Noam Chomsky

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Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky portrait 2017.jpg
Chomsky in 2017
Avram Noam Chomsky

(1928-12-07) December 7, 1928 (age 90)
Children3, including Aviva
Academic background
Education University of Pennsylvania (BA, MA, PhD)
Harvard Society of Fellows (1951–1955)
Thesis Transformational Analysis  (1955)
Academic work
Discipline Linguistics, analytic philosophy, cognitive science, political criticism
Doctoral students
Noam Chomsky signature.svg

Avram Noam Chomsky [lower-alpha 1] (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, [lower-alpha 2] [lower-alpha 3] social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", [lower-alpha 4] Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona, and is the author of more than 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.

Philosopher person with an extensive knowledge of philosophy

A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.

Historian person who studies and writes about the past

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere.

Social criticism is a form of academic or journalistic criticism focusing on cultural or sociological issues relating to matters of concern within contemporary society in particular with respect to perceived injustices. It often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for such conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure. It may also refer to people adhering to a social critic's aims at practical solutions by way of specific measures either for consensual reform or powerful revolution.


Born to working-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. At age 16 he began undergraduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania, and from 1951 to 1955 was a member of Harvard University's Society of Fellows, where he developed the theory of transformational grammar for which he earned his doctorate in 1955. That year he began teaching at MIT, and in 1957 emerged as a significant figure in linguistics with his landmark work Syntactic Structures , which played a major role in remodeling the study of language. From 1958 to 1959 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. He created or co-created the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. Chomsky also played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, and was particularly critical of the work of B. F. Skinner.

Ashkenazi Jews Jewish ethnic group

Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or, by using the Hebrew plural suffix -im, Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that rejects hierarchies deemed unjust and advocates their replacement with self-managed, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations. Anarchism's central disagreement with other ideologies is that it holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful.

An outspoken opponent of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, which he saw as an act of American imperialism, in 1967 Chomsky rose to national attention for his anti-war essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and placed on President Richard Nixon's Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also became involved in the linguistics wars. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky later articulated the propaganda model of media criticism in Manufacturing Consent and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. His defense of freedom of speech, including Holocaust denial, generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the 1980s. Since retiring from MIT, he has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy movement. Chomsky began teaching at the University of Arizona in 2017.

American imperialism

American imperialism is the term for a policy aimed at extending the political, economic, and cultural control of the United States government over areas beyond its boundaries. Depending on the commentator, it may include military conquest, gunboat diplomacy, unequal treaties, subsidization of preferred factions, economic penetration through private companies followed by intervention when those interests are threatened, or regime change.

"The Responsibility of Intellectuals" is an essay by the American academic Noam Chomsky which was published as a special supplement by The New York Review of Books on 23 February 1967.

New Left political movement

The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms. Some saw the New Left as an oppositional reaction to earlier Marxist and labor union movements for social justice that focused on dialectical materialism and social class, while others who used the term saw the movement as a continuation and revitalization of traditional leftist goals.

One of the most cited scholars alive, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as having helped to spark the cognitive revolution, a paradigm shift in the human sciences that established a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarship, he remains a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberalism and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and mainstream news media. His ideas have proven highly influential in the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements, but have also drawn criticism, with some accusing Chomsky of anti-Americanism.

The cognitive revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950s as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes. It later became known collectively as cognitive science. The relevant areas of interchange were between the fields of psychology, anthropology, and linguistics. They used approaches developed within the then-nascent fields of artificial intelligence, computer science, and neuroscience. A key goal of early cognitive psychology was to apply the scientific method to the study of human cognition. This was done by designing experiments that used computational models of artificial intelligence to systematically test theories about human mental processes in a controlled laboratory setting.

A paradigm shift, a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn, is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Kuhn presented his notion of a paradigm shift in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962).

In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s. The movement was a response to behaviorism, which cognitivists said neglected to explain cognition. Cognitive psychology derived its name from the Latin cognoscere, referring to knowing and information, thus cognitive psychology is an information-processing psychology derived in part from earlier traditions of the investigation of thought and problem solving.

