Anti-Zionism

Last updated

Protest against the Gaza War in Melbourne, 2009 Melbourne Gaza protest Zionist Criminals, End the Palestine Holocaust.jpg
Protest against the Gaza War in Melbourne, 2009
On 7 September 2006 in Trafalgar Square, London. Neturei karta2.jpg
On 7 September 2006 in Trafalgar Square, London.

Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism. The term is broadly defined in the modern era to denote opposition to the political movement of Jews to self-determination [1] [2] within the territory of the historic Land of Israel (also referred to as Palestine, Canaan, or the Holy Land). [3] Anti-Zionism is also defined as opposition to the State of Israel or, prior to 1948, its establishment.

Zionism Movement that supports the creation of a Jewish homeland

Zionism is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement, both in reaction to newer waves of antisemitism and as an imitative response to other nationalist movements. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire.

Jews ancient nation and ethnoreligious group from the Levant

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Land of Israel The birthplace of the Jewish People. The land in which Jewish history took place. Traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant

The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant. Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, and Palestine. The definitions of the limits of this territory vary between passages in the Hebrew Bible, with specific mentions in Genesis 15, Exodus 23, Numbers 34 and Ezekiel 47. Nine times elsewhere in the Bible, the settled land is referred as "from Dan to Beersheba", and three times it is referred as "from the entrance of Hamath unto the brook of Egypt”.

Contents

The term is used to describe various religious, moral and political points of view, but their diversity of motivation and expression is sufficiently different that "anti-Zionism" cannot be seen as having a single ideology or source. There is also a difference between how it is discussed philosophically and how it is enacted within a political or social campaign. [4] Many notable Jewish and non-Jewish sources take the view that anti-Zionism has become a cover for modern-day antisemitism, a position that critics have challenged as a tactic to silence criticism of Israeli policies. Others, such as Steven M. Cohen, Brian Klug [5] and Todd Gitlin, see no correlation between the two. [6]

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. It has also been characterized as a political ideology which serves as an organizing principle and unites disparate groups which are opposed to liberalism.

Criticism of the Israeli government

Criticism of the Israeli government, often referred to simply as criticism of Israel, is an ongoing subject of journalistic and scholarly commentary and research within the scope of international relations theory, expressed in terms of political science. Within the scope of global aspirations for a community of nations, Israel has faced international criticism since its declaration of independence in 1948 relating to a variety of topics, both historical and contemporary.

Steven M. Cohen American sociologist

Steven M. Cohen is an American sociologist whose work focuses on the American Jewish Community. He is currently a Research Professor of Jewish Social Policy at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, where a Title IX investigation into the allegations of his sexual misconduct is currently ongoing. He was the Director of the Berman Jewish Policy Archive at Stanford University until his resignation in July 2018.

History

Jewish anti-Zionism

Jewish anti-Zionism is as old as Zionism itself, and enjoyed widespread support in the Jewish community until World War II. [7] The Jewish community is not a single united group and responses vary both among and within Jewish groups. One of the principal divisions is that between secular Jews and religious Jews. The reasons for secular opposition to the Zionist movement are very different from those of religious Jews. Opposition to a Jewish state has changed over time and has taken on a diverse spectrum of religious, ethical and political positions.

Religious Jews are Jews who practice or observe Jewish rituals. They may be affiliated with:

The legitimacy of anti-Zionist views has been disputed to the present day, including the more recent and disputed relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism. [8] Other views regarding the various forms of anti-Zionism have also been discussed and debated. [9] [10] [11]

Before 1948

There is a long tradition of Jewish anti-Zionism that has opposed the Zionist project from its origins. The Bundists, the Autonomists, Reform Judaism and the Agude regarded both the rationale and territorial ambitions of Zionism as flawed. Orthodox Judaism, which grounds civic responsibilities and patriotic feelings in religion, was strongly opposed to Zionism because, though the two shared the same values, Zionism espoused nationalism in secular fashion, and used "Zion", "Jerusalem", "Land of Israel", "redemption" and "ingathering of exiles" as literal rather than sacred terms, endeavouring to achieve them in this world. [12] Orthodox Jews also opposed the creation of a Jewish state prior to the appearance of the messiah, as contradicting divine will. [13] By contrast, reform Jews rejected Judaism as a national or ethnic identity, and renounced any messianic expectations of the advent of a Jewish state. [14]

Bundism

Bundism was a secular Jewish socialist movement, whose organizational manifestation was the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, founded in the Russian Empire in 1897.

Jewish Autonomism seeking an ethnic-cultural autonomy for the Jews of Eastern Europe

Jewish Autonomism, not connected to the contemporary political movement autonomism, was a non-Zionist political movement and ideology that emerged in Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century. One of its first and major proponents was the historian and activist Simon Dubnow. Jewish Autonomism is often referred to as "Dubnovism" or "folkism".

Reform Judaism denomination of Judaism

Reform Judaism is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. A liberal strand of Judaism, it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi Abraham Geiger and his associates; since the 1970s, the movement adopted a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than theoretical clarity. Its greatest center today is in North America.

Religious

Hope for return to the land of Israel is embodied in the content of the Jewish religion (see Kibbutz Galuyot). Aliyah , the Hebrew word meaning "ascending" or "going up", is the word used to describe religious Jewish return to Israel, and has been used since ancient times. From the Middle Ages and onwards, many famous rabbis and often their followers returned to the land of Israel. These have included Nahmanides, Yechiel of Paris, Isaac Luria, Yosef Karo, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk among others. For Jews in the Diaspora Eretz Israel was revered in a religious sense. They prayed, and thought of the return, as being fulfilled in a messianic age. [15] Return remained a recurring theme for generations, particularly in Passover and Yom Kippur prayers, which traditionally concluded with, "Next year in Jerusalem", as well as the thrice-daily Amidah (Standing prayer).[ citation needed ]

Aliyah immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel

Aliyah is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel. Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent"). The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship.

Middle Ages Period of European history from the 5th through the 15th centuries

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

Yechiel ben Joseph of Paris was a major Talmudic scholar and Tosafist from northern France, father-in-law of Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil. He was a disciple of Rabbi Judah Messer Leon, and succeeded him in 1225 as head of the Yeshiva of Paris, which then boasted some 300 students; his best known student was Meir of Rothenburg. He is the author of many Tosafot.

Following Jewish Enlightenment however, Reform Judaism dropped many traditional beliefs, including aliyah, as incompatible with modern life within the Diaspora. Later, Zionism re-kindled the concept of aliyah in an ideological and political sense, parallel with traditional religious belief; it was used to increase Jewish population in the Holy Land by immigration and it remains a basic tenet of Zionist ideology. Support for aliyah does not always equal immigration however, as a majority of the world Jewish population remains within the Diaspora. Support for the modern Zionist movement is not universal and, as a result, some religious Jews as well as some secular Jews do not support Zionism. Non-Zionist Jews are not necessarily anti-Zionists, although some are. Generally however, Zionism does have the support of the majority of the Jewish religious organizations, with support from segments of the Orthodox movement, and most of the Conservative, and more recently, the Reform movement. [16] [17] [18]

Many Hasidic rabbis oppose the creation of a Jewish state. The leader of the Satmar Hasidic group, Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum's book, VaYoel Moshe , published in 1958, expounds one Orthodox position on Zionism, based on a literal form of midrash (biblical interpretation). Citing to Tractate Kesubos 111a of the Talmud Teitelbaum states that God and the Jewish people exchanged three oaths at the time of the Jews' exile from ancient Israel, forbidding the Jewish people from massively immigrating to the Land of Israel, and from rebelling against the nations of the world.

