Sino-Vietnamese War

Last updated

Sino-Vietnamese War
(Third Indochina War)
Part of the Third Indochina War and the Cold War
Vietnamese artillery 1979.jpg
Vietnamese artillery bombarding Chinese troops, 23 February 1979
Date17 February 16 March 1979
(3 weeks and 6 days)
China–Vietnam border

Both sides claim victory

Small loss of Vietnamese territory along Sino-Vietnamese border to China in Cao Bằng and Lạng Sơn Provinces, namely Nam Quan Gate and half of Bản Giốc Falls. [2] [3] [4]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam
Non-combat aid:
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Deng Xiaoping
Ye Jianying
Xu Xiangqian
Yang Dezhi
Xu Shiyou
Lê Duẩn
Tôn Đức Thắng
Văn Tiến Dũng
Đàm Quang Trung
Vũ Lập
Chinese claim: 200,000 PLA with 400–550 tanks [5] [6]
Vietnamese claim: 600,000 PLA infantry and 400 tanks from Kunming and Guangzhou Military Districts [7]
70,000–100,000 regulars + 150,000 local troops and militia [8]
Casualties and losses

Chinese estimate: 6,954–8,531 killed
14,800–21,000 wounded
238 captured [6] [9] [10]
Vietnamese estimate: 62,000 casualties, including 26,000 deaths. [11] [12] [13] [14]
420 Tanks/APCs destroyed [15]
66 heavy mortars and guns destroyed [15]


Western estimate: 26,000 killed, 37,000 wounded [16]

Chinese estimate: 30,000 [12] –57,000 soldiers killed and 70,000 militia killed. [9] [17]
1,636 captured [13] [14]
185 Tanks/APCs destroyed [15]
200 heavy mortars and guns destroyed [15]
6 missile launchers destroyed [15]

Western estimate: 30,000 killed, 32,000 wounded [16]
Sino-Vietnamese War
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 對越自衛反擊戰
Simplified Chinese 对越自卫反击战
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese Chiến tranh biên giới Việt Nam-Trung Quốc

The Sino-Vietnamese War (Vietnamese : Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung; simplified Chinese :中越战争; traditional Chinese :中越戰爭; pinyin :Zhōng-Yuè Zhànzhēng), also known as the Third Indochina War , was a brief border war fought between China and Vietnam in early 1979. China launched an offensive in response to Vietnam's invasion and occupation of Cambodia in 1978 (which ended the rule of the Chinese-backed Khmer Rouge).

Vietnamese language official and national language of Vietnam

Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Chinese forces entered northern Vietnam and captured several cities near the border. On March 6, 1979, China declared that the gate to Hanoi was open and that their punitive mission had been achieved. Chinese troops then withdrew from Vietnam. Both China and Vietnam claimed victory in the last of the Indochina Wars. As Vietnamese troops remained in Cambodia until 1989, China remained unsuccessful in its goal of dissuading Vietnam from involvement in Cambodia. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Sino-Vietnamese border was finalized.

Hanoi Municipality in Hà Nội, Vietnam

Hanoi is Vietnam's capital and second largest city by population. The city mostly lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is 1,720 km (1,070 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City and 105 km (65 mi) west of Haiphong.

The Indochina Wars were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia from 1946 until 1989, between communist Indochinese forces against mainly French, South Vietnamese, American, Cambodian, Laotian and Chinese forces. The term "Indochina" originally referred to French Indochina, which included the current states of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. In current usage, it applies largely to a geographic region, rather than to a political area. The wars included:

Dissolution of the Soviet Union Process leading to the late-1991 breakup of the USSR

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.

Although unable to deter Vietnam from Cambodia, China succeeded in demonstrating that its Cold War communist adversary, the Soviet Union, was unable to protect its Vietnamese ally. [18]

Cold War State of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 30 December 1922 to 26 December 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.


The Sino-Vietnamese War (Vietnamese : Chiến tranh biên giới Việt-Trung) is also known as the Third Indochina War, in order to distinguish it from the First Indochina War, and the Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War. [19] In Vietnam, the conflict is known as the War against Chinese expansionism. (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh chống bành trướng Trung Hoa). [20] In China, the war is referred to as the Defensive Counterattack against Vietnam (Chinese :对越自卫反击战; pinyin :Duì Yuè zìwèi fǎnjī zhàn). [21]

First Indochina War 1946-1954 war between France and Ho Chi Minhs forces

The First Indochina War began in French Indochina on December 19, 1946, and lasted until July 20, 1954. Fighting between French forces and their Việt Minh opponents in the south dated from September 1945. The conflict pitted a range of forces, including the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps, led by France and supported by Bảo Đại's Vietnamese National Army against the Việt Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh and the People's Army of Vietnam led by Võ Nguyên Giáp. Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.


Just as the First Indochina Warwhich emerged from the complex situation following World War IIand the Vietnam War both exploded from the unresolved aftermath of political relations, the Third Indochina War again followed the unresolved problems of the earlier wars. [22]

The major allied victors of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union, all agreed that the area belonged to the French. [23] As the French did not have the means to immediately retake Indochina, the major powers agreed that the British would take control and troops would occupy the south while Nationalist Chinese forces would move in from the north. [23] Nationalist Chinese troops entered the country to disarm Japanese troops north of the 16th parallel on 14 September 1945. The parallel divided Indochina into Chinese and British controlled zones (See Timeline of World War II (1945).). [24] The British landed in the south rearming the small body of interned French forces as well as parts of the surrendered Japanese forces to aid in retaking southern Vietnam, as there were not enough British troops immediately available. [23]

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Kuomintang political party in the Republic of China

The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.