Early life

Childhood: 1928–45

Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [18] His parents, Ze'ev "William" Chomsky and Elsie Simonofsky, were immigrants of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. [19] William had fled the Russian Empire [lower-alpha 5] in 1913 to escape conscription [20] and worked in a Baltimore sweatshop [lower-alpha 6] [lower-alpha 7] before attending university, becoming principal of the Congregation Mikveh Israel religious school, and joining the Gratz College faculty in Philadelphia. He placed great emphasis on educating people so that they would be "well integrated, free and independent in their thinking, concerned about improving and enhancing the world, and eager to participate in making life more meaningful and worthwhile for all", a mission that shaped and was subsequently adopted by his son. [21] Elsie was a teacher and activist born in Belarus. They met at Mikveh Israel, where they both worked. [19]

East Oak Lane, Philadelphia Neighborhood of Philadelphia in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, United States

East Oak Lane is a neighborhood at the northern end of the North Philadelphia planning district of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Many of the houses in the neighborhood are large single homes or twins built at a later period than much of central North Philadelphia. There is also a significant number of typical Philadelphia rowhouses.

Pennsylvania State of the United States of America

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern, Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Russian Empire former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

What motivated his [political] interests? A powerful curiosity, exposure to divergent opinions, and an unorthodox education have all been given as answers to this question. He was clearly struck by the obvious contradictions between his own readings and mainstream press reports. The measurement of the distance between the realities presented by these two sources, and the evaluation of why such a gap exists, remained a passion for Chomsky.

Biographer Robert F. Barsky, 1997 [22]

Noam was the Chomskys' first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years later, in 1934. [23] [24] The brothers were close, though David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive. [25] Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and regularly discussing the political theories of Zionism; the family was particularly influenced by the Left Zionist writings of Ahad Ha'am. [24] Chomsky faced antisemitism as a child, particularly from Philadelphia's Irish and German communities. [26]

Zionism Movement that supports the creation of a Jewish homeland

Zionism is the nationalist movement of the Jewish people that espouses the re-establishment of and support for a Jewish state in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement, both in reaction to newer waves of antisemitism and as a response to Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire.

Ahad Haam Hebrew essayist and thinker

Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg, primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name Ahad Ha'am, was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers. He is known as the founder of cultural Zionism. With his secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel, he confronted Theodor Herzl. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ha'am strived for "a Jewish state and not merely a state of Jews".

Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. It has also been characterized as a political ideology which serves as an organizing principle and unites disparate groups which are opposed to liberalism.

Chomsky attended the independent, Deweyite Oak Lane Country Day School [27] and Philadelphia's Central High School, where he excelled academically and joined various clubs and societies, but was troubled by the school's hierarchical and regimented teaching methods. [28] He also attended Hebrew High School at Gratz College, where his father taught. [29]

Chomsky has described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" with center-left politics, but other relatives involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union exposed him to socialism and far-left politics. [30] He was substantially influenced by his uncle and the Jewish leftists who frequented his New York City newspaper stand to debate current affairs. [31] Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores when visiting his uncle in the city, voraciously reading political literature. [32] He wrote his first article at age 10 on the spread of fascism following the fall of Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War [33] and, from the age of 12 or 13, identified with anarchist politics. [29] He later described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident" [34] that made him critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism. [35]

University: 1945–55

In 1949 Chomsky married Carol Schatz Carol Chomsky.jpg
In 1949 Chomsky married Carol Schatz

In 1945, aged 16, Chomsky began a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic. [36] Living at home, he funded his undergraduate degree by teaching Hebrew. [37] Frustrated with his experiences at the university, he considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Mandatory Palestine, [38] but his intellectual curiosity was reawakened through conversations with the Russian-born linguist Zellig Harris, whom he first met in a political circle in 1947. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject. [39] Chomsky's BA honors thesis was titled "Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew", and involved applying Harris's methods to the language. [40] Chomsky revised this thesis for his MA, which he received from the University of Pennsylvania in 1951; it was subsequently published as a book. [41] He also developed his interest in philosophy while at university, in particular under the tutelage of Nelson Goodman. [42]