Secular

Prior to the Second World War many Jews regarded Zionism as a fanciful and unrealistic movement. [19] Many liberals during the European Enlightenment had argued that Jews should enjoy full equality only on the condition that they pledge their singular loyalty to their nation-state and entirely assimilate to the local national culture; they called for the "regeneration" of the Jewish people in exchange for rights. Those liberal Jews who accepted integration and/or assimilation principles saw Zionism as a threat to efforts to facilitate Jewish citizenship and equality within the European nation-state context. [20]

The Jewish Anti-Zionist League, in Egypt, was a Communist-influenced anti-Zionist league in the years 1946–1947. In Israel, there are several Jewish anti-Zionist organisations and politicians, many of these are related to Matzpen.[ citation needed ]

After World War II and the creation of Israel

Attitudes changed during and following the war. In May 1942, before the full revelation of the Holocaust, the Biltmore Program proclaimed a fundamental departure from traditional Zionist policy of a "homeland" [21] with its demand "that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth". Opposition to official Zionism's firm, unequivocal stand caused some prominent Zionists to establish their own party, Ichud (Unification), which advocated an Arab – Jewish Federation in Palestine. Opposition to the Biltmore Program also led to the founding of the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism. [21]

The full knowledge of the Holocaust altered the views of many who critiqued Zionism before 1948, including the British journalist Isaac Deutscher, a socialist and lifelong atheist who nevertheless emphasised the importance of his Jewish heritage. Before World War II, Deutscher opposed Zionism as economically retrograde and harmful to the cause of international socialism, but in the aftermath of the Holocaust he regretted his pre-war views, arguing for Israel's establishment as a "historic necessity" to provide a refuge for the surviving Jews of Europe. In the 1960s, Deutscher renewed his criticism of Zionism, scrutinizing Israel for its failure to recognise the dispossession of the Palestinians.[ citation needed ]

Other objections relate to the maintenance of a Jewish majority within the present state of Israel.

Post-Zionism, a related term, has been criticized as being equivalent to anti-Zionism. [22]

Religious

Neturei Karta call for dismantling of the state of Israel at AIPAC conference in Washington, DC, May 2005 NKUSA.ORG at AIPAC protest 2005.JPG
Neturei Karta call for dismantling of the state of Israel at AIPAC conference in Washington, DC, May 2005

Most Orthodox religious groups have accepted and actively support the State of Israel, even if they have not adopted "Zionist" ideology. The World Agudath Israel party (founded in Poland) has at times participated in Israeli government coalitions. Most religious Zionists hold pro-Israel views from a right-wing viewpoint. The main exceptions are Hasidic groups such as Satmar Hasidim, which have about 100,000 adherents worldwide, as well as numerous different, smaller Hasidic groups, unified in America in the Central Rabbinical Congress of the United States and Canada and in Israel in the Edah HaChareidis. [23] [24]

David Novak writes that many Jewish anti-Zionists resent the way Zionism 'mak(es) Jewishly unwarranted claims on them and other Jews. [25] According to Jonathan Judaken, 'numerous Jewish traditions have insisted that preservation of what is most precious about Judaism and Jewishness "demands" a principled anti-Zionism or post-Zionism.' This tradition dwindled in the aftermath of the Holocaust, and the establishment of Israel but is still alive in religious groups such as Neturei Karta and among many intellectuals of Jewish background in both Israel and the diaspora, such as George Steiner, Tony Judt and Baruch Kimmerling . [26]

Secular

Noam Chomsky has reported a change in the boundaries of what are considered Zionist and anti-Zionist views. [27] In 1947, in his youth, Chomsky's support for a socialist binational state, in conjunction with his opposition to any semblance of a theocratic system of governance in Israel, was at the time considered well within the mainstream of secular Zionism; today, it lands him solidly in the anti-Zionist camp. [28]

Alvin H. Rosenfeld in his much discussed essay, Progressive Jewish Thought and the New Anti-Semitism, [29] claims that a "number of Jews, through their speaking and writing, are feeding a rise in virulent antisemitism by questioning whether Israel should even exist". [30] Rosenfeld's general claims are:

  1. "At a time when the de-legitimization and, ultimately, the eradication of Israel is a goal being voiced with mounting fervor by the enemies of the Jewish state, it is more than disheartening to see Jews themselves adding to the vilification. That some do so in the name of Judaism itself makes the nature of their assault all the more grotesque."
  2. "Their contributions to what's becoming normative discourse are toxic. They're helping to make [anti-Semitic] views about the Jewish state respectable – for example, that it's a Nazi-like state, comparable to South African apartheid; that it engages in ethnic cleansing and genocide. These charges are not true and can have the effect of delegitimizing Israel."

Some Jewish organizations oppose Zionism as an integral part of their anti-imperialism. [31] [32] [33] [34] Some secular Jews today, particularly socialists and Marxists, continue to oppose the State of Israel on anti-imperialist and human rights grounds. Many oppose it as a form of nationalism, which they argue to be a product of capitalist societies. One secular anti-Zionist group today is the International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network, a socialist, anti-war, and anti-imperialist organization that calls for "the dismantling of Israeli apartheid, the return of Palestinian refugees, and the ending of the Israeli colonization of historic Palestine". [35]

Outside the Jewish community

Palestinians

Anne de Jong asserts that direct resistance from inhabitants of historic Palestine "focused less on religious arguments and was instead centred on countering the experience of colonial dispossession and opposing the Zionist enforcement of ethnic division of the indigenous population". [36]

Palestinian Christian owned Falastin was founded in 1911 in the then Arab-majority city of Jaffa. The newspaper is often described as one of the most influential newspapers in historic Palestine, and probably the nation's fiercest and most consistent critic of the Zionist movement. It helped shape Palestinian identity and nationalism and was shut down several times by the Ottoman and British authorities, most of the time due to complaints made by Zionists. [37]

British colonial officials

The British anti-Zionist [38] John Hope Simpson believed that the Arabs were "economically powerless against such a strong movement" and thus needed protection. Charles Anderson writes that Hope Simpson was also "wary of the gulf between Zionist rhetoric and practice, observing that 'The most lofty sentiments are ventilated in public meetings and in Zionist propaganda' but that the Jewish National Fund and other organs of the movement did not uphold or embody a vision of cooperation or mutual benefit with the Arabs". [39]

Secular Arab

Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabist Gamal Abdel Nasser (c. 1960s).jpg
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabist

Anti-Zionism in the Arab world emerged at the end of the 19th century, very soon after the First Zionist Congress was held in Basel in 1897. [40] However, only after the Young Turk revolution in 1908 did opposition to Zionism in Palestine and Greater Syria became widespread. [41]

According to philosopher Michael Neumann, Zionism as an "expansionist threat" has caused Arab hostility toward Israel and even antisemitism. [42] Pan-Arabist narratives in the 1960s Nasser era emphasized the idea of Palestine as a part of the Arab world taken by others. In this narrative, the natural means of combating Zionism is Arab nations uniting and attacking Israel militarily.