On the urging of the Soviet Union, Ho Chi Minh initially attempted to negotiate with the French, who were slowly reestablishing their control across the area, although still under British control until hostilities had ceased. Once hostilities had ended the British handed over the territory to the French. [25] In January 1946, the Viet Minh won elections across central and northern Vietnam. [26] On 6 March 1946, Ho signed an agreement allowing French forces to replace Nationalist Chinese forces, in exchange for French recognition of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as a "free" republic within the French Union, with the specifics of such recognition to be determined by future negotiation. [27] [28] [29] British forces departed on 26 March 1946, leaving Vietnam in the control of the French. [30] The French landed in Hanoi by March 1946 and in November of that year they ousted the Viet Minh from the city. [25] Soon thereafter, the Viet Minh began a guerrilla war against the French Union forces, beginning the first Indochina War.

French colonialism and the First Indochina War

Vietnam first became a French colony when France invaded in 1858. By the 1880s, the French had expanded their sphere of influence in Southeast Asia to include all of Vietnam, and by 1893 both Laos and Cambodia had become French colonies as well. [31] Rebellions against French colonial power were common up to World War I. The European war heightened revolutionary sentiment in Southeast Asia, and the independence-minded population rallied around revolutionaries such as Hồ Chí Minh and others, including royalists.

Prior to their attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese occupied French Indochina, but left civil administration to the Vichy French administration. [32] [33] On 9 March 1945, fearing that the Vichy French were about to switch sides to support the Allies, the Japanese overthrew the Vichy administration and forces taking control of Indochina and establishing their own puppet administration, the Empire of Vietnam. The Japanese surrender in August 1945 created a power vacuum in Indochina, as the various political factions scrambled for control. [34]

The events leading to the First Indochina War are subject to historical dispute. [35] When the Việt Minh hastily sought to establish the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the remaining French acquiesced while waiting for the return of French forces to the region. [33] [36] The Kuomintang supported French restoration, but Viet Minh efforts towards independence were helped by Chinese communists under the Soviet Union's power. The Soviet Union at first indirectly supported Vietnamese communists, but later directly supported Hồ Chí Minh. [37] [38] The Soviets nonetheless remained less supportive than China until after the Sino-Soviet split, during the time of Leonid Brezhnev when the Soviet Union became communist Vietnam's key ally.

The war itself involved numerous events that had major impacts throughout Indochina. Two major conferences were held to bring about a resolution. Finally, on July 20, 1954, the Geneva Conference resulted in a political settlement to reunite the country, signed with support from China, Russia, and Western European powers. [39] While the Soviet Union played a constructive role in the agreement, it again was not as involved as China. [39] [40] The U.S. did not sign the agreement and swiftly moved to back South Vietnam.

Sino-Soviet split

The Chinese Communist Party and the Viet Minh had a long history. During the initial stages of the First Indochina War with France, the recently founded communist People's Republic of China continued the Russian mission to expand communism. Therefore, they aided the Viet Minh and became the connector between Soviets and the Vietminh. In early 1950, The Viet Minh fought independently from the Chinese Military Advisory Group under Wei Guoqing. This was one of the reasons for China to cut the arms support for the Viet Minh.

After the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953, relations between the Soviet Union and China began to deteriorate. Mao Zedong believed the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had made a serious error in his Secret Speech denouncing Stalin in February 1956, and criticized the Soviet Union's interpretation of Marxism–Leninism, in particular Khrushchev's support for peaceful co-existence and its interpretation. This led to increasingly hostile relations, and eventually the Sino-Soviet split. From here, Chinese communists played a decreasing role in helping their former allies because the Viet Minh did not support China against the Soviets.

Following the death of Mao in September 1976, the overthrow of the Gang of Four and the ascent of Deng Xiaoping, the Chinese leadership would revise its own positions to become compatible with market aspects, denounce the Cultural Revolution, and collaborate with the US against the Soviet Union.

Vietnam War

As France withdrew from a provisionally divided Vietnam in late 1954, the United States increasingly stepped in to support the South Vietnamese leaders due to the Domino theory, which theorized that if one nation would turn to communism, the surrounding nations were likely to fall like dominoes and become communist as well. The Soviet Union and North Vietnam became important allies together due to the fact that if South Vietnam was successfully taken over by North Vietnam, then communism in the far east would find its strategic position bolstered. In the eyes of the People's Republic of China, the growing Soviet-Vietnamese relationship was a disturbing development; they feared an encirclement by the less-than-hospitable Soviet sphere of influence.

The United States and the Soviet Union could not agree on a plan for a proposed 1956 election meant to unify the partitioned Vietnam. Instead, the South held a separate election that was widely considered fraudulent, leading to continued internal conflict with communist factions led by the Viet Cong that intensified through the late 1950s. With supplies and support from the Soviet Union, North Vietnamese forces became directly involved in the ongoing guerrilla war by 1959 and openly invaded the South in 1964.

The United States played an ever-increasing role in supporting South Vietnam through the period. The U.S. had supported French forces in the First Indochina War, sent supplies and military advisers to South Vietnam throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, and eventually took over most of the fighting against both North Vietnam and the Viet Cong by the mid-1960s. By 1968, over 500,000 American troops were involved in the Vietnam War. Due to a lack of clear military success and facing increasingly strident opposition to the war in the U.S., American forces began a slow withdrawal in 1969 while attempting to bolster South Vietnam's military so that they could take over the fighting. In accordance with the Paris Peace Accords by 29 March 1973 all U.S. combat forces had left South Vietnam, however North Vietnamese combat forces were allowed to remain in place. North Vietnam attacked South Vietnam in early 1975 and South Vietnam fell on 30 April 1975.

The People's Republic of China started talks with the United States in the early 1970s, culminating in high level meetings with Henry Kissinger and later Richard Nixon. These meetings contributed to a re-orientation of Chinese foreign policy toward the United States. Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China also supported the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia.