From 1951 to 1955 Chomsky was a member of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, where he undertook research on what became his doctoral dissertation. [43] Having been encouraged by Goodman to apply, [44] Chomsky was attracted to Harvard in part because the philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine was based there. Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. L. Austin of the University of Oxford, strongly influenced Chomsky. [45] In 1952 Chomsky published his first academic article, Systems of Syntactic Analysis, which appeared not in a journal of linguistics but in The Journal of Symbolic Logic . [44] Highly critical of the established behaviorist currents in linguistics, in 1954 he presented his ideas at lectures at the University of Chicago and Yale University. [46] He had not been registered as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, but in 1955 he submitted a thesis setting out his ideas on transformational grammar; he was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree for it, and it was privately distributed among specialists on microfilm before being published in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory . [47] Harvard professor George Armitage Miller was impressed by Chomsky's thesis and collaborated with him on several technical papers in mathematical linguistics. [48] Chomsky's doctorate exempted him from compulsory military service, which was otherwise due to begin in 1955. [49]

In 1947 Chomsky began a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since early childhood. They married in 1949. [50] After Chomsky was made a Fellow at Harvard, the couple moved to the Allston area of Boston and remained there until 1965, when they relocated to the suburb of Lexington. [51] In 1953 the couple took a Harvard travel grant to Europe, from the United Kingdom through France and Switzerland into Italy. [52] On that trip they also spent six weeks in Israel at Hashomer Hatzair's HaZore'a kibbutz. Despite enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the country's Jewish nationalism, anti-Arab racism and, within the kibbutz's leftist community, pro-Stalinism. [53]

On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of the Yiddish anarchist journal Fraye Arbeter Shtime and became enamored with the ideas of Rudolf Rocker, a contributor whose work introduced Chomsky to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism. [54] Chomsky also read other political thinkers: the anarchists Mikhail Bakunin and Diego Abad de Santillán, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight Macdonald, and works by Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Korsch, and Rosa Luxemburg. [55] His readings convinced him of the desirability of an anarcho-syndicalist society, and he became fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes set up during the Spanish Civil War, as documented in Orwell's Homage to Catalonia (1938). [56] He read the leftist journal Politics , which furthered his interest in anarchism, [57] and the council communist periodical Living Marxism , though he rejected the orthodoxy of its editor, Paul Mattick. [58] He was also greatly interested in the Marlenite ideas of the Leninist League of the United States, an anti-Stalinist Marxist–Leninist group, sharing their view that the Second World War was orchestrated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union's "state capitalists" to crush Europe's proletariat. [59]

Early career: 1955–66

Chomsky befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson, the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position there in 1955. At MIT Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project and half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy. [60] He described MIT as "a pretty free and open place, open to experimentation and without rigid requirements. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work." [61] In 1957 MIT promoted him to the position of associate professor, and from 1957 to 1958 he was also employed by Columbia University as a visiting professor. [62] The Chomskys had their first child that same year, a daughter named Aviva. [63] He also published his first book on linguistics, Syntactic Structures , a work that radically opposed the dominant Harris–Bloomfield trend in the field. [64] Responses to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, and his work proved divisive and caused "significant upheaval" in the discipline. [65] The linguist John Lyons later asserted that Syntactic Structures "revolutionized the scientific study of language". [66] From 1958 to 1959 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. [67]

The Great Dome at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Chomsky began working in 1955 MIT Building 10 and the Great Dome, Cambridge MA.jpg
The Great Dome at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where Chomsky began working in 1955

In 1959 Chomsky published a review of B. F. Skinner's 1957 book Verbal Behavior in the academic journal Language , in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior. [68] [69] The review argued that Skinner ignored the role of human creativity in linguistics and helped to establish Chomsky as an intellectual. [70] With Halle, Chomsky proceeded to found MIT's graduate program in linguistics. In 1961 he was awarded tenure, becoming a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics. [71] Chomsky went on to be appointed plenary speaker at the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, held in 1962 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which established him as the de facto spokesperson of American linguistics. [72] Between 1963 and 1965 he consulted on a military-sponsored project "to establish natural language as an operational language for command and control"; Barbara Partee, a collaborator on this project and then-student of Chomsky, has said this research was justified to the military on the basis that "in the event of a nuclear war, the generals would be underground with some computers trying to manage things, and that it would probably be easier to teach computers to understand English than to teach the generals to program." [73]