Most Arab citizens of Israel do not have strong anti-Zionist views. A poll of 507 Arab-Israelis conducted by the Israeli Democracy Institute in 2007 found that 75 percent profess support for Israel's status as a Jewish and democratic state that guarantees equal rights for minorities. Israeli Arab support for a constitution in general was 88 percent. [43]

Muslim

Quds Day demonstration in Qom, Iran روز جهانی قدس در شهر قم- Quds Day In Iran-Qom City 14.jpg
Quds Day demonstration in Qom, Iran

Anti-Zionist Muslims consider the State of Israel as an intrusion into what many Muslims consider to be Dar al-Islam, a domain they believe to be rightfully, and permanently, ruled only by Muslims due the fact it was historically conquered in the name of Islam. [44] [45] [46]

Palestinian and other Muslim groups, as well as the government of Iran (since the 1979 Islamic Revolution), insist that the State of Israel is illegitimate and refuse to refer to it as "Israel", instead using the locution "the Zionist entity" (see Iran–Israel relations). Islamic maps of the Middle East frequently do not show the State of Israel. In an interview with Time Magazine in December 2006, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said "Everyone knows that the Zionist regime is a tool in the hands of the United States and British governments." [47]

The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Mohammed Amin al Husseini opposed the Jewish immigration to Palestine before the creation of the State of Israel, and in several documented cases expressed his hostility toward Jews in general and Zionists in particular. [48]

Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, whom the Anti-Defamation League named "the leading anti-Semite in America", [49] has a long track record of hostility towards Jews in general and Zionists in particular. [50]

Christian

Positions of the World Council of Churches

The World Council of Churches (WCC) has been described as taking anti-Zionist positions in connection with its criticisms of Israeli policy. [51] It is claimed the council has focused disproportionately on activities and publications criticizing Israel in comparison with other human rights issues. [52] [53] The council members have been characterized by Israel's former Justice minister Amnon Rubinstein as anti-Zionist, saying "they just hate Israel". [54] The WCC has been charged with prioritising Anti-Zionism to the extent it has neglected appeals from Egyptian Copts to raise their plight under Sadat and Mubarak in order to avoid distracting world attention. [51] [55]

Presbyterian Church of USA

After publishing "Zionism unsettled", which it initially commended as "a valuable opportunity to explore the political ideology of Zionism", [56] the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) promptly withdrew the publication from sale on its website [57] following criticism that it was Anti-Zionist, one critic claimed it posits that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is fueled by a 'pathology inherent in Zionism.' [58] In February 2016, the General Assembly was lobbied by its Advisory Committee on Social Witness Policy (ACSWP) to lay aside a two state solution and support the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement. [59] [60] Presbyterians for Middle East Peace described this proposal as a "one-sided, zero-sum solution". [61]

Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization

In January 2015, the Lausanne movement, published an article in its official journal made comparisons between Christian Zionism, the crusades and the Spanish Inquisition and described Zionism as "apartheid on steroids". [63] [64] [65] The Simon Wiesenthal Center described this last claim as "the big lie", and rebutted the "dismissal of the validity of Israel's right to exist as the Jewish State". [66]

Church of Scotland

Despite its strong historic support for Restorationism, famously by Robert Murray M'Chyene and by both Horatius and Andrew Bonar, in April 2013 the Church of Scotland published "The Inheritance of Abraham: A Report on the Promised Land", which rejected the idea of a special right of Jewish people to the Holy Land through analysis of scripture and Jewish theological claims. The report further denied the "belief among some Jewish people that they have a right to the land of Israel as a compensation for the suffering of the Holocaust" and argued "it is a misuse of the Bible to use it as a topographic guide to settle contemporary conflicts over land." The report was criticised by Jewish leaders in Scotland as "biased, weak on sources, and contradictory. The picture it paints of both Judaism and Israel is barely even a caricature." [67] [68] Subsequently, the Church issued a statement saying that the Church had not changed its "long-held position of the rights of Israel to exist". [69] It also revised the report. [70]

Methodist Church of Great Britain

Charles and John Wesley, founders of the Methodist Church, held Restorationist views. [71] Following the submission of a report titled 'Justice for Palestine and Israel' in July 2010, the UK Methodist Conference questioned whether 'Zionism was compatible with Methodist beliefs'. [72] [73] Christian Zionism was characterised as believing that Israel "must be held above criticism whatever policy is enacted", and conference called for a boycott of selected Israeli goods "emanating from illegal settlements". [74] The UK's Chief Rabbi described the report as "unbalanced, factually and historically flawed", and said that it offered "no genuine understanding of one of the most complex conflicts in the world today. Many in both communities will be deeply disturbed." [72] [73]

Third Position, fascist, and right-wing

The flag of the Knights Party, the political branch of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Knights Party flag.PNG
The flag of the Knights Party, the political branch of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

Anti-Zionism has a long history of being supported by various individuals and groups associated with Third Position, right-wing and fascist (or "neo-fascist") political views. [75] [76] [77] [78] A number of militantly racist groups and their leaders are anti-Zionist, David Duke and the Ku Klux Klan for example, [79] and various other Aryan / White-supremacist groups. [80] In these instances, anti-Zionism is usually also deeply anti-Semitic, and often revolves around conspiracy theories discussed below

Soviet Union

During the last years of Stalin's rule, official support for the creation of Israel in 1948 was replaced by strong anti-zionism. The level of confrontation with those deemed as anti-Soviet "Jewish nationalists" was toned down after Stalin's death in 1953, but the official position of opposition to Zionism remained in force: the Anti-Zionist Committee of the Soviet Public, as well as numerous other initiatives, were state-sponsored.[ citation needed ]

As outlined in the third edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1969–1978), the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's position during the Cold War became: "the main posits of modern Zionism are militant chauvinism, racism, anti-Communism and anti-Sovietism, [...] overt and covert fight against freedom movements and the USSR." [81]

International

Anti-Zionist sentiments were also manifested in organisations such as the Organization for African Unity and the Non-Aligned Movement, which passed resolutions condemning Zionism and equating it with racism and apartheid during the early 1970s. This culminated in the passing by the United Nations General Assembly of Resolution 3379 in November 1975, which declared "Zionism is a form of racism." [82]

The decision was revoked on 16 December 1991, when the General Assembly passed Resolution 4686, repealing resolution 3379, by a vote of 111 to 25, with 13 abstentions and 17 delegations absent. Thirteen out of the 19 Arab countries, including those engaged in negotiations with Israel, voted against the repeal, another six were absent. No Arab country voted for repeal. The Palestine Liberation Organisation denounced the vote. All of the ex-communist countries and most of the African countries who had supported Resolution 3379 voted to repeal it. [83]

African-American

After Israel occupied Palestinian territory following the 1967 Six-Day War, some African-Americans supported the Palestinians and criticized Israel's actions, for example by publicly supporting Palestinian leader Yassir Arafat and calling for the destruction of the Jewish state. [84] Immediately after the war, the black power organization Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee published a newsletter criticizing Israel, and asserting that the war was an effort to regain Palestinian land and that during the 1948 war, "Zionists conquered the Arab homes and land through terror, force, and massacres." [85] In 1993, philosopher Cornel West wrote: "Jews will not comprehend what the symbolic predicament and literal plight of Palestinians in Israel means to blacks.... Blacks often perceive the Jewish defense of the state of Israel as a second instance of naked group interest, and, again, an abandonment of substantive moral deliberation." [86] African-American support of Palestinians is frequently due to the consideration of Palestinians as people of color – political scientist Andrew Hacker writes: "The presence of Israel in the Middle East is perceived as thwarting the rightful status of people of color. Some blacks view Israel as essentially a white and European power, supported from the outside, and occupying space that rightfully belongs to the original inhabitants of Palestine." [87]

Anti-Zionism and antisemitism

A sign held at a protest in Edinburgh, Scotland on January 10, 2009 Protests Edinburgh 10 1 2009 5.JPG
A sign held at a protest in Edinburgh, Scotland on January 10, 2009

In the early 21st century, it was also claimed that a "new antisemitism" had emerged that was rooted in anti-Zionism. [8] [9] [10] [11] [88] [89] [90] Advocates of this concept argue that much of what purports to be criticism of Israel and Zionism is demonization, and has led to an international resurgence of attacks on Jews and Jewish symbols and an increased acceptance of antisemitic beliefs in public discourse. [91] Critics of the concept have suggested that the characterization of anti-Zionism as antisemitic is inaccurate, sometimes obscures legitimate criticism of Israel's policies and actions and trivializes antisemitism.

