Timeline of anti-Zionism

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This timeline of anti-Zionism chronicles the history of anti-Zionism, including events in the history of anti-Zionist thought.



In reaction to Leon Pinsker's Autoemanzipation! that asserted Jewish emancipation required a homeland of their own outside Europe, Viennese rabbi Adolf Jellinek replied that ‘Jews did not have any national characteristics, as such but "thanks to their universalism they adapt and absorb qualities from the nations in whose midst they are born and educated . .We are at home in Europe and regard ourselves as children of the lands in which we were born and raised, whose languages we speak, and whose cultures make up our intellectual substance. We are Germans, Frenchmen, Magyars, Italians, and so forth, with every fiber of our being. We have long ceased to be true, thoroughbred Semites, and we have long ago lost sense of Hebrew nationality." [3]

After the First Zionist Congress

After the Balfour Declaration

The 1940s, the Biltmore Program and after

After the founding of the State of Israel

After the Six Day War


See also

Related Research Articles

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism.

Antisemitism has increased greatly in the Arab world since the beginning of the 20th century, for several reasons: the dissolution and breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society; European influence, brought about by Western imperialism and Arab Christians; Nazi propaganda and relations between Nazi Germany and the Arab world; resentment over Jewish nationalism; the rise of Arab nationalism; and the widespread proliferation of anti-Jewish and anti-Zionist conspiracy theories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zionism</span> Movement supporting a Jewish homeland

Zionism is a nationalist movement that espouses the establishment of, and support for a homeland for the Jewish people centered in the area roughly corresponding to what is known in Jewish tradition as the Land of Israel, which corresponds in other terms to the region of Palestine, Canaan, or the Holy Land, on the basis of a long Jewish connection and attachment to that land.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Israel Shahak</span> Israeli professor, Holocaust survivor, and civil-rights activist (1933–2001)

Israel Shahak was an Israeli professor of organic chemistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a Holocaust survivor, an intellectual of liberal political bent, and a civil-rights advocate and activist on behalf of both Jews and Gentiles (non-Jews). For twenty years, he headed the Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights (1970–90) and was a public critic of the policies of the governments of Israel. As a public intellectual, Shahak's works about Judaism proved controversial, especially the book Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years (1994).

Antisemitism in Islam refers to scriptural and theological teachings in Islam against Jews and Judaism, and the treatment and persecution of Jews in the Muslim world.

Soviet anti-Zionism is an Anti Zionist and pro-Arab doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the Cold War. While the Soviet Union initially pursued a pro-Zionist policy after World War II due to its perception that the Jewish state would be socialist and pro-Soviet, its outlook on the Arab–Israeli conflict changed as Israel began to develop a close relationship with the United States and aligned itself with the Western Bloc. Anti-Israel Soviet propaganda intensified after Israel's sweeping victory in the 1967 Arab–Israeli War, and it was officially sponsored by the agitation and propaganda media of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as well as by the KGB. Among other charges, it alleged that Zionism was a form of racism. The Soviets framed their anti-Zionist propaganda in the guise of a study of modern Zionism, dubbed Zionology. The Soviet anti-Israel policy included the regulated denial of permission for Jews in the Soviet Union to emigrate, primarily to Israel, but also to any other country.

New antisemitism is the idea that a new form of antisemitism has developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, tending to manifest itself as anti-Zionism and criticism of the Israeli government. The concept is included in some definitions of antisemitism, such as the Working Definition of Antisemitism and the 3D test of antisemitism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Self-hating Jew</span> Pejorative label implying antisemitism

Self-hating Jew or self-loathing Jew, transliterated in Hebrew as auto-antisemitism, is a term which is used to describe Jews whose views are perceived as antisemitic. The concept gained widespread currency after Theodor Lessing's 1930 book Der jüdische Selbsthaß, which sought to explain a perceived inclination among Jewish intellectuals, toward inciting antisemitism, by stating their views about Judaism. The term is said to have become "something of a key term of opprobrium in and beyond Cold War-era debates about Zionism".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Haredim and Zionism</span> Overview of the relationship between Haredim and Zionism