Chomsky continued to publish his linguistic ideas throughout the decade, including in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965), Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (1966), and Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought (1966). [74] Along with Halle, he also edited the Studies in Language series of books for Harper and Row. [75] As he began to accrue significant academic recognition and honors for his work, Chomsky lectured at the University of California in 1966. [76] His Beckman lectures at Berkeley were assembled and published as Language and Mind in 1968. [77] Despite his growing stature, an intellectual falling-out between Chomsky and some of his early colleagues and doctoral students—including Paul Postal, John "Haj" Ross, George Lakoff, and James D. McCawley—triggered a series of academic debates that came to be known as the "Linguistics Wars", although they revolved largely around philosophical issues rather than linguistics proper. [78]

Later life

Anti-Vietnam War activism and rise to prominence: 1967–75

[I]t does not require very far-reaching, specialized knowledge to perceive that the United States was invading South Vietnam. And, in fact, to take apart the system of illusions and deception which functions to prevent understanding of contemporary reality [is] not a task that requires extraordinary skill or understanding. It requires the kind of normal skepticism and willingness to apply one's analytical skills that almost all people have and that they can exercise.

Chomsky on the Vietnam War [79]

Chomsky first became involved in protests against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War in 1962, speaking on the subject at small gatherings in churches and homes. [80] His 1967 critique of U.S. involvement, "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", among other contributions to The New York Review of Books , established his role in public dissent. [81] This essay and other political articles were collected and published in 1969 as part of Chomsky's first political book, American Power and the New Mandarins . [82] He followed this with further political books, including At War with Asia (1971), The Backroom Boys (1973), For Reasons of State (1973), and Peace in the Middle East? (1975), published by Pantheon Books. [83] These publications led to Chomsky's association with the American New Left movement, [84] though he thought little of prominent New Left intellectuals Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm and preferred the company of activists to that of intellectuals. [85] Chomsky remained largely ignored by the mainstream press throughout this period. [86]

He also became involved in left-wing activism. Chomsky refused to pay half his taxes, publicly supported students who refused the draft, and was arrested while participating an anti-war teach-in outside the Pentagon. [87] During this time, Chomsky co-founded the antiwar collective RESIST with Mitchell Goodman, Denise Levertov, William Sloane Coffin, and Dwight Macdonald. [88] Although he questioned the objectives of the 1968 student protests, [89] Chomsky gave many lectures to student activist groups and, with his colleague Louis Kampf, ran undergraduate courses on politics at MIT independently of the conservative-dominated political science department. [90] When student activists campaigned to stop weapons and counterinsurgency research at MIT, Chomsky was sympathetic but felt that the research should remain under MIT's oversight and limited to systems of deterrence and defense. [91] In 1970 he visited southeast Asia to lecture at Vietnam's Hanoi University of Science and Technology and toured war refugee camps in Laos. In 1973 he helped lead a committee commemorating the 50th anniversary of the War Resisters League. [92]

External images
Chomsky participating in the anti-Vietnam War March on the Pentagon, October 21, 1967
Searchtool.svg Chomsky with other public figures
Searchtool.svg The protesters passing the Lincoln Memorial en route to the Pentagon

Because of his antiwar activism, Chomsky was arrested on multiple occasions and included on President Richard Nixon's master list of political opponents. [93] Chomsky was aware of the potential repercussions of his civil disobedience and his wife began studying for her own doctorate in linguistics to support the family in the event of Chomsky's imprisonment or joblessness. [94] Chomsky's scientific reputation insulated him from administrative action based on his beliefs. [95]

His work in linguistics continued to gain international recognition as he received multiple honorary doctorates. [96] He delivered public lectures such as the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lectures at the University of Cambridge—later published as Problems of Knowledge and Freedom —the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University, and the Kant Lectures at Stanford University. [97] In 1971 he partook in a televised debate with French philosopher Michel Foucault on Dutch television titled, Human Nature: Justice versus Power . [98] While largely agreeing with Foucault's ideas, Chomsky criticized postmodernism and French philosophy generally, arguing that the obscure language used by postmodern leftist philosophers did little to aid the working classes. [99] Chomsky continued to publish extensively on linguistics, producing Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972), [95] an enlarged edition of Language and Mind (1972), [100] and Reflections on Language (1975). [100] In 1974, he became a corresponding fellow of the British Academy. [97]

Edward Herman and the Faurisson affair: 1976–80

Chomsky, photographed in 1977 Noam Chomsky (1977).jpg
Chomsky, photographed in 1977