View that the two are interlinked

A number of sources link anti-Zionism with antisemitism. [92] [93] [94] [88] [95] Campus research in 2016 in the US has also reported close geographical correlation between the two phenomena, accompanying a recent upsurge in anti-Semitism. [96]

Government officials

French President Emmanuel Macron calls anti-Zionism "a reinvention of anti-Semitism." [97] French Prime Minister Manuel Valls expressed similar views. [98]

In the 2015, a German court in Essen ruled that "'Zionist' in the language of antisemites is a code for Jew". Taylan Can, a German citizen of Turkish origin, yelled "death and hate to Zionists" at an anti-Israel rally in Essen in July 2014, and was convicted for hate crime. [99] In contrast, in February 2015, a court in Wuppertal convicted two German Palestinians of an arson attack on a synagogue, but denied that the crime was motivated by antisemitism. [100]

Academia

Professor Kenneth L. Marcus, former staff director at the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, identifies four main views on the relationship between anti-Zionism and antisemitism, at least in North America: [101] (p. 845–846) Marcus also states: [102] "Unsurprisingly, recent research has shown a close correlation between anti-Israeli views and anti-Semitic views based on a survey of citizens in ten European countries." [103]

Professor Robert S. Wistrich, head of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is the originator of Marcus's second view of anti-Zionism (that anti-Zionism and antisemitism merged post-1948) argues that much contemporary anti-Zionism, particularly forms that compare Zionism and Jews with Hitler and the Third Reich, has become a form of antisemitism:

"Anti-Zionism has become the most dangerous and effective form of anti-Semitism in our time, through its systematic delegitimization, defamation, and demonization of Israel. Although not a priori anti-Semitic, the calls to dismantle the Jewish state, whether they come from Muslims, the Left, or the radical Right, increasingly rely on an anti-Semitic stereotypization of classic themes, such as the manipulative 'Jewish lobby,' the Jewish/Zionist 'world conspiracy,' and Jewish/Israeli "warmongers". [104] Nevertheless, I believe that the more radical forms of anti-Zionism that have emerged with renewed force in recent years do display unmistakable analogies to European anti-Semitism immediately preceding the Holocaust.... For example, 'anti-Zionists' who insist on comparing Zionism and the Jews with Hitler and the Third Reich appear unmistakably to be de facto anti-Semites, even if they vehemently deny the fact! ... For if Zionists are 'Nazis' and if Sharon really is Hitler, then it becomes a moral obligation to wage war against Israel. ... Anti-Zionism is ... also the lowest common denominator and the bridge between the Left, the Right, and the militant Muslims; between the elites (including the media) and the masses; between the churches and the mosques; between an increasingly anti-American Europe and an endemically anti-Western Arab-Muslim Middle East; a point of convergence between conservatives and radicals and a connecting link between fathers and sons."

Dina Porat (head of the Institute for Study of Antisemitism and Racism at Tel-Aviv University) contends that anti-Zionism is antisemitic because it is discriminatory:

... antisemitism is involved when the belief is articulated that of all the peoples on the globe (including the Palestinians), only the Jews should not have the right to self-determination in a land of their own. Or, to quote noted human rights lawyer David Matas: One form of antisemitism denies access of Jews to goods and services because they are Jewish. Another form of antisemitism denies the right of the Jewish people to exist as a people because they are Jewish. Antizionists distinguish between the two, claiming the first is antisemitism, but the second is not. To the antizionist, the Jew can exist as an individual as long as Jews do not exist as a people. [105] [106]

British sociologist David Hirsh wrote a book called Contemporary Left Antisemitism in which he studied anti-Zionism empirically. Philosophically, one might privately find under a set of theoretical circumstances that it is possible to be an anti-Zionist without being an antisemite, but according to Hirsh's book, "When anti-Zionism gets a foothold [in an organization] and becomes popular and normal and legitimate, it brings antisemitism with it." [4]

Others

According to the December 1969 issue of Encounter , a student attacked Zionism in the presence of Dr. Martin Luther King, an American civil rights activist. King responded to the student, "When people criticize Zionists, they mean Jews. You're talking anti-Semitism." [107]

Israeli journalist Ben-Dror Yemini maintains that anti-Zionism is "politically correct antisemitism" and argues that the same way Jews were demonized, Israel is demonized, the same way the right of Jews to exist was denied, the right for Self-determination is denied from Israel, the same way Jews were presented as a menace to the world, Israel is presented as a menace to the world. [108]

Israeli American journalist Liel Leibovitz says that 21st century "anti-Zionists" do not like Jews whether they live in Israel or anywhere else in the world. He cites the example of the "anti-Zionist" professor at Oberlin who posted antisemitic conspiracy theories on her website and the "anti-Zionist" Stanford University student who claimed that many of the classical antisemitic conspiracy theories are not antisemitic. [109]

British socialist Adam Langleben had been a supporter of the British Labour Party all of his life until its leader, Jeremy Corbyn, was caught on video accusing "Zionists" of lacking a sense of irony possessed by other British citizens. Although Corbyn used the word "Zionist" and not the word "Jew," Langleben asserted, "[F]or any Jewish person watching the video we will have heard ‘Jew,’ because most Jews in Britain subscribe to being a Zionist or supportive of the state of Israel—not the policies, but the existence [of the Jewish state]." [110] Langleben's break with Labour came after repeatedly defending Corbyn from critics.

Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times op-ed columnist Bret Stephens wrote that anti-Zionists "excel in making excuses for the wicked and finding fault with the good. When you find yourself on the same side as Hassan Nasrallah, Louis Farrakhan and David Duke on the question of a country’s right to exist, it’s time to re-examine every opinion you hold." Stephens admitted, "Anti-Zionism might have been a respectable point of view before 1948, when the question of Israel’s existence was in the future and up for debate. Today, anti-Zionism is a call for the elimination of a state — details to follow regarding the fate befalling those who currently live in it" (emphasis in the original). [111] In another column, Stephens wrote, "Of course it’s theoretically possible to distinguish anti-Zionism from anti-Semitism, just as it’s theoretically possible to distinguish segregationism from racism. But the striking feature of anti-Zionist rhetoric is how broadly it overlaps with traditionally anti-Semitic tropes." [112]

View that the two are not interlinked

On the appointment of Steve Bannon, who is reputed to be anti-semitic, as Donald Trump's White House Chief Strategist and Senior Counselor in 2016, several commentators said Bannon's personal attitudes would not necessarily translate into opposition to Israel. The sociologist Steven M. Cohen finds little correlation between antisemitism and anti-Zionism, while Todd Gitlin stated that anti-Semitism and right-wing Zionism can coexist without difficulty. [6]

Critics such as Norman Finkelstein, [113] Tariq Ali, [114] Noam Chomsky, [115] and Steven Salaita [116] challenge the equation of anti-Zionism and antisemitism as a tactic to silence criticism of Israeli policies.

