Chiang Kai-shek for the Shanghai massacre of 1927. Within the People's Republic of China, Guangxi is also noted for the Baise Uprising, a failed Communist revolt led by Chen Zhaoli and Deng Xiaoping in 1929.[ citation needed ]

Being in the far south, Guangxi did not fall during the Chinese Civil War, but joined the People's Republic in December 1949, two months after its founding.[ citation needed ]

In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline (Qinzhou, Lianzhou (now Hepu County), Fangchenggang and Beihai) was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965.

The Guangxi Massacre, during the Cultural Revolution, involved the killing of 100,000 to 150,000 in the province in 1967 and 1968. [9] [10]

While some development of heavy industry occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, the province remained largely a scenic tourist destination.[ citation needed ] Even the economic growth of the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi behind. However, in recent years, there has been a growing amount of industrialization and increasing concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP has risen as industries in Guangdong transfer production to comparatively lower-wage areas in Guangxi.[ citation needed ]


Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi is bordered by Yunnan to the west, Guizhou to the north, Hunan to the northeast, and Guangdong to the east and southeast. It is also bordered by Vietnam in the southwest and the Gulf of Tonkin in the south. Its proximity to Guangdong is reflected in its name, with "Guang" being used in both names.

Guangxi is partly a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains form the north-east border, with the Yuecheng and Haiyang Mountains branching from them. Also in the north are the Duyao and Fenghuang Mountains. Near the center of the region are the Da Yao and Da Ming Mountains. On the southeastern border are the Yunkai Mountains.

The highest point is Kitten Mountain, in the Yuecheng Mountains, at 2,141 metres (7,024 ft).

Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers form the tributary basin of the West River:

Xi River system schematic
(italics indicates rivers outside Guangxi)
He River (贺江) Xi River
Li River Gui River (桂江)
Beipan River Hongshui River Qian River Xun River
Nanpan River
Rong River Liu River
Long River
You River Yong River Yu River
Zuo River

Major cities include: Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin, Beihai.

Notable towns include: Longmen, Sanjiang, Yangshuo

Guangxi has a short coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin. Important seaports include Beihai, Qinzhou and Fangchenggang.

Along the border with Vietnam there is the Ban Gioc–Detian waterfall (pinyin:Dé Tiān Pùbù), which separates the two countries.


Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long, hot, and humid, lasting from April to October. Winters are mild, and snow is rare. Average annual temperature is 17 to 23°C, while average annual precipitation ranges from 1,080 mm in the drier zones, to 1,730 mm in the wetter zones. The region also experiences monsoons, blowing from south-southwest from late April to the beginning of October. Most of the percipitation occurs between May and August. Microbursts can also occasionally occur in the extreme south of the region, from July to September. This is caused by typhoons blowing from the South China Sea. [11]

Administrative divisions

Guangxi is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Administrative divisions of Guangxi
Division code [12] DivisionArea in km2 [13] Population 2010 [14] SeatDivisions [15]
Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities
450000Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region236700.0046,023,761 Nanning city4051128
450100 Nanning city22,099.316,658,742 Qingxiu District 75
450200 Liuzhou city18,596.643,758,704 Liubei District 532
450300 Guilin city27,667.284,747,963 Lingui District 6821
450400 Wuzhou city12,572.442,882,200 Changzhou District 331
450500 Beihai city3,988.671,539,251 Haicheng District 31
450600 Fangchenggang city6181.19866,927 Gangkou District 211
450700 Qinzhou city10820.853,079,721 Qinnan District 22
450800 Guigang city10605.444,118,808 Gangbei District 311
450900 Yulin city12828.115,487,368 Yuzhou District 241
451000 Baise city36203.853,466,758 Youjiang District 1911
451100 Hezhou city11771.541,954,072 Babu District 221
451200 Hechi city33487.653,369,251 Yizhou District 245
451300 Laibin city13391.592,099,711 Xingbin District 1311
451400 Chongzuo city17345.471,994,285 Jiangzhou District 151