Although the Vietnamese Communists and the Khmer Rouge had previously cooperated, the relationship deteriorated when Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot came to power and established Democratic Kampuchea on 17 April 1975. Communist China, in the other hand, also supported the Maoist Khmer Rouge against Lon Nol's regime during the Cambodian Civil War and its subsequent take-over of Cambodia. China provided extensive political, logistical and military support for the Khmer Rouge during its rule. [41] After numerous clashes along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia, and with encouragement from Khmer Rouge defectors fleeing a purge of the Eastern Zone, Vietnam invaded Cambodia on 25 December 1978. By 7 January 1979 Vietnamese forces had entered Phnom Penh and the Khmer Rouge leadership had fled to western Cambodia.

Ethnic minorities

China supported the ethnic minority United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races against Vietnam during the FULRO insurgency against Vietnam.

The Vietnamese executed collaborators who worked for the Chinese, regardless of ethnicity. [42] [43] [44]

The Chinese received a significant amount of defectors from the Thu Lao ethnic minority in Vietnam during the war. [45] During the war China received as migrants the entire A Lù based population of the Phù Lá ethnic minority. [46] China received so many defectors from the ethnic minorities in Vietnam that it raised shock among the Vietnamese, who had to launch a new effort re-assert dominance over the ethnic minorities and classify them. [47] Post Vietnam War, insurgency against Vietnam lasted among the indigenous Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesians of the Central Highlands. [48] Assistance was sought from China by the Hmong ethnic minority. [49] The border was frequently crossed by Chinese, Lao, Kinh, Hmong, Yao, Nung, and Tai. [50] The Laotian Hmong and FULRO were both supported against Vietnam by China and Thailand. [51] [52]

China attacks Vietnam

China, now under Deng Xiaoping, was starting the Chinese economic reform and opening trade with the West, in turn, growing increasingly defiant of the Soviet Union. On November 3, 1978, the Soviet Union and Vietnam signed a 25-year mutual defense treaty, which made Vietnam the "linchpin" in the Soviet Union's "drive to contain China." [53]

In January 1979 Chinese Vice-premier Deng Xiaoping visited the United States, and told the American president Jimmy Carter that China planned a punitive action against Cambodia. On February 15, the first day that China could have officially announced the termination of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, Deng Xiaoping declared that China planned to conduct a limited attack on Vietnam.

The reason cited for the attack was to support China's ally, the Khmer Rouge of Cambodia, in addition to the mistreatment of Vietnam's ethnic Chinese minority and the Vietnamese occupation of the Spratly Islands which were claimed by China. To prevent Soviet intervention on Vietnam's behalf, Deng warned Moscow the next day that China was prepared for a full-scale war against the Soviet Union; in preparation for this conflict, China put all of its troops along the Sino-Soviet border on an emergency war alert, set up a new military command in Xinjiang, and even evacuated an estimated 300,000 civilians from the Sino-Soviet border. [54] In addition, the bulk of China's active forces (as many as one-and-a-half million troops) were stationed along China's border with the Soviet Union. [55]

Order of battle

Chinese forces

A line-up of Chinese militiamen working as stretcher bearers during the war PLA militia stretcher bearer 1979.jpg
A line-up of Chinese militiamen working as stretcher bearers during the war

Although the People's Liberation Army vastly outnumbered the Vietnamese forces, the Soviet-Vietnamese alliance compelled the Chinese to deploy the majority of their forces along China's northern frontier with the Soviet Union (as well as, to a lesser extent, Soviet-allied Mongolia) as a deterrent to Soviet intervention.

The Chinese force that engaged the Vietnamese consisted of units from the Kunming Military Region, Chengdu Military Region, Wuhan Military Region and Guangzhou Military Region, but commanded by the headquarters of Kunming Military Region on the western front and Guangzhou Military Region in the eastern front.

Some troops engaged in this war, especially engineering units, railway corps, logistical units and antiaircraft units, had been assigned to assist North Vietnam in its war against South Vietnam just a few years earlier during the Vietnam War. Contrary to the belief that over 600,000 Chinese troops entered North Vietnam, the actual number was only 200,000, while 600,000 Chinese troops were mobilized, of which 400,000 were deployed away from their original bases during the one-month conflict.

The Chinese troop deployments were observed by U.S. spy satellites. In his state visit to the U.S. in 1979, the Chinese paramount leader Deng Xiaoping was presented with this information and asked to confirm the numbers. He replied that the information was completely accurate. After this public confirmation in the U.S., the domestic Chinese media were finally allowed to report on these deployments.

Vietnamese forces

The Vietnamese government claimed they only had a force of about 70,000 including several army regular divisions in its northern area. However, the Chinese estimates indicate more than twice this number. Some Vietnamese forces used American military equipment captured during the Vietnam War.

1st Military Region : commanded by Major General Dam Quang Trung, responsible for the defense at Northeast region. [57]

2nd Military Region : commanded by Major General Vu Lap, responsible for the defense at Northwest region. [57]

In addition, Vietnamese forces were supported by about 50,000 militia at each Military Region

Air force

The Vietnam People's Air Force did not participate in the combat directly, instead they provided support to the ground troops, transported troops from Cambodia to northern Vietnam as well as performed reconnaissance purposes.

Air Defence [60]

Course of the war

Preparation of war

According to Vietnam, [61] since January 1979 Chinese forces performed numerous reconnaissance activities across the border and made 230 violations into Vietnamese land. To prepare for a possible Chinese invasion, the Central Military Committee of the Communist Party ordered all armed forces across the border to be on stand-by mode.