Brian Klug argued, "We should unite in rejecting racism in all its forms: the Islamophobia that demonises Muslims, as well as the anti-semitic discourse that can infect anti-Zionism and poison the political debate. However, people of goodwill can disagree politically - even to the extent of arguing over Israel's future as a Jewish state. Equating anti-Zionism with anti-semitism can also, in its own way, poison the political debate." [117] On 15 January 2004, Klug wrote, "To argue that hostility to Israel and hostility to Jews are one and the same thing is to conflate the Jewish state with the Jewish people." [118]

View that anti-Zionism leads to antisemitism

According to David Cameron, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, "there has been an insidious, creeping attempt to delegitimize the state of Israel, which spills over often into anti-Semitism." [119]

In July 2001, the Simon Wiesenthal Center reported that during a visit there, German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer stated, "anti-Zionism inevitably leads to antisemitism." [120] In 2015, the Center observed in a newsletter introducing its report on North American campus life, that 'virulent anti-Zionism is often a thinly-veiled disguise for virulent anti-Semitism'. [121]

Conspiracy theories

The antisemitic hoax The Protocols of the Elders of Zion came to be used among Arab anti-Zionists, although some Arab anti-Zionists have tried to discourage its usage. [122] : 186 [123] : 357 Antisemitic sources have claimed that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were read at the First Zionist Congress. Neil J. Kressel asserts that for many years the line between antisemitism and anti-Zionism has been blurry. [124] : 102

A number of conspiracies involving the Holocaust have been advanced. One advanced by the Soviets in the 1950s claims that Nazis and Zionists had a shared interest or even cooperated in the extermination of Europe's Jewry, as persecution would force them to flee to Palestine, then under British administration. [125] : 237 Claims also have been made that the Zionist movement inflated or faked the impact of the Holocaust. [126] : 21–22 The President of the State of Palestine Mahmoud Abbas wrote in his 1983 book, The Other Side: The Secret Relationship Between Nazism and Zionism based on his CandSc thesis completed in 1982 at the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, with Yevgeny Primakov as thesis advisor. [127] [128]

In 1968, the East German communist paper Neues Deutschland justified the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia with the headline "In Prague Zionism is in power". [132] In 1995, William Korey released a work titled Russian antisemitism, Pamyat, and the demonology of Zionism. Korey's central argument is that the Soviet Union promoted an "official Judeophobic propaganda campaign" under the guise of anti-Zionism from 1967 to 1986; after this program was shut down by Mikhail Gorbachev, a populist and chauvinist group called Pamyat emerged in the more open climate of Glasnost to promote an openly antisemitic message. [133] Korey also argues that much official late-period Soviet antisemitism may be traced back to the influence of Protocols of the Elders of Zion. He notes, for instance, that a 1977 Soviet work titled International Zionism: History and Politics contains the allegation that most major Wall Street financial institutions are "large financial-industrial Jewish monopolies" exercising control over many countries in the world. [134] Russian antisemitism was reviewed by Robert O. Freedman in the Slavic Review; while he concurs with the book's central thesis, Freedman nevertheless writes that the actual extent of Soviet antisemitism may have been less than Korey suggests. [135]

Accusations have been made regarding Zionism and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, claiming that prominent Zionists were forcing Western governments into war in the Middle East for Israel's interests. [136] [137] [138]

The Sudanese government has alleged that the Darfur uprising (in which some 500,000 have been killed) is part of a wider Zionist conspiracy. [139] Egyptian media have alleged that the Zionist movement deliberately spreads HIV in Egypt. [140]

According to the Anti-Defamation League, Neo-Nazi and radical Muslim groups allege the U.S. government is controlled by Jews, describing it as the "Zionist Occupation Government". [141]

Article 22 of the 1988 Hamas charter claims that the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution, colonialism and both world wars were created by the Zionists or forces supportive of Zionism. Article 32 alleges that the Zionist movement seeks to create an Empire stretching from the Nile in Egypt to the Euphrates river in Iraq. [142]

In April 2010, Abd Al-Azim Al-Maghrabi, the deputy head of Egyptian Arab Lawyers Union, stated in an interview with Al-Manar TV (as translated by MEMRI) that the Hepatitis C virus was produced by "the Zionists" and "this virus is now spreading in Egypt like wildfire." He also called for it to be "classified as one of the war crimes perpetrated by the Zionist enemy". [143]

In June 2010, Egyptian cleric Mus'id Anwar gave a speech that aired on Al-Rahma TV (as translated by MEMRI) in which he alleged that the game of soccer (as well as swimming, bullfighting and tennis) was in fact a Zionist conspiracy, stating that:

As you know, the Jews, or the Zionists, have The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Over 100 years ago, they formulated a plan to rule the world, and they are implementing this plan. One of the protocols says: "Keep the [non-Jews] preoccupied with songs, soccer, and movies." Is it or isn't it happening? It is [...] the Zionists manage to generate animosity among Muslims, and even between Muslim countries, by means of soccer. [144]

See also

Related Research Articles

Antisemitism in the Arab world increased greatly in the 20th century, for several reasons: the breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society; European influence, brought about by Western imperialism and Arab Christians; Nazi propaganda; resentment over Jewish nationalism ; and the rise of Arab nationalism.

Soviet anti-Zionism was a propaganda doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, which intensified after the 1967 Six-Day War. It was officially sponsored by the department of propaganda of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and by the KGB. It alleged that Zionism was a form of racism, and argued that Zionists were similar to Nazis. The Soviet Union framed its anti-Zionist propaganda in terms of the ideological doctrine of Zionology, in the guise of a study of modern Zionism.

Arab European League

The Arab European League is a Pan-Arabist civil rights movement/organization in Belgium and the Netherlands.

New antisemitism New antisemitism after 1945

New antisemitism is the concept that a new form of antisemitism has developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and criticism of the Israeli government. The concept is included in some definitions of antisemitism, such as the Working Definition of Antisemitism and the 3D test of antisemitism.

Radio Islam was a Swedish Islamic radio channel, now a website. The EU's racism monitoring organization has called it "one of the most radical right-wing antisemitic homepages on the net".

Gilad Atzmon British jazz musician and author

Gilad Atzmon is a British jazz saxophonist, novelist, political activist and writer, originally from Israel.

Universities in many countries have been the site of antisemitic policies and practices at different times in their history. Several universities have restricted the admission of Jewish students, as well as the hiring and retention of Jewish faculty. In some instances, universities have supported antisemitic government policies and condoned the development of an antisemitic culture on campus. In most democratic countries, officially sanctioned university antisemitism was phased out in the years after World War II.

Zionism as an organized movement is generally considered to have been founded by Theodor Herzl in 1897. However, the history of Zionism began earlier and is related to Judaism and Jewish history. The Hovevei Zion, or the Lovers of Zion, were responsible for the creation of 20 new Jewish settlements in Palestine between 1870 and 1897.