These 14 prefecture-level cities are in turn subdivided into 111 county-level divisions (40 districts, 8 county-level cities, 51 counties, and 12 autonomous counties). At the year end of 2017, the total population is 48.85 million.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
#CityUrban area [16] District area [16] City proper [16] Census date
1 Nanning [lower-alpha 1] 2,660,8333,434,3036,658,7422010-11-01
(1)Nanning (new district) [lower-alpha 1] 186,049544,478see Nanning2010-11-01
2 Liuzhou [lower-alpha 2] 1,410,7121,436,5993,758,7042010-11-01
(2)Liuzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 2] 213,859562,351see Liuzhou2010-11-01
3 Guilin [lower-alpha 3] 844,290975,6384,747,9632010-11-01
(3)Guilin (new district) [lower-alpha 3] 119,339443,994see Guilin2010-11-01
4 Guigang 658,8871,493,8744,118,8082010-11-01
5 Beiliu 652,8531,132,216see Yulin2010-11-01
6 Yulin 547,9241,056,7435,487,3682010-11-01
7 Guiping 508,2121,496,904see Guigang2010-11-01
8 Qinzhou 489,1391,198,4283,079,7212010-11-01
9 Beihai 463,388668,0441,539,2512010-11-01
10 Hezhou 379,8891,005,4901,954,0722010-11-01
11 Cenxi 337,052772,113see Wuzhou2010-11-01
12 Laibin 315,875910,2822,099,7112010-11-01
13 Fangchenggang 278,955518,124866,9272010-11-01
14 Wuzhou [lower-alpha 4] 243,261613,4612,882,2002010-11-01
(14)Wuzhou (new district) [lower-alpha 4] 136,628392,029see Wuzhou2010-11-01
15 Hechi [lower-alpha 5] 197,858330,1313,369,2512010-11-01
(15)Hechi (new district) [lower-alpha 5] 155,365558,611see Hechi2010-11-01
16 Baise 185,497372,8253,466,7582010-11-01
(17) Lipu [lower-alpha 6] 134,908352,472see Guilin2010-11-01
18 Chongzuo 113,539316,7381,994,2852010-11-01
(19) Jingxi [lower-alpha 7] 92,786498,524see Baise2010-11-01
20 Dongxing 92,267144,709see Fangchenggang2010-11-01
21 Heshan 66,118114,496see Laibin2010-11-01
22 Pingxiang 65,044112,159see Chongzuo2010-11-01
  1. 1 2 New district established after census: Wuming (Wuming County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. 1 2 New district established after census: Liujiang (Liujiang County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  3. 1 2 New district established after census: Lingui (Lingui County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  4. 1 2 New district established after census: Pinggui by splitting from parts of Zhongshan County and parts of Babu. The new district areas from Zhongshan County not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  5. 1 2 New district established after census: Yizhou (Yizhou CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  6. Lipu County is currently known as Lipu CLC after census.
  7. Jingxi County is currently known as Jingxi CLC after census.


Zhuang people in Longzhou Zhuang people of Longzhou Guangxi.jpg
Zhuang people in Longzhou
Historical population
1912 [17] 7,879,000    
1928 [18] 13,648,000+73.2%
1936-37 [19] 13,385,000−1.9%
1947 [20] 14,636,000+9.3%
1954 [21] 19,560,822+33.6%
1964 [22] 20,845,017+6.6%
1982 [23] 36,420,960+74.7%
1990 [24] 42,245,765+16.0%
2000 [25] 43,854,538+3.8%
2010 [26] 46,026,629+5.0%

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group. Of these, the main subgroups are those that speak Yue and Southwestern Mandarin varieties of Chinese.

Guangxi has over 14 million Zhuangs, the largest minority ethnicity of China. Over 90 percent of Zhuang in China live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. There is also a significant number of both Dong and Miao minority peoples. Other ethnic groups include Yao, Hui, Yi (Lolo), Shui, and Gin (Vietnamese).