From the founding of political Zionism in the 1890s, Haredi Jewish leaders voiced objections to its secular orientation, and before the establishment of the State of Israel, the vast majority of Haredi Jews were opposed to Zionism. This was chiefly due to the concern that secular nationalism would redefine the Jewish nation from a religious community based in their alliance to God for whom adherence to religious laws were “the essence of the nation’s task, purpose, and right to exists,” to an ethnic group like any other as well as the view that it was forbidden for the Jews to re-constitute Jewish rule in the Land of Israel before the arrival of the Messiah. Those rabbis who did support Jewish resettlement in Palestine in the late 19th century had no intention to conquer Palestine and declare its independence from the rule of the Ottoman Turks, and some preferred that only observant Jews be allowed to settle there.

Zionism as an organized movement is generally considered to have been founded by Theodor Herzl in 1897. However, the history of Zionism began earlier and is related to Judaism and Jewish history. The Hovevei Zion, or the Lovers of Zion, were responsible for the creation of 20 new Jewish towns in Palestine between 1870 and 1897.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Anti-Zionism</span> Opposition to Jewish ethnonationalism

Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism. Although anti-Zionism is a heterogeneous phenomenon, all its proponents agree that the creation of the modern State of Israel, and the movement to create a sovereign Jewish state in the region of Palestine – the biblical Land of Israel – was flawed or unjust in some way.

The American Council for Judaism (ACJ) is an organization of American Jews committed to the proposition that Jews are not a national but a religious group, adhering to the original stated principles of Reform Judaism, as articulated in the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform. In particular, it is notable for its historical opposition to Zionism. Although it has since moderated its stance on the issue, it still advocates that American Jews distance themselves from Israel politically, and does not view Israel as a universal Jewish homeland. The ACJ has also championed women's rights, including the right for women to serve as rabbis, and has supported Reform Jewish congregations and contributed to the publication of new editions of prayer books for religious services predominately in the English language for Jews in English-speaking countries.

Antony Lerman is a British writer who specialises in the study of antisemitism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, multiculturalism, and the place of religion in society. From 2006 to early 2009, he was Director of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research, a think tank on issues affecting Jewish communities in Europe. From December 1999 to 2006, he was Chief Executive of the Hanadiv Charitable Foundation, renamed the Rothschild Foundation Europe in 2007. He is a founding member of the Jewish Forum for Justice and Human Rights, and a former editor of Patterns of Prejudice, a quarterly academic journal focusing on the sociology of race and ethnicity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hajo Meyer</span> Dutch physicist, Holocaust survivor and political activist (1924–2014)

Hajo Meyer was a German-born Dutch physicist, Holocaust survivor and political activist. While primarily known for his public commentaries in terms of the European Jewish community, he is also noted for his work directing the facility Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium for many years.

Racism in the Palestinian territories encompasses all forms and manifestations of racism experienced in the Palestinian Territories, of the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem, irrespective of the religion, colour, creed, or ethnic origin of the perpetrator and victim, or their citizenship, residency, or visitor status. It may refer to Jewish settler attitudes regarding Palestinians as well as Palestinian attitudes to Jews and the settlement enterprise undertaken in their name.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Criticism of the Israeli government</span> Disapproval towards the Israeli government

Criticism of the Israeli government, often referred to simply as criticism of Israel, is a subject of journalistic and scholarly commentary and research within the scope of international relations theory, expressed in terms of political science. Within the scope of global aspirations for a community of nations, Israel has faced international criticism since its declaration of independence in 1948 relating to a variety of topics, both historical and contemporary.