In the late 1970s and 1980s, Chomsky's linguistic publications expanded and clarified his earlier work, addressing his critics and updating his grammatical theory. [101] His political talks often generated considerable controversy, particularly when he criticized the Israeli government and military. [102] In the early 1970s Chomsky began collaborating with Edward S. Herman, who had also published critiques of the U.S. war in Vietnam. [103] Together they wrote Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda , a book that criticized U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia and the mainstream media's failure to cover it. Warner Modular published it in 1973, but its parent company, Warner Communications (now Warner Media), disapproved of the book's contents and ordered all copies destroyed. [104]

While mainstream publishing options proved elusive, Chomsky found support from Michael Albert's South End Press, an activist-oriented publishing company. [105] In 1979 Chomsky and Herman revised Counter-Revolutionary Violence and South End Press published it as the two-volume The Political Economy of Human Rights . [106] The book compares U.S. media reactions to the Cambodian genocide and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. It argues that because Indonesia was a U.S. ally, U.S. media ignored the East Timorese situation while focusing on events in Cambodia, a U.S. enemy. [107] Chomsky testified on the subject in front of the United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization in both 1978 and 1979, and he attended a conference[ which? ] in Lisbon on the occupation in 1979. [108] The next year, the Marxist academic Steven Lukes wrote an article for the Times Higher Education Supplement accusing Chomsky of betraying his anarchist ideals and acting as an apologist for Cambodian leader Pol Pot. [109] Laura J. Summers and Robin Woodsworth Carlsen replied to the article, arguing that Lukes completely misunderstood Chomsky and Herman's work. The controversy damaged Chomsky's reputation, [110] and he maintains that his critics deliberately printed lies about him to defame him. [111]

Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism, and totalitarianism more generally, but his commitment to freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Faurisson to advocate a position widely characterized as Holocaust denial. Without Chomsky's knowledge, his plea for Faurisson's freedom of speech was published as the preface to the latter's 1980 book Mémoire en défense contre ceux qui m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire. [112] Chomsky was widely condemned for defending Faurisson, [113] and France's mainstream press accused Chomsky of being a Holocaust denier himself, refusing to publish his rebuttals to their accusations. [114] Critiquing Chomsky's position, sociologist Werner Cohn later published an analysis of the affair titled Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and the Holocaust Deniers. [115] The Faurisson affair had a lasting, damaging effect on Chomsky's career, [116] especially in France. [117]

External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media, a 1992 documentary exploring Chomsky's work of the same name and its impact

In 1985, during the Nicaraguan Contra War—in which the U.S. supported the contra militia against the Sandinista government—Chomsky traveled to Managua to meet with workers' organizations and refugees of the conflict, giving public lectures on politics and linguistics. [118] Many of these lectures were published in 1987 as On Power and Ideology: The Managua Lectures. [119] In 1983 he published The Fateful Triangle , an examination of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the U.S.'s place within it, arguing that the U.S. had continually used the conflict for its own ends. [120] In 1988 Chomsky visited the Palestinian territories to witness the impact of Israeli occupation. [121]

In 1988 Chomsky and Herman published Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media , in which they outlined their propaganda model for understanding mainstream media. They argued that even in countries without official censorship, the news is censored through four filters that have great impact on what stories are reported and how they are presented. [122] The book, inspired by Alex Carey, was adapted into the 1992 film Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media , directed by Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick. [123] [lower-alpha 8] In 1989 Chomsky published Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies, in which he critiqued[ how? ] what he sees as the pseudo-democratic nature of Western capitalist states. [124] By the 1980s a number of Chomsky's students[ example needed ] had become leading linguistic specialists in their own right, revising and expanding on Chomsky's ideas of generative grammar. [125]

In the 1990s Chomsky embraced political activism to a greater degree than before. [126] Retaining his commitment to the cause of East Timorese independence, in 1995 he visited Australia to talk on the issue at the behest of the East Timorese Relief Association and the National Council for East Timorese Resistance. [127] The lectures he gave on the subject were published as Powers and Prospects in 1996. [127] As a result of the international publicity Chomsky generated, his biographer Wolfgang Sperlich opined that he did more to aid the cause of East Timorese independence than anyone but the investigative journalist John Pilger. [128] After East Timor attained independence from Indonesia in 1999, the Australian-led International Force for East Timor arrived as a peacekeeping force; Chomsky was critical of this, believing it was designed to secure Australian access to East Timor's oil and gas reserves under the Timor Gap Treaty. [129]