Religion in Guangxi [27] [note 1]

   Christianity (0.26%)
  Other religions or not religious people [note 2] (59.26%)

The predominant religions in Guangxi among the Han Chinese are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. The large Zhuang population mostly practices the Zhuang folk religion centered around the worship of their ancestral god Buluotuo (布洛陀). According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 40.48% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 0.26% of the population identifies as Christian. [27]

The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 59.26% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects. The Yao, another numerous ethnic group inhabiting the province, mostly practices a form of indigenised and conservative Taoism.

Gongcheng Wenmiao 2012.09.29 16-20-19.jpg
Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture, Confucius) in Gongcheng.
Gongcheng Zhou Wei Ci 2012.09.29 15-24-11.jpg
Shrine of Zhou Wei in Gongcheng.
Gongcheng Wumiao 2012.09.29 16-46-14.jpg
Wumiao (Temple of the God of War, Guandi) in Gongcheng.



View of Nanning, the capital and economic center of Guangxi. Nanning skyline 2008.JPG
View of Nanning, the capital and economic center of Guangxi.

Important crops in Guangxi include rice, maize and sweet potatoes. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, and kenaf.

85 percent of the world's star anise is grown in Guangxi. It is a major ingredient in the antiviral oseltamivir. [28]

Guangxi is one of China's key production centers for nonferrous metals. The province holds approximately 1/3 of all tin and manganese deposits in China. [29]

Liuzhou is the main industrial center and is a major motor vehicle manufacturing center. General Motors have a manufacturing base here in a joint venture as SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. The city also has a large steel factory and several related industries. The local government of Guangxi hopes to expand the province's manufacturing sector, and during the drafting of China's Five Year Plan in 2011, earmarked 2.6 trillion RMB for investment in the province's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone(See Below). [29]

In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbor and twin, Guangdong. Guangxi's 2017 nominal GDP was about 2039.63 billion yuan (US$302.09 billion) and ranked 17th in China. Its per capita GDP was 38,102 yuan (US$5,770). [30]

Due to its lack of a major manufacturing industry in comparison to other provinces, Guangxi is the fourth most energy efficient province in China, helping to further boost its green image. [31]

Economic and technological development zones

A commercial street in Guilin Gui Lin Dong Xi Xiang 04.jpg
A commercial street in Guilin

Approved by the State Council, Beihai Export Processing Zone (BHEPZ) was established in March 2003. Total planned area is 1.454 square kilometres (0.561 sq mi). The first phase of developed area is 1.135 square kilometres (0.438 sq mi). It was verified and accepted by Customs General Administration and eight ministries of the state, on December 26, 2003. It is the Export Processing Zone nearest to ASEAN in China and also the only one bordering the sea in western China. It is situated next to Beihai Port. [32]

Guilin Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in May 1988. In 1991, it was approved as a national-level industrial zone. It has an area of 12.07 square kilometres (4.66 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biomedical, new materials and environmental protection. [33]

Established in 1992, Nanning Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved to be a national level zone in May 2001. Its total planned area of 10.796 square kilometres (4.168 sq mi). It is located in the south of Nanning. It has become the new developing zone with fine chemical engineering, auto parts, aluminum processing, biological medicine and other industries. [34]

Nanning Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1988 and was approved as a national-level industrial zone in 1992. The zone has a planned area of 43.7 square kilometres (16.9 sq mi), and it encourages industries that do electronic information, bioengineering and pharmaceutical, mechanical and electrical integration and new materials industry. [35]

In 1992, Pinxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone was established. It has a total area of 7.2 square kilometres (2.8 sq mi). It focuses on development of hardware mechanical and electrical products, daily-use chemical processing, the services, and international logistics-based storage and information industry. [36]


