German Autumn

Last updated
German Autumn
Part of the Cold War and Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Hanns Martin Schleyer in captivity.jpg
Hanns Martin Schleyer as a hostage
Date7 April – 18 October 1977
Location
Belligerents
RAF-Logo.svg Red Army Faction (Second generation)
Revolutionare Zellen.svg Revolutionary Cells
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
Commanders and leaders
Andreas Baader  
Gudrun Ensslin  
Brigitte Mohnhaupt
Christian Klar
Chancellor Helmut Schmidt
Federal Attorney Siegfried Buback  
Interior Minister Werner Maihofer
Units involved
Commando 15 July
2 June Commando
Federal, state, and municipal police forces.
Strength
Total: 28
18 free RAF members and close supporters
10 imprisoned
Helicopters, APCs, and +10,000 police
Casualties and losses
Total:
3 dead (killed in prison)
3 injured (1 in prison, 2 WIA)
2 arrested
8 police officers killed, 2 wounded
1 civil servant killed
2 civilians killed

The German Autumn (German : Deutscher Herbst) was a series of events in Germany in late 1977 associated with the kidnapping and murder of industrialist and businessman Hanns Martin Schleyer, president of the Confederation of German Employers' Associations (BDA) and the Federation of German Industries (BDI), by the Red Army Faction (RAF) terrorist group, and the hijacking of the Lufthansa airplane Landshut by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). They demanded the release of ten RAF members detained at the Stammheim Prison plus two Palestinian compatriots held in Turkey and US$15 million in exchange for the hostages. The assassination of Siegfried Buback, the attorney-general of West Germany on 7 April 1977, and the failed kidnapping and murder of the banker Jürgen Ponto on 30 July 1977, marked the beginning of the German Autumn. It ended on 18 October, with the liberation of the Landshut, the death of the leading figures of the first generation of the RAF in their prison cells, and the death of Schleyer.

Contents

The phrase "German Autumn" is derived from the 1978 film Deutschland im Herbst ( Germany in Autumn ), a German omnibus film whose segments covered the social atmosphere during late 1977, while offering different critical perspectives and arguments pertaining to the situation. The directors involved were Heinrich Böll, Hans Peter Cloos, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Alexander Kluge, Maxmiliane Mainka, Edgar Reitz, Katja Rupé, Volker Schlöndorff, Peter Schubert and Bernhard Sinkel. Kluge and Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus edited the film. [1]

Events

Murder of Siegfried Buback

On 7 April 1977, Siegfried Buback, the attorney-general of West Germany, was shot and killed alongside his driver Wolfgang Göbel and a passenger, judicial officer Georg Wurster, in an ambush whilst travelling from his home in Neureut to the Bundesgerichtshof in Karlsruhe.

Four RAF members, Christian Klar, Knut Folkerts, Günter Sonnenberg and Brigitte Mohnhaupt were formally charged and prosecuted in connection with the Buback murder. In 2007, former RAF members Peter-Jürgen Boock and Verena Becker claimed that another former RAF member, Stefan Wisniewski, had fired the gun that killed Buback.

Kidnapping and murder of Jürgen Ponto

On 30 July 1977, Jürgen Ponto, the head of Dresdner Bank, was shot and killed in his house in Oberursel in a kidnapping that went wrong. Those involved were Brigitte Mohnhaupt, Christian Klar and Susanne Albrecht, the last being the sister of Ponto's goddaughter. [2]

Kidnapping and murder of Hanns Martin Schleyer

Photo of Hanns Martin Schleyer Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F041440-0014, Hamburg, CDU-Bundesparteitag, Schleyer.jpg
Photo of Hanns Martin Schleyer

On 5 September 1977, an RAF 'commando unit' attacked the chauffeured car carrying Hanns Martin Schleyer, then president of the German employers' association, in Cologne. His driver, Heinz Marcisz, 41, was forced to brake when a baby carriage suddenly appeared in the street in front of them. The police escort vehicle behind them was unable to stop in time, and crashed into Schleyer's car. Four (or possibly five) masked RAF members sprayed machine gun and machine pistol bullets into the two vehicles, killing Marcisz and a police officer, Roland Pieler, 20, who was seated in the backseat of Marcisz's car. The driver of the police escort vehicle, Reinhold Brändle, 41 and a third police officer, Helmut Ulmer, 24, who was in the second vehicle were also killed. The hail of bullets riddled over twenty bullet wounds into the bodies of Brändle and Pieler. [3] Schleyer was abducted and held prisoner in a rented apartment in an anonymous residential neighborhood near Cologne. He was forced to appeal to the center-left West German government under Helmut Schmidt for the 'first generation' of RAF members (then imprisoned) to be exchanged for him. Police investigations to locate Schleyer proved unsuccessful. On 18 October 1977, three of the imprisoned RAF members were found dead in their cells. In response, Schleyer was taken from Brussels and shot dead en route to Mulhouse, France, where his body was left in the trunk of a green Audi 100 on the rue Charles Péguy. After the kidnappers phoned the location of the Audi to the Deutsche Presse-Agentur office in Stuttgart, Schleyer's body was recovered on 19 October.