Palestinianism is term occasionally used to denote the national political movement of the Palestinian people. It is a relatively recent coinage whose origins are disputed. It gained currency by its use in the works of Edward Said and to describe a certain vein of theology opposed to Christian Zionism and that challenges Zionism and the right of Israel to exist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Comparisons between Israel and Nazi Germany</span> Portrayal of Jews and Zionists as equivalent to Nazis

Comparisons between Israel and Nazi Germany have been made since the 1940s, taking place first within the larger context of the aftermath of World War II. Such comparisons are a rhetorical staple of anti-Zionism in relation to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Whether comparisons between Israel and Nazi Germany are intrinsically antisemitic is disputed.

Zionist antisemitism is the phenomenon in which individuals, groups, or governments support the Zionist movement and the State of Israel while they simultaneously hold antisemitic views about Jews. In some cases, Zionism may be promoted for explicitly antisemitic reasons. The prevalence of antisemitism has been widely noted within the Christian Zionist movement, whose adherents may hold antisemitic and supersessionist beliefs about Jews while they also support Zionism for eschatological reasons. Antisemitic right-wing nationalists, particularly in Europe and the United States, sometimes support the Zionist movement because they wish that Jews be expelled or that they emigrate to Israel. The Israeli government's alleged collaboration with antisemitic politicians abroad has been criticized as an example of Zionist antisemitism. Anti-Zionists have criticized the Zionist movement for its alleged complicity with or its alleged capitulation to antisemitism since its inception, with some anti-Zionists also referring to Zionism as a form of antisemitism.