Seventy-one Taiwanese ventures started up in Guangxi in 2007, with contracts bringing up to US$149 million of investment, while gross exports surpassed US$1 billion. There are a total of 1182 Taiwan ventures in Guangxi, and by the end of 2006, they have brought a total of US$4.27 billion of investment into the autonomous region. During the first half of 2007, 43 projects worthy of RMB2.6 billion (US$342 million) have already been contracted between Guangxi and Taiwan investors. Cooperation between Guangxi and Taiwan companies mainly relates to manufacturing, high-tech electronic industries, agriculture, energy resources and tourism.[ citation needed ]


Guangxi Power Grid invested 180 million yuan in 2007 in projects to bring power to areas that still lacked access to electricity. The areas affected include Nanning, Hechi, Bose and Guigang. Around 125,000 people have gained access to electricity. The money has been used to build or alter 738 10-kilovolt distribution units with a total length of wire reaching 1,831.8 kilometers.[ citation needed ]

Due to lack of investment in construction in the power grid net in rural areas, more than 400 villages in Guangxi Province were not included in the projects. Around 500,000 cannot participate in the policy known as "The Same Grid, the Same Price." Guangxi Power Grid will invest 4.6 billion yuan in improving the power grid during the 11th Five Year Plan.[ citation needed ]

Guangxi Power Grid has invested 2.5 billion yuan in building electric power system in the first half of 2007. Of the total investment, 2.3 billion yuan has been put into the project of the main power grid. So far, four new transformer substations in Guangxi are in various stages of completion. Wenfu substation went into operation in the city of Hechi in January 2007, and since then it has become a major hub of the electrical power system of the surrounding three counties. When Cangwu substation was completed, it doubled the local transformer capacity. In June 2007, the new substation in Chongzuo passed its operation tests. And in the same month, Qiulong commenced production too. This shall support the power supply system of Qiulong City, as well as the northern part of Guangxi province, and facilitate the nationwide project to transmit power from west to east.[ citation needed ]

Beibu Gulf Economic Zone

In late February 2008, the central government approved China's first international and regional economic cooperation zone in Guangxi. The construction of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone began in 2006. With the approval, the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone will be formally incorporated into national development strategies.[ citation needed ]

The Beibu Gulf Economic Zone covers six coastal cities along the Beibu Gulf. It integrates the cities of Nanning, the region's capital, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Chongzuo and Yulin. The state will adopt policies and measures to support mechanism innovation, rational industry layout and infrastructure construction in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone.[ citation needed ]

Guangxi has pledged a 100 billion yuan (US$14 billion) investment over the next five years[ when? ] for building and repairing 2,500 km (1,600 mi) railways to form a network hub in the area. Beibu Gulf Zone will serve as the logistics base, business base, processing and manufacturing base and information exchange center for China-ASEAN cooperation. Beibu Gulf Zone promises broad prospects for further development and its growth potential is rapidly released. But the shortage of talent and professionals in petrochemicals, iron and steel, electricity, finance, tourism, port planning, logistics and marine industries are bottlenecks.[ citation needed ]

The regional government is also working on speeding up key cooperation projects including transportation, the marine industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy development, cross-border tourism, and environmental protection. Beibu Gulf has already attracted a number of major projects such as Qinzhou oil refinery projects and Stora Enso, a Fortune 500 forest products company based in Finland. In January 2008 trade import and export in the Beibu Gulf zone exceeded US$1.3 billion, a record high.[ citation needed ]

Bauxite reserves

In September 2007, China's Ministry of Commerce said that it has found 120 million tons of new bauxite reserves in Guangxi. The ministry said that the new reserves, which are located in Chongzhou in the southern region of Youjiang, have a very high-quality of bauxite, a raw material for making aluminum. Currently, the proven reserves of bauxite in Guangxi are about 1 billion tons, making the province one of the country's biggest bauxite sources.



The Guizhou-Guangxi Railway near the Layi Station in Nandan County, Hechi. DF7D Train 2304.jpg
The Guizhou–Guangxi Railway near the Layi Station in Nandan County, Hechi.

The Hunan–Guangxi Railway (Xianggui Line), which bisects the autonomous region diagonally from Quanzhou in the northeast on the border with Hunan to Pingxiang in the southwest on the border with Vietnam, passes through Guangxi's three principal cities, Nanning, Liuzhou and Guilin. Most other railways in Guangxi are connected to the Xianggui Line.