Chinese engagement

On 17 February 1979, a People's Liberation Army (PLA) force of about 200,000 troops supported by 200 Type 59, Type 62, and Type 63 tanks entered northern Vietnam in the PLA's first major combat operation since the end of the Korean War in 1953. [62]

The PLA invasion was conducted in two directions: western and eastern

Vietnamese counter-attacks

Vietnam quickly mobilized all its main forces in Cambodia, southern Vietnam and central Vietnam to the northern border. From 18 February to 25 February, the 327th Infantry Division of Military District 3 and the 337th Infantry Division of Military District 4 were deployed to join Military District 1 for the defense of northwestern region. From 6 March to 11 March the Second Corp (Huong Giang Corp) stationed in Cambodia was deployed back to Hanoi.

The 372nd Air Division in central Vietnam as well as the 917th, 935th and 937th Air Regiments in southern Vietnam were quickly deployed to the north. [60]

Soviet support to Vietnam

The Soviet Union, although it did not take direct military action, provided intelligence and equipment support for Vietnam. [63] A large airlift was established by the Soviet Union to move Vietnamese troops from Cambodia to Northern Vietnam. Moscow also provided a total of 400 tanks and armored personnel carriers (APCs), 500 mortar artillery and air defense artillery, 50 BM-21 rocket launchers, 400 portable surface-to-air missiles, 800 anti-tank missiles and 20 jet fighters. About 5,000 to 8,000 Soviet military advisers were present in Vietnam from August 1979 to mid-1979[ clarification needed ] to train Vietnamese soldiers.

During the Sino-Vietnamese War, the Soviet Union deployed troops at the Sino-Soviet border and Mongolian-Chinese border as an act of showing support to Vietnam, as well as tying up Chinese troops. However, the Soviets refused to take any direct action to defend their ally. [64]

The Soviet Pacific Fleet also deployed 15 ships to the Vietnamese coast to relay Chinese battlefield communications to Vietnamese forces. [65]

Soviet inaction

While the Soviet Union deployed naval vessels and supplied materiel to Vietnam, they felt that there was simply no way that they could directly support Vietnam against China; the distances were too great to be an effective ally, and any sort of reinforcements would have to cross territory controlled by China or U.S. allies.[ citation needed ] The only realistic option would be to restart the unresolved border conflict with China.[ citation needed ] Vietnam was important to Soviet policy but not enough for the Soviets to go to war over. [66] When Moscow did not intervene, Beijing publicly proclaimed that the Soviet Union had broken its numerous promises to assist Vietnam.

Another reason why Moscow did not intervene was because Beijing had promised both Moscow and Washington that the invasion was only a limited war, and that Chinese forces would withdraw after a short incursion. After moderation by the U.S., Moscow decided to adopt a "wait and see" approach to see if Beijing would actually limit their offense. Deng Xiaoping, because Vietnam's anti-air capabilities were among the best in the world at the time and in order to reassure Moscow it was conducting a limited war, ordered the Chinese navy and air force to remain out of the war; only limited support was provided by the air force. [67] When Beijing kept its promise, Moscow did not retaliate.


Chinese tank destroyed in Cao Bang Chinese tank destroyed in Cao Bang 1979.jpg
Chinese tank destroyed in Cao Bang

The PLA quickly advanced about 15–20 kilometres into Vietnam, with fighting mainly occurring in the provinces of Cao Bằng, Lào Cai and Lạng Sơn. The Vietnamese avoided mobilizing their regular divisions, and held back some 300,000 troops for the defence of Hanoi[ citation needed ]. The People's Army of Vietnam (VPA) tried to avoid direct combat and often used guerrilla tactics.[ citation needed ]

The initial PLA attack soon lost its momentum and a new attack wave was sent in with eight PLA divisions joining the battle. After capturing the northern heights above Lạng Sơn, the PLA surrounded and paused in front of the city in order to lure the VPA into reinforcing it with units from Cambodia. This was the main strategic ploy in the Chinese war plan as Deng did not want to risk escalating tensions with the Soviet Union. After three days of bloody house-to-house fighting, Lạng Sơn fell on 6 March. The PLA then took the southern heights above Lạng Sơn [68] and occupied Sa Pa. The PLA claimed to have crushed several of the VPA regular units. [9]

Chinese withdrawal

On 6 March, China declared that the gate to Hanoi was open and that their punitive mission had been achieved, although Vietnam's presence in Cambodia still continued for the next 10 years to help Cambodia from Khmer Rouge aggression. On the way back to the Chinese border, the PLA destroyed all local infrastructure and housing and looted all useful equipment and resources (including livestock), severely weakening the economy of Vietnam's northernmost provinces. [9] The PLA crossed the border back into China on 16 March. Both sides declared victory with China claiming to have crushed the Vietnamese resistance and Vietnam claiming to have repelled the invasion using mostly border militias. Henry J. Kenny, a research scientist for US Center for Naval Analyses, notes that most Western writers agree that Vietnam outperformed the PLA on the battlefield. [69]


Nam Quan Gate Nam quan.JPG
Nam Quan Gate

China and Vietnam each lost thousands of troops, and China lost 3.45 billion yuan in overhead, which delayed completion of their 1979–80 economic plan. [70] Following the war, the Vietnamese leadership took various repressive measures to deal with the problem of real or potential collaboration. In the spring of 1979, the authorities expelled approx. 8,000 Hoa people from Hanoi to the southern "New Economic Zones", and partially resettled the Hmong tribes and other ethnic minorities from the northernmost provinces. In response to the defection of Hoàng Văn Hoan, a purge was launched to cleanse the Communist Party of Vietnam of pro-Chinese elements and persons who had surrendered to the advancing Chinese troops during the war. In 1979, a total of 20,468 members were expelled from the party. [71] Although Vietnam continued to occupy Cambodia, China successfully mobilized international opposition to the occupation, rallying such leaders as Cambodia's deposed king Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodian anticommunist leader Son Sann, and high-ranking members of the Khmer Rouge to deny the pro-Vietnamese Cambodian People's Party in Cambodia diplomatic recognition beyond the Soviet bloc. China improved relations with ASEAN by promising protection to Thailand and Singapore against "Vietnamese aggression". In contrast, Vietnam's decreasing prestige in the region led it to be more dependent on the Soviet Union, to which it leased a naval base at Cam Ranh Bay. [72] On 1 March 2005, Howard W. French wrote in The New York Times : Some historians stated that the war was started by Mr Deng (China's then paramount leader Deng Xiaoping) to keep the army preoccupied while he consolidated power... [73]