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  37. Daniel P. Kotzin,Judah L. Magnes: An American Jewish Nonconformist, Syracuse University Press, 2010 pp.225-235. Magnes, who mediated between Zionists and non-Zionists,held that if Jews accepted that, like themselves, Arabs had a right to a nation, then Zionism had two opposed courses: military nationalism as espoused by Vladimir Jabotinsky, or an ethical nationalism based on pacifism and cooperation with Arabs. Failure to adopt the latter, or spiritual Zionism, meant compromising the Jewish ethical tradition.(pp.224-225). ‘I should much rather see the eternal people without a "National Home", because 'a Jewish Home in Palestine built up on bayonets and oppression is not worth having';(p.225) ‘one of his primary Zionist objectives' consisted in 'establishing the reputation of the Jewish nation as ethical.’(p.230); Baron Edmond de Rothschild insisted to Magnes that 'We must hold them (the Arabs) down with a strong hand.'(p.235).
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  69. Full text of the resolution
  70. Note: this resolution was repealed in 1991. "U.N. Repeals Its '75 Resolution Equating Zionism With Racism"
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  91. Roselle Tekiner, Samir Abed Rabbo, Norton Mezinsky, Elmer Berger,Anti-Zionism: analytical reflections,Amana Books, 1989 p.51:'Shahak often equates Zionism with Nazi racism.'
  92. Israel Shahak, Jewish History, Jewish Religion: the Weight of Three Thousand Years Pluto Press 1994 pp.51f.
  93. DannyBen-Moshe,'The State of Holocaust Negation,' (2004) in Konrad Kwiet, Jürgen Matthäus (eds.), Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust, Greernwood Publishing Group, 2004 pp.139-175, p.155:'Norman Finkelstein's view of the Holocaust Industry reflects his own anti-Zionism, with his thesis that Jews have created the Holocaust industry to forge Israeli power, a core negation argument.'
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  101. Rabbi Baruch Horowitz,Preface to Au nom de la Torah: une histoire de l’opposition juive au sionisme, p.xi.
  102. Emanuele Ottolenghi, 'Present-day Antisemnitism and the Centrality of the Jewish Alibi,' in Alvin H. Rosenfeld,Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives, Indiana University Press, 2013 pp.424-465 p.439.'Can Judaism be saved? Yes, Rose and others assure us, but only by a thoroughgoing renunciation of Zionism. As anti-Zionist polemicist Michael Neumann writes, referring to Uri Avnery, Noam Chomsky and other Jewish detractors of Israel, "These vigorous critics of Israeli excesses are all Jewish. Their focus on Israel is no evidence of double standards, but of where they feel their responsibilities lie." For Neumann, as for Rose these voices are needed more than every today, during the Jews' "dark night of the soul," as Rose calls it, because, in Neumann's words, "Israel's current policies are themselves a threat to Jews and Israelis everywhere." That's why Jews must speak out against Israel.'
  103. Elhanan Yakira, 'Antisemitism and anti-Zionism as a Moral Question,' in Rosenfeld pp.42-63 p.42
  104. Charles Tripp (25 February 2013). The Power and the People: Paths of Resistance in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press. p. 125. ISBN   978-0-521-80965-8 . Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  105. Avi Shlaim 'The Idea of Israel and My Promised Land,' The Guardian 14 May 2014.
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  107. Philipp Ther,The Dark Side of Nation-States: Ethnic Cleansing in Modern Europe, Berghahn Books, 2014 p.191.
  108. Ryvka Bar Zohar, Review of Overcoming Zionism, The Arab Studies Journal Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring 2009), pp. 158-160.
  109. Anshel Pfeffer, 'Shlomo Sand to Secular Jews: I'm Not Jewish and Neither Are You,' Haaretz 15 November 2014:'the new non-Jewish Sand poses little threat to the right wing; it is Jewish secular leftists he is challenging, particularly the anti-Zionist ones.'
  110. Mike Marqusee If I Am Not For Myself: Journey of an Anti-Zionist Jew, Verso Books (2008) 2010 p.vii:’As long as there has been Zionism, there have been anti-Zionist Jews. Indeed, decades before it even came to the notice of non-Jews, anti-Zionism was a well-established Jewish ideology and until World War 11 commanded wide support in the diaspora.’
  111. Dexter Van Zile,'Old Wine of Hate From the Vineyard,' Algemeiner Journal 6 March 2015.
  112. Emanuele Ottolenghi, 'Present-day Antisemitism and the Centrality of the Jewish Alibi,' in Alvin H. Rosenfeld (ed.), Resurtgent Antisemitism:Global perspectives, Indiana University Press 2013 pp.424-465 p.458 n.8.
  113. Paul Bogdanor, 'Manifestations of Antisemitism in British Intellectual and Cultural Life,' in Rosenfeld 2013 pp.65-93, pp.69-70.
  114. Keith Kahn-Harris, 'Non Jewish Jews,' Jewish Quarterly 31 January 2012.
  115. Gilad Atzmon, The Wandering Who?:A Study of Jewish Identity Politics John Hunt Publishing 2011 p.97.
  116. "Zero Authors Statement on Gilad Atzmon". Lenin's Tomb. 26 September 2011.
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  124. 'Anti-Zionism does not equal anti-Semitism.' ( Labour Party Marxists, 17 September 2017)
  125. 'Expelled anti-Zionist Moshe Machover readmitted to Labour Party,' The Jewish Chronicle 31 October 2017.
  126. Daniel Sugarman, 'Schama, Sebag-Montefiore and Jacobson unite to condemn Labour anti-Semitism,' The Jewish Chronicle 6 November 2017
  127. Jon Enoch, 'Top writers accuse Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour Party of antisemitism,' The Sunday Times 6 November 2017
  128. Robert Cohen, 'Dear Simon Schama, you need a history lesson on Zionism,' Mondoweiss 10 November 2017
  129. David Dean Shulman, 'Lost Illusions: Sylvain Cypel’s transformation from liberal Zionist to ferocious critic of Israel,' New York Review of Books 18 February 2022.
  130. Charles Kaiser, 'The State of Israel vs The Jews review: fierce indictment of a rightward lurch,' The Guardian 19 December 2021
  131. Randy Rosenthal, 'An infuriating indictment of Israel,', Washington Post, 5 November 2021
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