From Nanning, the Nanning–Kunming Railway heads west through Baise to Kunming, Yunnan and the Nanning–Fangchenggang Railway runs south to Qinzhou, Fangchenggang and Beihai on the coast. From Liuzhou, the Guizhou–Guangxi Railway extends northwestward through Hechi to Guizhou and the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway runs due north to Hunan, and eventually Hubei and Henan in central China. From Litang Township on the Xianggui Line between Nanning and Liuzhou, the Litang–Qinzhou Railway runs south to Qinzhou on the coast and the Litang–Zhanjiang Railway (Lizhan Line) extends southeastward through Guigang and Yulin to Zhanjiang, Guangdong.

The Luoyang–Zhanjiang Railway (Luozhan Line), which intersects with the Xianggui Line on the Hunan side of the border at Yongzhou, runs south through Hezhou and Wuzhou in eastern Guangxi and joins the Lizhan Line at Yulin. At Cenxi, a branch of the Luozhan Line heads east to Maoming, Guangdong, forming a second rail outlet from Guangxi to Guangdong.



Guangxi has 7 airports in different cities: Nanning, Guilin, Beihai, Liuzhou, Wuzhou, Baise, Hechi.


"Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong literally mean "Western Expanse" and "Eastern Expanse". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Expanses" (simplified Chinese:两广; traditional Chinese:兩廣; pinyin: Liǎngguǎng ).

Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese culture and language followed the Xi River valley from Guangdong and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented.

Guangxi is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning, for example, three varieties of Chinese are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Yue (specifically Cantonese), and Pinghua, in addition to various Zhuang languages and others.[ citation needed ]


Pagodas in Guilin. Pagodas en el lago Shanhu guilin.jpg
Pagodas in Guilin.

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is Guilin, a city famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Li Jiang (Li River) among karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi and Jingjiang Princes' City, the old princes' residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo, which has become a favourite destination for foreign tourists.

The variety of visible cultures in Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong, are also a draw for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering Guizhou, is home to the Longsheng Rice Terraces, some of the steepest in the world. Nearby is Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County.

Many Chinese tourists visiting Nanning also visit Ban Gioc–Detian Falls on the China Vietnam border.


Sister regions

See also


  1. The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) [27] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
  2. This may include:

Related Research Articles

Guangdong Most populous province of China, on the coast of the South China Sea

Guangdong is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 113.46 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the 4th largest sub-national economy in the world with GDP of 1.66 trillion USD in 2019. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities.

Hepu County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Hepu, alternately romanized as Hoppo, Hopu or Hop'u, is a county under the administration of Beihai City in southeastern Guangxi, China. It borders Lianjiang (Guangdong) to the southeast, Bobai County to the northeast, the Gulf of Tonkin to the south, Qinzhou to the west, and Pubei County to the north. Then-Premier Li Peng called this place "the Southern Pearl County" (南珠之乡) in November 1992. The county was once known as Lianzhou. It has an area of 2,380 km2 (920 sq mi) and a population of 930,914 as of 2003.

Nanning Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Nanning is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Southern China. It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical foliage. Located in the South of Guangxi, Nanning is surrounded by a hilly basin, with a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate. As of 2018 sampling, Nanning had a population of 7,241,100, of which 4,417,600 live in the urban area and 3,839,800 live in its 6 suburban districts.

Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is a region traditionally inhabited by the Dong people, bordering the prefecture-level divisions of Qiandongnan (Guizhou) to the north, Huaihua (Hunan) to the northeast and Guilin to the west.