Antony Lerman is a British writer who specialises in the study of antisemitism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, multiculturalism, and the place of religion in society. From 2006 to early 2009, he was Director of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research, a think tank on issues affecting Jewish communities in Europe. From December 1999 to 2006, he was Chief Executive of the Hanadiv Charitable Foundation, renamed the Rothschild Foundation Europe in 2007. He is a founding member of the Jewish Forum for Justice and Human Rights, and a former editor of Patterns of Prejudice, a quarterly academic journal focusing on the sociology of race and ethnicity.

Various types of discrimination on the basis of religion against Jews, as well as of racism and discrimination against blacks on the basis of ethnicity, have existed in the area of what are now the Palestinian territories.

Surveys show that antisemitism exists in Sweden. The study "Antisemitic images and attitudes in Sweden", conducted by Henrik Bachner and Jonas Ring, revealed that 1.4 percent of the population disagrees with the assertion that "Most Jews are probably decent folks".

Antisemitism in France has become heightened since the late 20th century and into the 21st century. In the early 21st century, most Jews in France, like most Muslims in France, are of North African origin. France has the largest population of Jews in the diaspora after the United States—an estimated 500,000–600,000 persons. Paris has the highest population, followed by Marseilles, which has 70,000 Jews, most of North African origin.

This timeline of anti-Zionism chronicles the history of anti-Zionism, including events in the history of anti-Zionist thought.

Antisemitism in the United Kingdom signifies the hatred of and discrimination against Jews in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Michael Neumann is a professor of philosophy at Trent University in Ontario, Canada. He is the author of What's Left? Radical Politics and the Radical Psyche (1988), The Rule of Law: Politicizing Ethics (2002) and The Case Against Israel (2005), and has published papers on utilitarianism and rationality.

AMCHA Initiative organization

The AMCHA Initiative is a nonprofit organization based in California which seeks to investigate, document, educate about, and combat antisemitism at institutions of higher education in the United States. The Initiative was founded by University of California Santa Cruz lecturer Tammi Rossman-Benjamin and University of California Los Angeles Professor Emeritus Leila Beckwith.

Allegations of antisemitism in the UK Labour Party have been made since Jeremy Corbyn was elected as leader in September 2015, particularly after comments by Naz Shah and Ken Livingstone in 2016 resulted in their suspension from membership. Shah was subsequently reinstated while Livingstone resigned.