Iraq war criticism and retirement from MIT: 2001–2017

Chomsky speaking in support of the Occupy movement in 2011 Noam Chomsky Toronto 2011.jpg
Chomsky speaking in support of the Occupy movement in 2011

After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Chomsky was widely interviewed; Seven Stories Press collated and published these interviews that October. [130] Chomsky argued that the ensuing War on Terror was not a new development but a continuation of U.S. foreign policy and concomitant rhetoric since at least the Reagan era. [131] He gave the D.T. Lakdawala Memorial Lecture in New Delhi in 2001, [132] and in 2003 visited Cuba at the invitation of the Latin American Association of Social Scientists. [133] Also in 2003 he published Hegemony or Survival , in which he articulated what he called the United States' "imperial grand strategy" and critiqued the Iraq War and other aspects of the War on Terror. [134] Chomsky toured internationally with greater regularity during this period. [133]

Chomsky retired from MIT in 2002, [135] but continued to conduct research and seminars on campus as an emeritus. [136] That same year he visited Turkey to attend the trial of a publisher who had been accused of treason for printing one of Chomsky's books; Chomsky insisted on being a co-defendant and amid international media attention the Security Courts dropped the charge on the first day. [137] During that trip Chomsky visited Kurdish areas of Turkey and spoke out in favor of the Kurds' human rights. [137] A supporter of the World Social Forum, he attended its conferences in Brazil in both 2002 and 2003, also attending the Forum event in India. [138]

Chomsky supported the Occupy movement, delivering talks at encampments and producing two works that chronicled its influence, first Occupy (2012), a pamphlet, and then Occupy: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity (2013). His analysis included a critique that attributed Occupy's growth to a perception that the Democratic Party had abandoned the interests of the white working class. [139] In March 2014 Chomsky joined the advisory council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, [140] an organization that advocates the global abolition of nuclear weapons, as a senior fellow. [141] The 2016 documentary Requiem for the American Dream summarizes his views on capitalism and economic inequality through a "75-minute teach-in". [142]

University of Arizona: 2017–present

In spring 2017 Chomsky taught a short-term politics course at the University of Arizona in Tucson. [143] In August 2017 he was hired as a part-time professor in the linguistics department there, with his duties including teaching and public seminars. [144] His salary is covered by philanthropic donations. [145] In 2018 Chomsky signed the Declaration on the Common Language of the Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks and Montenegrins. [146] [147]

Linguistic theory

What started as purely linguistic research ... has led, through involvement in political causes and an identification with an older philosophic tradition, to no less than an attempt to formulate an overall theory of man. The roots of this are manifest in the linguistic theory ... The discovery of cognitive structures common to the human race but only to humans (species specific), leads quite easily to thinking of unalienable human attributes.

Edward Marcotte on the significance of Chomsky's linguistic theory [148]

The basis of Chomsky's linguistic theory lies in biolinguistics, the linguistic school that holds that the principles underpinning the structure of language are biologically preset in the human mind and hence genetically inherited. [149] As such he argues that all humans share the same underlying linguistic structure, irrespective of sociocultural differences. [150] In adopting this position Chomsky rejects the radical behaviorist psychology of B. F. Skinner, who viewed behavior (including talking and thinking) as a completely learned product of the interactions between organisms and their environments. Accordingly, Chomsky argues that language is a unique evolutionary development of the human species and distinguished from modes of communication used by any other animal species. [151] [152] Chomsky's nativist, internalist view of language is consistent with the philosophical school of "rationalism" and contrasts with the anti-nativist, externalist view of language that is consistent with the philosophical school of "empiricism". [153] [lower-alpha 9]