Chinese casualties

The number of casualties during the war is disputed. Vietnamese sources claimed the PLA had suffered 62,500 total casualties, including 550 military vehicles, and 115 artillery pieces destroyed; [74] while Chinese democracy activist Wei Jingsheng told western media in 1980 that the Chinese troops had suffered 9,000 dead and about 10,000 wounded during the war. [75] Leaks from Chinese military sources indicate that China suffered 6,954 dead. [6] [9] [76]

Vietnamese casualties

Like their Chinese counterparts, the Vietnamese government has never officially announced any information on its actual military casualties. China estimated that Vietnam lost 57,000 soldiers and 70,000 militia members during the war. [75] [77] [78] The official Nhân Dân newspaper claimed that Vietnam suffered more than 10,000 civilian deaths during the Chinese invasion [79] [80] and earlier on 17 May 1979, reported statistics on heavy losses of industry and agricultural properties. [79]


Captured Vietnamese soldiers at a Chinese prison camp Vietnamese soldiers captured by Chinese.jpg
Captured Vietnamese soldiers at a Chinese prison camp
Chinese POWs guarded by the Vietnamese Chinese POW 1979.jpg
Chinese POWs guarded by the Vietnamese

The Chinese held 1,636 Vietnamese prisoners and the Vietnamese held 238 Chinese prisoners; they were exchanged in May–June 1979. [13] [14]

The 238 Chinese soldiers surrendered after getting separated from their main unit during the withdrawal from Vietnam and became surrounded by Vietnamese. After surrendering, they were transferred by the Vietnamese soldiers to a prison. The Chinese prisoners reported that they were subjected to torturous and inhumane treatment, such as being blindfolded and having their bodies bound and restrained with metal wire. [81]

Sino-Vietnamese relations after the war

Border skirmishes continued throughout the 1980s, including a significant skirmish in April 1984 and a naval battle over the Spratly Islands in 1988 known as the Johnson South Reef Skirmish.

Armed conflict only ended in 1989 after the Vietnamese agreed to fully withdraw from Cambodia. Both nations planned the normalization of their relations in a secret summit in Chengdu in September 1990, and officially normalized ties in November 1991.

In 1999, after many years of negotiations, China and Vietnam signed a border pact. [82] There was an adjustment of the land border, resulting in Vietnam giving China part of its land which was lost during the battle, including the Ai Nam Quan Gate which served as the traditional border marker and entry point between Vietnam and China, which caused widespread frustration within Vietnam. Vietnam's official news service reported the implementation of the new border around August 2001. In January 2009 the border demarcation was officially completed, signed by Deputy Foreign Minister Vu Dung on the Vietnamese side and his Chinese counterpart, Wu Dawei, on the Chinese side.[ citation needed ] Both the Paracel (called Hoàng Sa in Vietnam, Xīshā in China) and Spratly (Trường Sa in Vietnam, Nansha in China) islands remain a point of contention.[ citation needed ]

A new bridge spanning the Red River between Hekou and Kim Thanh, on the main road between Kunming and Hanoi Hekou-Kim Thanh border crossing - P1380333.JPG
A new bridge spanning the Red River between Hekou and Kim Thành, on the main road between Kunming and Hanoi

The December 2007 announcement of a plan to build a Hanoi–Kunming highway was a landmark in Sino-Vietnamese relations. The road will traverse the border that once served as a battleground. It should contribute to demilitarizing the border region, as well as facilitating trade and industrial cooperation between the nations. [83]

Chinese media

There are a number of Chinese songs, movies and T.V. programs depicting and discussing this conflict from the Chinese viewpoint. These vary from the patriotic song "Bloodstained Glory" originally written to laud the sacrifice and service of the Chinese military, to the 1986 film The Big Parade which carried veiled criticism of the war.[ citation needed ] The male protagonist of the television series Candle in the Tomb was a veteran of conflict. [84] The 2017 Chinese movie Youth covers the period of the Sino-Vietnamese conflict from the perspective of the larger cultural changes taking place in China during that period of time.

Vietnamese media

The war was mentioned in the film Đất mẹ (Motherland) directed by Hải Ninh in 1980 and Thị xã trong tầm tay (Town at the Fingertips) directed by Đặng Nhật Minh in 1982. [85] Besides in 1982, a documentary film called Hoa đưa hương nơi đất anh nằm (Flowers over Your Grave) was directed by Truong Thanh, the film told a story of a Japanese journalist who died during the war. [86] During the war, there were numerous patriotic songs produced to boost the nationalism of Vietnamese people, including "Chiến đấu vì độc lập tự do" ("Fight for Independence and Freedom") composed by Phạm Tuyên, "Lời tạm biệt lúc lên đường" ("Farewell When Leaving") by Vu Trong Hoi, "40 thế kỷ cùng ra trận" ("40 Centuries We Fought Side By Side") by Hong Dang, "Những đôi mắt mang hình viên đạn" ("The Angry Gaze") by Tran Tien and "Hát về anh" (Sing for you) by The Hien. The Sino-Vietnamese War also appeared in some novels such as: Đêm tháng Hai (Night of February) written by Chu Lai in 1979 and Chân dung người hàng xóm (Portrait of My Neighbors [87] ) written by Duong Thu Huong in 1979.