Landshut hijacking

"Stuttgart" landed at Cologne Bonn Airport on 18 October 1977 with GSG9 team (seen) and hostages, photograph by Ludwig Wegmann Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F051866-0010, "Landshut"-Entfuhrung, Ruckkehr GSG 9.jpg
“Stuttgart” landed at Cologne Bonn Airport on 18 October 1977 with GSG9 team (seen) and hostages, photograph by Ludwig Wegmann

When it became clear that the government was unwilling to entertain a further prisoner exchange given the experience of the kidnapping of Peter Lorenz two years earlier, the RAF tried to exert additional pressure by hijacking the Lufthansa aeroplane Landshut on October 13 1977 with the help of the allied Palestinian group PFLP. After a long odyssey through the Arabian Peninsula and the execution-type killing of Captain Jürgen Schumann, the hijackers and their hostages landed in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia.

After political negotiations with the Somali leader Siad Barre, the West German government was granted permission to assault the plane Lufthansa 181. This was carried out on 18 October by the special task force GSG 9, which had been formed after the 1972 Munich Olympics hostage crisis. Only one GSG 9 member and one flight-attendant were injured; of the hijackers only Souhaila Andrawes survived. [4]

On the same night, three of the imprisoned RAF members – Gudrun Ensslin, Jan-Carl Raspe and Andreas Baader – were found dead in their cells.

The official investigation into the deaths of the imprisoned RAF members concluded that they had committed suicide: Baader and Raspe using handguns allegedly smuggled into the Stammheim maximum security prison by their lawyer Arndt Müller, Ensslin by hanging herself. Irmgard Möller, who was imprisoned with them, survived with four knife wounds in her chest. She later claimed that the "suicides" were actually extrajudicial killings. On 12 November Ingrid Schubert was found hanged in her cell. [5]

Reactions

Political divides

Germany's political parties also came into fierce clashes during the German Autumn. The CDU/CSU suspected that the ruling social-liberal SPD-FDP coalition under Helmut Schmidt (SPD) were ideologically close to the terrorists. The coalition, in turn, accused the opposition of hysteric overreactions and seizing the opportunity to transform the Federal Republic a little way into a police state. [6] This caused great indignation in the CDU/CSU.

Policy agreements

Despiteor because ofthese conflicts, the opposition agreed to appoint Schmidt as Chancellor during the formation of the Großer Krisenstab, a temporary government formed at the beginning of the Schleyer kidnapping, which involved members of all parties in the Bundestag. Historian Wolfgang Kraushaar likened its 45-day rule to an "undeclared state of emergency". One result of the cross-party collaboration was the Kontaktsperre, a law which mandated that RAF prisoners could have no access to newspapers, TV, or radio, and could not be visited by family or lawyers. [7]

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Red Army Faction terrorist group in West-Germany

The Red Army Faction, also known as the Baader–Meinhof Group or Baader–Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970. Key early figures included Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof, among others. Ulrike Meinhof was involved in Baader's escape from jail in 1970. The West German/German government as well as most Western media and literature considered the Red Army Faction to be a terrorist organization.

Gudrun Ensslin German terrorist

Gudrun Ensslin was a founder of the West German far-left militant group Red Army Faction. After becoming involved with co-founder Andreas Baader, Ensslin was influential in the politicization of his anarchist beliefs. Ensslin was perhaps the intellectual head of the RAF. She was involved in five bomb attacks, with four deaths, was arrested in 1972 and died on 18 October 1977 in what has been called Stammheim Prison's Death Night.

Andreas Baader German left-wing terrorist

Berndt Andreas Baader was one of the first leaders of the West German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Group.

Irmgard Möller is a former member of the German terrorist group the Red Army Faction (RAF). Her father was a high school teacher, and before joining the RAF, she was a student of German studies.

Hans-Jürgen Wischnewski German Social Democrat politician

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Brigitte Margret Ida Mohnhaupt is a German convicted former terrorist associated with the second generation of the Red Army Faction (RAF) members. She was also part of the Socialist Patients' Collective (SPK). From 1971 until 1982 she was active within the RAF.

Lufthansa Flight 181 1977 aircraft hijacking

Lufthansa Flight 181 was a Boeing 737-230C jetliner named the Landshut that was hijacked on the afternoon of 13 October 1977 by four members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who called themselves Commando Martyr Halima. The objective of the hijacking was to secure the release of imprisoned Red Army Faction leaders in German prisons. In the early hours of 18 October, just after midnight, the aircraft was stormed by the West German counter-terrorism group GSG 9 in Mogadishu, Somalia, with 90 passengers rescued. The rescue operation was codenamed Feuerzauber. The hijacking is considered to be part of the German Autumn.

Sieglinde Hofmann was a German militant and member of both the Socialist Patients' Collective and the Red Army Faction.

Members of the Red Army Faction Wikimedia list article

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References

  1. "Montage, Music and Memory Remembering Deutschland im Herbst"
  2. Red Roses from Roter Morgen
  3. An Age of Murder Ideology and Terror in Germany, 1969–1991
  4. Smith & Moncourt: Daring to Struggle, Failing to Win: The Red Army Faction's 1977 Campaign of Desperation. PM Press, 2008, pp. 22–24. ISBN   1-60486-028-6
  5. Eager, Whaley: From freedom fighters to terrorists: women and political violence. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008, page 66. ISBN   0-7546-7225-5
  6. Peter Graf Kielmansegg: Nach der Katastrophe. Eine Geschichte des geteilten Deutschlands. Berlin 2000, ISBN   3-88680-329-5, S.342.
  7. Geronimo (2012). Fire and Flames: A History of the German Autonomist Movement. PM Press. p. 69.