Autonomous regions of China Overview of the autonomous regions of China

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Pinghua Two varieties of Chinese spoken mostly by the Zhuang people of southern China

Pinghua is a pair of Sinitic languages spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Hunan province. Pinghua is a trade language in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of Zhuang languages. Some speakers of Pinghua are officially classified as Zhuang, and many are genetically distinct from most other Han Chinese. The northern subgroup of Pinghua is centered on Guilin and the southern subgroup around Nanning. Southern Pinghua has several notable features such as having four distinct checked tones, and using various loanwords from the Zhuang languages, such as the final particle wei for imperative sentences.

South Central China Geographic region

South Central China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the provinces of Guangdong, Hainan, Henan, Hubei and Hunan, as well as the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; however, the two provincial-level special administrative regions (SAR) are also often included under South Central China: Hong Kong and Macau. This part is often divided into South China (华南) and Central China (华中) regions due to difference between civilian customs.

Binyang County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Binyang County is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, with a permanent population of 782,255 and a hukou population of 1,051,373 as of the 2010 Census. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Laibin to the northeast and Guigang to the east. The main highways passing near the county seat are China National Highways 322 and 324. The local economy is based mostly on industry and services. The county seat is Binzhou Town, known as one of the oldest towns in Guangxi which has population over 200,000 people. People speak Binyanghua in Binyang, which is a branch of Cantonese.

Liucheng County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Liucheng County is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It covers a land area of 2,109.78 square kilometres (814.59 sq mi) and had a permanent population of 353,796 as of 2010. Located north of Liuzhou's city proper, it borders the prefecture-level city of Hechi to the west.

The Beibu Gulf Economic Rim or Beibu Economic Belt also known as Gulf of Tonkin Economic Belt in defines the economic region or rim surrounding around China's southwestern coastal region and cities around the Gulf of Tonkin. The region is part of Chinese government's "Go West" strategy, to boost its less developed western regions. The implementation of the campaign, has resulted in many construction projects in cities on the Beibu Gulf Rim, especially in Guangxi. The Beibu Gulf economic rim has emerged as a new highlight of China-ASEAN cooperation, especially between Vietnam, who is also cooperating in this economic zone. It covers Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi, and northern and central Vietnam.

Mashan County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Mashan County is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi. The northernmost county-level division of Nanning City, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Hechi to the north and Laibin to the northeast.

Qingxiu District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Qingxiu District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. It is Xincheng District (新城区) approved to rename to the present name by the Chinese State Council on September 15, 2004.

Longan County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Long'an County is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi. The westernmost county-level division of Nanning, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Chongzuo to the west and Baise to the northwest.

Shanglin County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Shanglin County is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi. It borders the prefecture-level city of Laibin to the northeast.

Heng County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Heng County, or Hengxian is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, with a permanent population of 863,001 and a hukou population of 1,200,521 as of the 2010 Census. The easternmost county-level division of Nanning City, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Guigang to the northeast, Yulin to the east, and Qinzhou to the south. 60% speak Pinghua as there mother tongue and a further 30% speak Pingua as a second language.

Luzhai County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Luzhai County is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The easternmost county-level division of Liuzhou City, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Guilin to the north and east and Laibin to the southeast.

Rongan County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Rong'an County is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It borders the prefecture-level city of Guilin to the east.

Hunan–Guangxi railway

The Hunan–Guangxi railway or Xianggui railway, is a mostly electrified railroad in southern China that connects Hunan province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The shortform name of the line, Xianggui, is named after the Chinese short names of Hunan, Xiang and Guangxi, Gui. The line runs 1,013 km (629 mi) from Hengyang in Hunan to Friendship Pass on Guangxi's border with Vietnam. Major cities along route include Hengyang, Yongzhou, Guilin, Liuzhou, Nanning, Pingxiang, and Friendship Pass.

Nanning railway station

Nanning railway station is the main railway station serving the city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. It is located in the city centre, at 82 Zhonghua Road, in the district of Xixiangtang.

The Tour of Guangxi is an annual professional cycling stage race held in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The race consists of multi-stage and is part of the UCI World Tour. The event will pass through a mix of metropolitan areas and stunning countryside scenery over six days of racing. In addition, the race also includes a women's race.



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Coordinates: 23°36′N108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3