See also

Related Research Articles

Peoples Army of Vietnam Combined military forces of Vietnam

The People's Army of Vietnam, also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Border Defence Force, and Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Force or Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, and the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army. The military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left.

Battle of Dien Bien Phu decisive Viet Minh victory over the French near the end of the First Indochina War

The Battle of Dien Bien Phu was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist revolutionaries. It was, from the French view before the event, a set piece battle to draw out the Vietnamese and destroy them with superior firepower. The battle occurred between March and May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that influenced negotiations underway at Geneva among several nations over the future of Indochina.

Battle of Route Coloniale 4 battle of the First Indochina War along Route Coloniale 4 (RC4, aka. Highway 4)

The Battle of Route Coloniale 4 was a battle of the First Indochina War. It took place along Route Coloniale 4, a road used to supply the French military base at Cao Bằng. French military traffic along the road had previously been subject to an ongoing series of ambushes during 1947–1949.

The Third Indochina War was a series of interconnected armed conflicts, mainly among the various communist factions over strategic influence in Indochina after peace between the United States and North Vietnam had been concluded in January 1973. The complete American withdrawal instantaneously eliminated the principal and common adversary of all the communist powers. Ever more diverging Chinese and Soviet strategic and political doctrines had increased the Sino-Soviet split of the mid-1950s. The local communist regimes of Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos pledged allegiance with one of these two opposing factions. The ensuing hostilities were fuelled by century-old animosities between Vietnam and Cambodia, and – particularly – Vietnam and China.

Peoples Liberation Army Ground Force land warfare branch of Chinas military

The People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) is the land-based service branch of the People's Liberation Army and it is the largest and oldest branch of the entire Chinese armed forces. The PLAGF can trace its lineage from 1927; however, it was not officially established until 1948.

Cambodian–Vietnamese War 1977–1991 war between Cambodia and Vietnam

The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border, was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea. The war began with isolated clashes along the land and maritime boundaries of Vietnam and Kampuchea between 1975 and 1978, occasionally involving division-sized military formations. On 25 December 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Kampuchea and subsequently occupied the country and removed the Communist Party of Kampuchea government from power.

Military history of Vietnam Historical aspect of Vietnam

Army and warfare made their first appearance in Vietnamese history during the 3rd millennium BC. Throughout thousands of years, wars played a great role in shaping the identity and culture of people inhabited the land which is modern day Vietnam. Along with Myanmar, and a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam is regarded as one of the most militaristic countries in Southeast Asia. There is even a higher level belief Vietnam might be the most militaristic nation in Southeast Asia, and one of Asia and the world's most militaristic countries.

Operation Lam Son 719

Operation Lam Son 719 or 9th Route - Southern Laos Campaign was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos. The campaign was carried out by the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam between 8 February and 25 March 1971, during the Vietnam War. The United States provided logistical, aerial, and artillery support to the operation, but its ground forces were prohibited by law from entering Laotian territory. The objective of the campaign was the disruption of a possible future offensive by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), whose logistical system within Laos was known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Battle of Nà Sản battle of the First Indochina War

The Battle of Nà Sản was fought between French Union forces and the Nationalist forces of the Việt Minh at Nà Sản, Sơn La Province, during the First Indochina War for control of the T’ai region.

3rd Corps or Tây Nguyên Corps is one of the four regular army corps of the Vietnam People's Army. First organised in 1975 during the Vietnam War, 3rd Corps had a major role in the Ho Chi Minh Campaign and the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Today the corps is stationed in Pleiku, Gia Lai.

4th Corps or Cửu Long Corps is one of the four regular army corps of the People's Army of Vietnam. First organized in 1974 during the Vietnam War, 4th Corps had a major role in the Ho Chi Minh Campaign and the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. Today the corps is stationed in Dĩ An, Bình Dương.

Sino-Vietnamese conflicts, 1979–1991

The Sino-Vietnamese conflicts of 1979–1991 were a series of border and naval clashes between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam following the Sino-Vietnamese War in 1979. These clashes lasted from the end of the Sino-Vietnamese War until the normalization of ties in 1991.

The 2nd Military Region of the Vietnam People's Army, is directly under the Ministry of Defence of Vietnam, tasked to organise, build, manage and commander armed forces defending the North West of Vietnam. The north-West region of Vietnam, borders with the Yunnan of China. In 1979, Chinese army with 3 infantry corps, 10 infantry divisions, launched a huge invasion in this military zone, and occupied Lào Cai Province and Phong Thổ.

The 58th Mechanized Infantry Brigade (lang-zh:机械化步兵第58旅) is a brigade of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force. It is one of the three maneuver elements of the 20th Group Army in the Jinan Military Region. The 58th was previously a division, being converted to a brigade sized formation in 1998.

Battle of Lao Cai battle of the Sino-Vietnamese War

The Battle of Lào Cai was fought between Chinese and Vietnamese forces during the Sino-Vietnamese War. Though the Chinese sustained heavy losses in fighting, they were successful in capturing and occupying the city of Lào Cai and the vicinal towns.

Battle of Cao Bang (1979)

The Battle of Cao Bằng was fought between the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the Vietnam People's Army (VPA) over the city of Cao Bằng and its vicinity, from the beginning of the Sino-Vietnamese War on 17 February, to 6 March 1979. After the capture of Cao Bằng on 25 February, Chinese forces still had to struggle for days to gain control over other areas in the province against badly outnumbered Vietnamese defenders. Contrary to the Chinese intention to battle against and defeat some major regular units of the VPA, the PLA found themselves encountering mostly small units of Vietnamese border guards and militia, which had clearly outperformed their enemy.