References

  1. "What Is… Anti-Israel, Anti-Semitic, Anti-Zionist?" ADL. 8 February 2019.
  2. "What's the difference between anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism?" BBC. 29 April 2016. 8 February 2019.
  3. Pessin Andrew and Doron S. Ben-Atar. Introduction. Anti-Zionism on Campus: The University, Free Speech, and BDS, edited by Pessin and Ben-Atar, Indiana UP, 2018, pp. 1-40.
  4. 1 2 Halpern, Gilad, host. "Left Handed Compliments ...." The Tel Aviv Review, TLV1 Podcasts. 17 November 2017. See discussion beginning at 22:33.
  5. Brian Klug, No, Zionism is not anti-semitism The Guardian 3 December 2003
  6. 1 2 Naomi Zeveloff, "How Steve Bannon and Breitbart News Can Be Pro-Israel — and Anti-Semitic at the Same Time", The Forward
  7. Mike Marqusee, If I Am Not For Myself: Journey of an Anti-Zionist Jew, Verso Books (2008) 2010 p.vii:’As long as there has been Zionism, there have been anti-Zionist Jews. Indeed, decades before it even came to the notice of non-Jews, anti-Zionism was a well-established Jewish ideology and until World War 11 commanded wide support in the diaspora.’
  8. 1 2 Wistrich, Robert S. (Fall 2004). "Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism". Jewish Political Studies Review. 16 (3–4). Retrieved 26 February 2007.
  9. 1 2 Said, Edward (November–December 2000). "America's Last Taboo". New Left Review . II (6): 45–53. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
  10. 1 2 Zipperstein, Steven J. (2005). "Historical Reflections on Contemporary Antisemitism". In Derek J. Penslar; Michael R. Marrus; Janice Gross Stein. Contemporary antisemitism: Canada and the world. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN   978-0-8020-3931-6. LCCN   2005277647. OCLC   56531591 . Retrieved 27 February 2007.
  11. 1 2 Feiler, Dror (13 October 2005). "Letter sent to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia concerning the Working Definition of Antisemitism". European Jews for a Just Peace. Retrieved 26 February 2007.
  12. S. Almog, Jehuda Reinharz, Anita Shapira (eds.), Zionism and Religion , UPNE, 1998 citing Isaac Breuer,Judenproblem, Halle 1918 p. 89
  13. Shapira, Anita (2014). Israel a history. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 15. ISBN   9780297871583.
  14. Ross p. 6.
  15. Taylor, A. R., 1971, Vision and intent in Zionist Thought, pp. 10, 11
  16. Rachael Gelfman, "Religious Zionists believe that the Jewish return to Israel hastens the Messiah"
  17. Ehud Bandel – President, the Masorti Movement, "Zionism"
  18. "Reform Judaism & Zionism: A Centenary Platform". Miami, Florida: Central Conference of American Rabbis. 27 October 2004. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  19. Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism , (Schocken Books, New York 1978, ISBN   0-8052-0523-3), pp385-6.
  20. Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism , p. 399.
  21. 1 2 American Jewish Year Book Vol. 45 (1943–1944) "Pro-Palestine and Zionist Activities", pp. 206–214
  22. "Post-Zionism and Israeli Politics: A briefing by Limor Livnat". Middle East Forum. August 2000.
  23. Jews Against Zionism website Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 4 June 2008.
  24. Jews Against Zionism website Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  25. David Novak, 2015 p. 16
  26. Jonathan Judaken, "Rethinking the New Antisemitism", in Jonathan Judaken (ed.), Naming Race, Naming Racisms , Routledge, 2013 pp. 195-223 pp. 215-216.
  27. Peck, James (ed.) (1987). Chomsky Reader. ISBN   0-394-75173-6. p. 7. "what was then called 'Zionist' ... are now called 'anti-Zionist' (concerns and views)".
  28. Peck, James (ed.) (1987). Chomsky Reader. ISBN   0-394-75173-6. p. 7
    "I was interested in socialist, binationalist options for Palestine, and in the kibbutzim and the whole cooperative labor system that had developed in the Jewish settlement there (the Yishuv).... The vague ideas I had at the time [1947] were to go to Palestine, perhaps to a kibbutz, to try to become involved in efforts at Arab-Jewish cooperation within a socialist framework, opposed to the deeply antidemocratic concept of a Jewish state."
  29. Alvin H. Rosenfeld. 'Progressive' Jewish Thought and the New Anti-Semitism. American Jewish Committee. 2006.
  30. Patricia Cohen. "Essay Linking Liberal Jews and Anti-Semitism Sparks a Furor". The New York Times . 31 January 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007.
  31. "The First National Jewish Anti-Zionist Gathering". Jews Confront Apartheid. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  32. "Not In Our Name ... Jewish voices opposing Zionism" . Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  33. "Jews Against Zionism" . Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  34. "International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network". Archived from the original on 20 November 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  35. "Charter of the International Jewish anti-Zionist Network". International Jewish anti-Zionist Network. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  36. Jong, Anne de (3 May 2017). "Zionist hegemony, the settler colonial conquest of Palestine and the problem with conflict: a critical genealogy of the notion of binary conflict". Settler Colonial Studies: 1–20. doi:10.1080/2201473X.2017.1321171.
  37. Rashid Khalidi (9 January 2006). The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Beacon Press. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  38. Naomi Wiener Cohen, The Americanization of Zionism, 1897-1948, UPNE, 2003 p.123.
  39. Anderson, Charles (6 November 2017). "The British Mandate and the crisis of Palestinian landlessness, 1929–1936". Middle Eastern Studies: 1–45. doi:10.1080/00263206.2017.1372427.
  40. Beška, Emanuel (2007). "Responses Of Prominent Arabs Towards Zionist Aspirations And Colonization Prior To 1908". Asian and African Studies. 16.
  41. Beška, Emanuel (2014). "Political Opposition to Zionism in Palestine and Greater Syria: 1910–1911 as a Turning Point". Jerusalem Quarterly. 59.
  42. Michael Neumann, "What is antisemitism?" Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Counterpunch , 4 June 2002.
  43. "Poll of Arab-Israeli". Haaretz . Archived from the original on 1 May 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  44. Neusner, Jacob (1999). Comparing Religions Through Law: Judaism and Islam. Routledge. ISBN   0-415-19487-3. p. 201
  45. Merkley, Paul Charles (2001). Christian Attitudes Towards the State of Israel. McGill-Queen's Press. ISBN   0-7735-2188-7. p.122
  46. Akbarzadeh, Shahram (2005). Islam And the West: Reflections from Australia. UNSW Press. ISBN   0-86840-679-1. p. 4
  47. "People Who Mattered: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". Time. 16 December 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  48. "Nazis planned Holocaust in Palestine: historians". Expatica Germany. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  49. Jessica Chasmar (5 March 2015). "Louis Farrakhan: 'Israelis and Zionist Jews' played key roles in 9/11 attacks". The Washington Times . Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  50. Farrakhan In His Own Words (PDF) (Report). Anti-Defamation League. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  51. 1 2 Merkley, Paul (1 March 2007). Christian Attitudes Towards the State of Israel. Montreal: Mcgill Queens University Press. p. 284. ISBN   9780773532557.
  52. Vermaat, J. A. Emerson (November 1984), "The World Council of Churches, Israel and the PLO", Mid-Stream: 3–9
  53. Ye'or, Bat; Miriam Kochan; David Littman (2002). slam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 377. ISBN   978-0-8386-3942-9 . Retrieved 1 March 2009. Of all the currents that run through the ... World Council of Churches, anti-Zionism is the most powerful.... [T]he World Council of Churches [hasn't] officially condemned anti-Zionism as a criminal ideology advocating the elimination of the State of Israel.
  54. "חדשות NRG – "הם פשוט שונאי ישראל"". Nrg.co.il. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  55. Rottenberg, Isaac (1989). The Turbulent Triangle: Christians-Jews-Israel: A Personal-Historical Account. Hawley, Pa.: Red Mountain Associates. pp. 61–2. ISBN   9780899627465.
  56. "Presbyterian network opens new dialogue on Zionism". PCUSA. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  57. "Zionism Unsettled No Longer Sold on PC(USA) Website". PCUSA. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  58. "Presbyterians reject church group's anti-Zionist study guide The guide, 'Zionism Unsettled,' posits that the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is fueled by a 'pathology inherent in Zionism.'". Haaretz. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  59. "PC(USA) policy committee issues new report on Israel-Palestine". PCUSA. 29 February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  60. "Israel-Palestine: For Human Values in the Absence of a Just Peace" (PDF). PC(USA) Advisory Committee on Social Witness Policy. 29 February 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  61. "Two States for Two Peoples" (PDF). Presbyterians for Middle East Peace. 1 February 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  62. Wagner, Don (January 1995). Anxious for Armageddon. US: Herald Press. pp. 80–4. ISBN   9780836136517.
  63. "'All of Me' – Engaging a world of poverty and injustice". January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  64. "Leading Evangelism Movement Slams Christian Zionism". 26 January 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  65. "When it comes to Israel, World Vision needs an eye exam". The Jerusalem Post. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  66. "SWC Condemns World Vision Official for False and Damaging Remarks About Israel". Simon Wiesenthal Center. 30 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  67. "Church of Scotland: Jews do not have a right to the land of Israel A new church report challenging Jewish historic claims and criticizing Zionism has drawn anger and harsh condemnation from the local Jewish community". Haaretz. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  68. "SCoJeC Rebukes Church of Scotland over General Assembly Report". Scottish Council of Jewish Communities. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  69. "Church of Scotland Thinks Twice, Grants Israel the Right to Exist". The Jewish Press. 12 May 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  70. "The Inheritance of Abraham: revised report released". Church of Scotland. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  71. "A Wesley 'Zionist' Hymn? Charles Wesley's hymn, published in 1762 and included by John Wesley in his 1780 hymn-book, A Collection of Hymns for the use of the People called Methodists". The Wesley Fellowship. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  72. 1 2 "Chief Rabbi slams Methodist report". The Jewish Chronicle. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  73. 1 2 "Fury as Methodists vote to boycott Israel". The Jewish Chronicle. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  74. "Justice for Palestine and Israel" (PDF). Methodist Church in Britain. July 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  75. "Antiglobalism's Jewish Problem" in Rosenbaum, Ron (ed). Those who forget the past: The Question of Anti-Semitism, Random House 2004, p. 272.