Universal grammar

Since the 1960s Chomsky has maintained that syntactic knowledge is at least partially inborn, implying that children need only learn certain language-specific features of their native languages. He bases his argument on observations about human language acquisition, noting that there is a "poverty of the stimulus"—enormous gap between the linguistic stimuli to which children are exposed and the rich linguistic competence they attain. For example, although children are exposed to only a very small and finite subset of the allowable syntactic variants within their first language, they somehow acquire the highly organized and systematic ability to understand and produce an infinite number of sentences, including ones that have never before been uttered, in that language. [154] To explain this, Chomsky reasoned that the primary linguistic data must be supplemented by an innate linguistic capacity. Furthermore, while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever relevant capacity the human has that the cat lacks the language acquisition device, and suggested that one of linguists' tasks should be to determine what that device is and what constraints it imposes on the range of possible human languages. The universal features that result from these constraints would constitute "universal grammar". [155] [156] [157]

Transformational generative grammar

Beginning with his Syntactic Structures (1957), a distillation of his Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory (1955), Chomsky challenges structural linguistics [ how? ] and introduces transformational grammar. [158]

Chomsky's theory posits that language consists of both deep structures and surface structures. Surface structure "faces out" and is represented by spoken utterances, while deep structure "faces inward" and expresses the underlying relations between words and conceptual meaning. Transformational grammar is a generative grammar (which dictates that the syntax, or word order, of surface structures adheres to certain principles and parameters) that consists of a limited series of rules, expressed in mathematical notation, that transform deep structures into well-formed surface structures. The transformational grammar thus relates meaning and sound. [148] [159]

Chomsky hierarchy

Set inclusions described by the Chomsky hierarchy Chomsky-hierarchy.svg
Set inclusions described by the Chomsky hierarchy

The Chomsky hierarchy, sometimes called the Chomsky-Schützenberger hierarchy, is a containment hierarchy of classes of formal grammars. It imposes a logical structure across different language classes and provides a basis for understanding the relationship between grammars (devices that determine the valid sentences within languages). In order of increasing expressive power it includes regular (or Type-3) grammars, context-free (or Type-2) grammars, context-sensitive (or Type-1) grammars, and recursively enumerable (or Type-0) grammars. Each class is a strict subset of the class above it – i.e., each successive class can generate a broader set of formal languages (infinite sets of strings composed from finite sets of symbols, or alphabets) than the one below. The Chomsky hierarchy is relevant in theoretical computer science, especially programming language theory, [160] compiler construction, and automata theory. [161]

Minimalist program

Since the 1990s Chomsky's research has focused on what he calls the Minimalist Program which he departs from much of his past research. He attempts to simplify language into a system that relates meaning and sound using the minimum possible faculties, given certain external conditions independently imposed on us.[ clarification needed ] Chomsky dispenses with concepts such as "deep structure" and "surface structure" and instead places emphasis on the plasticity of the brain's neural circuits, with which come an infinite number of concepts, or "logical forms". [152] When exposed to linguistic data, the brain of a hearer-speaker proceeds to associate sound and meaning, and the rules of grammar we observe are in fact only the consequences, or side effects, of the way language works. Thus, while much of Chomsky's prior research has focused on the rules of language, he now focuses on the mechanisms that the brain uses to generate these rules and regulate speech. [152] [162]

Political views

The second major area to which Chomsky has contributed—and surely the best known in terms of the number of people in his audience and the ease of understanding what he writes and says—is his work on sociopolitical analysis; political, social, and economic history; and critical assessment of current political circumstance. In Chomsky's view, although those in power might—and do—try to obscure their intentions and to defend their actions in ways that make them acceptable to citizens, it is easy for anyone who is willing to be critical and consider the facts to discern what they are up to.

James McGilvray, 2014 [163]

Chomsky has built a "reputation as a political dissident". [lower-alpha 10] His political views have changed little since his childhood, [164] when he was influenced by the emphasis on political activism that was ingrained in Jewish working-class tradition. [165] He usually identifies as an anarcho-syndicalist or a libertarian socialist. [166] He views these positions not as precise political theories but as ideals that he thinks best meet human needs: liberty, community, and freedom of association. [167] Unlike some other socialists, such as Marxists, Chomsky believes that politics lies outside the remit of science, [168] but he still roots his ideas about an ideal society in empirical data and empirically justified theories. [169]