Battle of Lạng Sơn (1979)

The Battle of Lạng Sơn was fought during the Sino-Vietnamese War, days after the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) advanced 15 to 20 kilometers deep into the northern provinces of Vietnam. The fighting occurred primarily at the city of Lạng Sơn, a few kilometers from the Sino-Vietnamese border. Although the Chinese eventually occupied Lạng Sơn and its nearby vicinities during the battle, it proved during that time that the Chinese regular units invading northern Vietnam were no match against militia and irregular Vietnamese units tenaciously harassing the Chinese advance southward to Hanoi, Vietnam's capital city, and eventually took Chinese forces days to occupy the city and dislodge its defenders.

The 11th Corps was a military formation of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. It was active from 1949 to 1952, with a six month break; and from 1969 to the end of 1985. It is currently inactive. In 1979 the corps took part in the Sino-Vietnamese War. In 1984 it again fought in Vietnam. It was stationed in the Kunming Military Region.


  1. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  2. Nayan Chanda, "End of the Battle but Not of the War", p. 10. Khu vực có giá trị tượng trưng tinh thần nhất là khoảng 300m đường xe lửa giữa Hữu Nghị Quan và trạm kiểm soát biên giới Việt Nam.
  3. Nguyen, Can Van. "Sino-Vietnamese Border Issues". NGO Realm. Archived from the original on August 31, 2014. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  4. Nguyen, Can Van. "INTERVIEW ON TERRITORY AND TERRITORIAL WATERS". Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  5. Zygmunt Czarnotta and Zbigniew Moszumański, Altair Publishing, Warszawa 1995, ISBN   83-86217-16-2
  6. 1 2 3 Zhang Xiaoming, "China's 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment" Archived October 31, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , China Quarterly, Issue no. 184 (December 2005), pp. 851–874. Actually thought to have been 200,000 with 400 – 550 tanks. Zhang writes that: "Existing scholarship tends towards an estimate of as many as 25,000 PLA killed in action and another 37,000 wounded. Recently available Chinese sources categorize the PLA's losses as 6,594 dead and approximately 21,000 injured, giving a total of 24,000 casualties from an invasion force of 200,000."
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 25, 2005. Retrieved October 22, 2005.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. King V. Chen (1987): China's War With Việt Nam, 1979. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, page 103
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 《对越自卫反击作战工作总结》Work summary on counter strike (1979–1987) published by The rear services of Chinese Kunming Military Region
  10. China at War: An Encyclopedia , p. 413, at Google Books
  11. Russell D. Howard, INSS Occasional Paper 28: Regional Security Series, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, September 1999 [ permanent dead link ]
  12. 1 2 Tonnesson, Bởi Stein (2010). Vietnam 1946: How the War Began. University of California Press. p. 2. ISBN   9780520256026.
  13. 1 2 3 Chan, Gerald (1989). China and international organizations: participation in non-governmental organizations since 1971 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN   0195827384.
  14. 1 2 3 Military Law Review, Volumes 119-122. Volumes 27-100 of DA pam. Contributors United States. Dept. of the Army, Judge Advocate General's School (United States. Army). Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1988. p. 72.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 27, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  16. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  17. Vietnam , p. 158, at Google Books
  18. Elleman, Bruce A. (2001). Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989. Routledge. p. 297. ISBN   0415214742.
  19. O'dowd, Edward (2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN   9780415414272.
  20. Whitson, William W. (1976). Foreign policy and U.S. national security: major postelection issues. Praeger. p. 142. ISBN   9780275565404.
  21. Kissinger, Henry (2011). On China. Penguin Canada. ISBN   9780143179474.
  22. Burns, R.D. and Leitenberg, M. (1984). The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, 1945–1982: A Bibliographic Guide. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio Information Services, p. xxvi.
  23. 1 2 3 Neale 2001 , p. 20.
  24. Willbanks 2009 , p. 8
  25. 1 2 Neale 2001 , p. 24.
  26. Neale 2001 , pp. 23–4.
  27. Willbanks 2009 , p. 9
  28. "Franco-Vietnam Agreement of March 6th, 1946". 6 March 1946. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  29. "Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Chapter !, Section 2". Archived from the original on September 2, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  30. Peter Dennis (1987). Troubled days of peace: Mountbatten and South East Asia command, 1945–46. Manchester University Press ND. p. 179. ISBN   978-0-7190-2205-0.
  31. Dunnigan, J. F. & Nofi, A. A. (1999). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. New York: St. Martins Press, p. 27.
  32. Dunnigan, J. F. & Nofi, A. A. (1999). Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. New York: St. Martins Press, pp. 27–38.
  33. 1 2 Hood, S. J. (1992). Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, p. 16.
  34. Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: The Fall of an Empire and the making of America's Vietnam. Random House. pp. 67–91. ISBN   978-0-375-75647-4.
  35. Burns, R. D. and Leitenberg, M. (1984). The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, 1945–1982: A Bibliographic Guide. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio Information Services, p. xx.
  36. Burns, R. D. and Leitenberg, M. (1984). The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, 1945–1982: A Bibliographic Guide. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio Information Services, p. xx.
  37. Hood, S. J. (1992). Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, pp. 13–19.
  38. Chen, Min. (1992). The Strategic Triangle and Regional Conflict: Lessons from the Indochina Wars. Boulder: Lnne Reinner Publications, pp. 17–23.
  39. 1 2 Hood, S.J. (1992). Dragons Entangled: Indochina and the China-Vietnam War. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, p. 13-19.
  40. Chen, Min. (1992). The Strategic Triangle and Regional Conflict: Lessons from the Indochina Wars. Boulder: Lnne Reinner Publications, p. 17-23.