  76. Bernardini, Gene (1977). The Origins and Development of Racial Anti-Semitism in Fascist Italy. The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 431-453
  77. "A new wave of anti-Semitism in Europe". Socialist Review. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  78. "Duke ... was quickly becoming a racist celebrity. He had become the self-styled grand wizard of not only the Ku Klux Klan, but of most racist-minded people. Through his personality he would elevate the discussion of racism and anti-Zionism from whispers in back rooms to the forefront of international news."
    Zatarain, Michael. "David Duke, Evolution of a Klansman." Google Books. p.219.
  79. Sunshine, Spencer. "20 on the Right in Occupy." 13 February 2014.
  80. (in Russian) Сионизм, Большая советская энциклопедия (Zionism. Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. 1969–1978)
  81. Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 320. ISBN   0-465-04195-7.
  82. "United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86 voting record". United Nations. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  83. Dollinger, Mark, "African American-Jewish Relations" in Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Vol 1, 2005. pp. 4–5
  84. Carson, Clayborne, (1984) "Blacks and Jews in the Civil Rights Movement: the Case of SNCC", in Strangers & neighbors: relations between Blacks & Jews in the United States, (Adams, Maurianne, Ed.), 2000., p. 583
  85. West, Cornel, Race Matters, 1993, pp. 73–74
  86. Hacker, Andrew (1999) "Jewish Racism, Black anti-Semitism", in Strangers & neighbors: relations between Blacks & Jews in the United States, Maurianne Adams (Ed.). University of Massachusetts Press, 1999, p. 20
  87. 1 2 MacShane, Denis (25 September 2008). Globalising Hatred: The New Antisemitism. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN   9780297844730.
  88. "Working Definition of Antisemitism" (PDF). EUMC. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2010. "Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish and non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities." In addition, such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity. [...] However, criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic.
  89. Denis MacShane, "The New Anti-Semitism", The Washington Post, 4 September 2007
  90. Taguieff, Pierre-André. Rising From the Muck: The New Anti-Semitism in Europe. Ivan R. Dee, 2004.
  91. Wistrich, Robert (30 July 2014). A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House Trade. p. 1200. ISBN   9780812969887.
  92. Chesler, Phyllis (11 February 2005). The New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About It. Hoboken, New Jersey: Jossey Bass (Wiley). p. 320. ISBN   9780787978037.
  93. Fatah, Tarek (6 December 2011). The Jew Is Not My Enemy: Unveiling the Myths That Fuel Muslim Anti-Semitism. Oxford: Signal Books. p. 243. ISBN   9780771047848.
  94. "Why Anti-Zionism Is Modern Anti-Semitism". National Review. 29 July 2013. Archived from the original on 30 July 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
  95. "Report on Antisemitic Activity During the First Half of 2016 At U.S. Colleges and Universities" (PDF). AMCHA Initiative. July 2016.
  96. "French President Macron: Anti-Zionism is "Reinvention of Anti-Semitism"". The Tower Magazine. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  97. Weitzmann, Marc (23 July 2014). "French Prime Minister Denounces Anti-Zionism as Anti-Semitism". The Scroll. Tablet Magazine. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  98. "German judge convicts man for shouting 'Death to Zionists' at march". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  99. "German Judge: Torching of Synagogue not motivated by anti-Semitism", The Jerusalem Post (7 February 2012)
  100. Marcus, Kenneth L. (2007). "Anti-Zionism as Racism: Campus Anti-Semitism and the Civil Rights Act of 1964". William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal. 15 (3): 837–891.
  101. Jacob Rader Marcus, The Jew in the American World: A Source Book, pp. 199–203. Wayne State University Press, 1996. ISBN   0-8143-2548-3
  102. Kaplan, Edward H.; Small, Charles A. (2006). "Anti-Israel Sentiment Predicts Anti-Semitism in Europe". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 50 (548): 548–561. doi:10.1177/0022002706289184.
  103. Wistrich, Robert S. (Fall 2004). "Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism". Jewish Political Studies Review. 16 (3–4). Retrieved 26 February 2007.
  104. Dina Porat, Defining Anti-Semitism Archived 3 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine , Retrieved 15 November 2008. See also Emanuele Ottolenghi
  105. Ottolenghi, Emanuele (29 November 2003). "Emanuele Ottolenghi: Anti-Zionism is anti-semitism". the Guardian.
  106. "Martin Luther King on Anti-Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. 21 November 2017.
  107. Ben-Dror Yemini, בן-דרור, תרגיע, nrg Maariv , 28 April 2010.
  108. Leibovitz, Liel. "Anti-Zionism Is Anti-Semitism. Get Over It". Tablet Magazine. 13 April 2016. 16 April 2016.
  109. Serhan, Yasmeen. "Jeremy Corbyn's Anti-Semitism ...." The Atlantic. 28 August 2018. 28 August 2018.
  110. Stephens, Bret. "When Anti-Zionism Tunnels Under Your House." New York Times. 13 December 2018. 13 December 2018.
  111. Stephens. "The Progressive Assault on Israel." New York Times. 8 February 2019. 8 February 2019.
  112. Norman Finkelstein, with Sherri Muzher, "Beyond Chutzpah", Znet 2 November 2005
  113. Ali, Tariq. "Notes on Anti-Semitism, Zionism and Palestine" Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine , Counterpunch, 4 March 2004, first published in il manifesto, 26 February 2004.
  114. Noam Chomsky, The Essential Chomsky, Random House, 2010 p. 205.
  115. Steven Salaita, Uncivil Rites: Palestine and the Limits of Academic Freedom, Haymarket Books, 2015 pp. 118–119.
  116. Klug, Brian (2 December 2003). "No, anti-Zionism is not anti-semitism".
  117. Klug, Brian. The Myth of the New Anti-Semitism. The Nation , posted 15 January 2004 (2 February 2004 issue), accessed 9 January 2006; and Lerner, Michael. There Is No New Anti-Semitism, posted 5 February 2007, accessed 6 February 2007.
  118. Goldberg, Jeffrey (April 2015). "Is It Time for the Jews to Leave Europe?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  119. "accessed Nov 2008". Wiesenthal Center. 17 July 2001. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  120. "Anti-Semitism on Campus: A Clear and Present Danger". Wiesenthal Center. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  121. Esther Webman, ed. (2012). The Global Impact of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion: A Century-Old Myth. Routledge. ISBN   9781136706103.
  122. Jehuda Reinharz, ed. (1987). Living with Antisemitism: Modern Jewish Responses. UPNE. ISBN   9780874514124.
  123. Neil J. Kressel (2012). "The Sons of Pigs and Apes": Muslim Antisemitism and the Conspiracy of Silence. Potomac Books.
  124. Jeffrey Herf, ed. (2013). Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism in Historical Perspective: Convergence and Divergence. Routledge. ISBN   9781317983484.
  125. Robert S. Wistrich, ed. (2012). Holocaust Denial: The Politics of Perfidy. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   9783110288216.
  126. Was Abu Mazen a Holocaust Denier? By Brynn Malone (History News Network)
  127. "Abu Mazen: A Political Profile. Zionism and Holocaust Denial" Archived 10 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine by Yael Yehoshua (MEMRI) 29 April 2003
  128. A Holocaust-Denier as Prime Minister of "Palestine"? by Dr. Rafael Medoff (The David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies)
  129. "Mideast Dispatch Archive: Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) and the Holocaust (continued)". www.tomgrossmedia.com.
  130. PA Holocaust Denial Archived 13 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine by Itamar Marcus (Palestinian Media Watch)
  131. Simon Wiesenthal, Justice not Vengeance, Mandarin 1989 page 207
  132. William Korey, Russian antisemitism, Pamyat, and the demonology of Zionism, Routledge, 1995, pp. ix–x.
  133. William Korey, Russian antisemitism, Pamyat, and the demonology of Zionism, Routledge, 1995, pp. 56–57.
  134. Robert O. Freedman, review of William Korey, Russian antisemitism, Pamyat, and the demonology of Zionism, Slavic Review, Vol. 59 no. 2 (Summer 2000), pp. 470–472.
  135. "The Jews started the War – Again (this time it's the Iraq war)" . Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  136. Brian Whitaker, "Playing skittles with Saddam. The gameplan among Washington's hawks has long been to reshape the Middle East along US-Israeli lines", The Guardian (3 September 2002).
  137. "The Website of Political Research Associates". PublicEye.org. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  138. "Iran Supports Khartoum policies in Darfur". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  139. "Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media – Conspiracy Theories". Anti-Defemation League. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  140. "The Nation of Islam in 1996". Jewish Virtual Library. 16 June 1996. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  141. "Hamas Covenant 1988". Yale.edu. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  142. Deputy Head of Egyptian Arab Lawyers Union Abd Al-Azim Al-Maghrabi: The Zionists Produced the Hepatitis C Virus and Injected 400 Prisoners with It, MEMRITV, Clip No. 2506, 21 April 2010.
  143. Against the Backdrop of Soccer World Cup in South Africa, Egyptian Cleric Mus'id Anwar Blasts Soccer, Other "Harmful Sports", as a Means Prescribed by the Protocols of the Elders of Zion in Order to Rule the World, MEMRITV, Clip No. 2503, 6 June 2010.

Wikisource-logo.svg Works related to Zionism at Wikisource