  41. Storey, Ian (April 2006). "China's tightening relationship with Cambodia". China Brief. 6 (9). Archived from the original ( Scholar search ) on June 16, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  42. Edward C. O'Dowd (16 April 2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. pp. 70–. ISBN   978-1-134-12268-4.
  43. Edward C. O'Dowd (16 April 2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Taylor & Francis. pp. 70–. ISBN   978-0-203-08896-8.
  44. Edward C. O'Dowd (16 April 2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. pp. 70–. ISBN   978-1-134-12267-7.
  45. Masako Ito (2013). Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam. Kyoto University Press. pp. 121–. ISBN   978-1-920901-72-1.
  46. Masako Ito (2013). Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam. Kyoto University Press. pp. 123–. ISBN   978-1-920901-72-1.
  47. Masako Ito (2013). Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam. Kyoto University Press. pp. 42–. ISBN   978-1-920901-72-1.
  48. Masako Ito (2013). Politics of Ethnic Classification in Vietnam. Kyoto University Press. pp. 14–. ISBN   978-1-920901-72-1.
  49. Edward C. O'Dowd (16 April 2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. pp. 186–. ISBN   978-1-134-12268-4.
  50. Edward C. O'Dowd (16 April 2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. pp. 68–. ISBN   978-1-134-12268-4.
  51. Edward C. O'Dowd (2007). Chinese Military Strategy in the Third Indochina War: The Last Maoist War. Routledge. pp. 70–. ISBN   978-1-134-12268-4.
  52. O’Dowd, Edward C. (April 9, 2012). "CHIẾN DỊCH NĂM 1979: CHIẾN TRANH KHÔNG QUY ƯỚC". Trí Nhân Media. Marine Corps University, Quantico. Archived from the original on December 29, 2017.
  53. Scalapino, Robert A. (1982) "The Political Influence of the Soviet Union in Asia" In Zagoria, Donald S. (editor) (1982) Soviet Policy in East Asia Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, page 71.
  54. Chang Pao-min, Kampuchea Between China and Vietnam (Singapore, Singapore University Press, 1985), 88–89.
  55. Robert A. Scalapino "Asia in a Global Context: Strategic Issue for the Soviet Union," in Richard H. Solomon and Masataka Kosaka, eds., The Soviet Far East Military Buildup (Dover, MA., Auburn House Publishing Company, 1986), 28.
  56. 对越自卫反击战烈士牺牲30年后家人才知葬何处 母亲生前几乎哭瞎, Archived September 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  57. 1 2 "Lực lượng phòng thủ của Việt Nam tại biên giới phía Bắc". VnExpress. February 12, 2014. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  58. 1 2 "Lưới lửa phòng không trên bầu trời miền Bắc năm 1979". Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  59. "Những máy bay tham gia bảo vệ miền Bắc năm 1979". Archived from the original on April 16, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  60. 1 2 "Chiến tranh Biên giới 1979: Cuộc chuyển quân thần tốc". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  61. 1 2 "Biên giới phía Bắc 1979: 30 ngày không thể nào quên (1)". Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  62. – The Political History of Sino-Vietnamese War of 1979, and the Chinese Concept of Active Defense Archived December 5, 2004, at the Wayback Machine
  63. "Liên Xô "chia lửa" với Việt Nam trong chiến tranh biên giới thế nào?". Archived from the original on July 5, 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  64. "Sino-Soviet Relations and the February 1979 Sino-Vietnamese Conflict". Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  65. Kelemen, Paul (March 1984). "Soviet Strategy in Southeast Asia: The Vietnam Factor". Asian Survey . University of California Press. 24 (3): 342. doi:10.1525/as.1984.24.3.01p0146p. ISSN   0004-4687. JSTOR   2644070. (Subscription required (help)).
  66. Legvold, Robert (January 28, 2009). "The Soviet Union and the Vietnam War". Foreign Affairs (September/October 1996). ISSN   0015-7120. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
  68. Armchair General magazine[ issue missing ]
  69. Xiabing Li. A History of the Modern Chinese Army. University Press of Kentucky. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
  70. "China "Should Learn from its Losses" in the War against Vietnam" from "August 1" Radio, People's republic of China, 1400 GMT, February 17, 1980, as reported by BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 22 February 1980
  71. Balázs Szalontai, Hoàng Văn Hoan và vụ thanh trừng sau 1979. BBC Vietnam, April 15, 2010: Archived June 1, 2015, at the Wayback Machine .
  72. MacFarquhar, Roderick (1991). The People's Republic, Part 2. The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. pp. 447–449.
  73. French, Howard W. (March 1, 2005). "Was the War Pointless? China Shows How to Bury It". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
  74. "35 năm cuộc chiến biên giới phía Bắc". Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  75. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  76. Tom Hancock. "China's Vietnam veterans fighting new battle". Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  77. 《许世友的最后一战》The last fight of General Xu Shiyou Archived December 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Zhou Deli, Jiangshu People's press, June 1990
  78. 《中越战俘生活实录》 life of war prison camp in 1979 count strike war Archived December 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Shi Wenying, published by spring breeze literature press, March 1991
  79. 1 2 Xem các nguồn Edward C. O'Dowd, Bùi Xuân Quang, Laurent Cesari, Gilles Férier. P148
  80. "35 năm cuộc chiến biên giới phía Bắc". Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  81. "民 间 藏 事 » 转:突围——我的中越战争回忆录(有图)". Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  82. "China-Vietnam pact signed". BBC News. December 25, 2000. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  83. Greenlees, Donald "Approval near for Vietnam–China highway" International Herald Tribune, December 13, 2007
  84. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 13, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  85. 12/24/2005, Cha - con và chiến tranh Archived November 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  86. Nguyễn Duy Chiến + theo dõi (1225). "Thăm một nhà văn vừa... mãn hạn tù treo". Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  87. Kiernan, Ben (2017). Viet Nam: A History from Earliest Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. p. 582.

Additional sources