In Chomsky's view, the truth about political realities is systematically distorted or suppressed by an elite corporatocracy, which uses corporate media, advertising, and think tanks to promote its own propaganda. His work seeks to reveal such manipulations and the truth they obscure. [170] Chomsky believes this web of falsehood can be broken by "common sense", critical thinking, and understanding the roles of self-interest and self-deception, [171] and that intellectuals abdicate their moral responsibility to tell the truth about the world in fear of losing prestige and funding. [172] He argues that, as such an intellectual, it is his duty to use his social privilege, resources, and training to aid popular democracy movements in their struggles. [173]

Although he has joined protest marches and organized activist groups, Chomsky's primary political outlets are education and publication. He offers a wide range of political writings [174] as well as free lessons and lectures to encourage wider political consciousness. [175] He is a member of the Industrial Workers of the World international union. [176]

United States foreign policy

Chomsky at the World Social Forum, an anti-hegemony convention that champions the right of nations to engage in sovereign self-determination free from external interference, in Porto Alegre, January 2003 Noam Chomsky WSF - 2003.jpg
Chomsky at the World Social Forum, an anti-hegemony convention that champions the right of nations to engage in sovereign self-determination free from external interference, in Porto Alegre, January 2003

Chomsky has been a prominent critic of American imperialism; [177] he believes that the basic principle of the foreign policy of the United States is the establishment of "open societies" that are economically and politically controlled by the United States and where U.S.-based businesses can prosper. [178] He argues that the U.S. seeks to suppress any movements within these countries that are not compliant with U.S. interests and to ensure that U.S.-friendly governments are placed in power. [172] When discussing current events, he emphasizes their place within a wider historical perspective. [179] He believes that official, sanctioned historical accounts of U.S. and British extraterritorial operations have consistently whitewashed these nations' actions in order to present them as having benevolent motives in either spreading democracy or, in older instances, spreading Christianity; criticizing these accounts, he seeks to correct them. [180] Prominent examples he regularly cites are the actions of the British Empire in India and Africa and the actions of the U.S. in Vietnam, the Philippines, Latin America, and the Middle East. [180]

Chomsky's political work has centered heavily on criticizing the actions of the United States. [179] He has said he focuses on the U.S. because the country has militarily and economically dominated the world during his lifetime and because its liberal democratic electoral system allows the citizenry to influence government policy. [181] His hope is that, by spreading awareness of the impact U.S. foreign policies have on the populations affected by them, he can sway the populations of the U.S. and other countries into opposing the policies. [180] He urges people to criticize their governments' motivations, decisions, and actions, to accept responsibility for their own thoughts and actions, and to apply the same standards to others as to themselves. [182]

Chomsky has been critical of U.S. involvement in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, arguing that it has consistently blocked a peaceful settlement. [172] Chomsky also criticizes the U.S.'s close ties with Saudi Arabia and involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, highlighting that Saudi Arabia has "one of the most grotesque human rights records in the world". [183]

Capitalism and socialism

In his youth, Chomsky developed a dislike of capitalism and the pursuit of material wealth. [184] At the same time, he developed a disdain for authoritarian socialism, as represented by the Marxist–Leninist policies of the Soviet Union. [185] Rather than accepting the common view among U.S. economists that a spectrum exists between total state ownership of the economy and total private ownership, he instead suggests that a spectrum should be understood between total democratic control of the economy and total autocratic control (whether state or private). [186] He argues that Western capitalist countries are not really democratic, [187] because, in his view, a truly democratic society is one in which all persons have a say in public economic policy. [188] He has stated his opposition to ruling elites, among them institutions like the IMF, World Bank, and GATT. [189]

Socialism will be achieved only insofar as all social institutions—in particular, the central industrial, commercial, and financial institutions of a modern society—are placed under democratic control in a federal industrial republic of the sort that Russell and others envisioned, with actively functioning workers' councils and other self-governing units in which each citizen, in Thomas Jefferson's words, will be "a direct participator in the government of affairs."

Noam Chomsky [190]

Chomsky highlights that, since the 1970s, the U.S. has become increasingly economically unequal as a result of the repeal of various financial regulations and the rescinding of the Bretton Woods financial control agreement. [191] He characterizes the U.S. as a de facto one-party state, viewing both the Republican Party and Democratic Party as manifestations of a single "Business Party" controlled by corporate and financial interests. [192] Chomsky highlights that, within Western capitalist liberal democracies, at least 80% of the population has no control over economic decisions, which are instead in the hands of a management class and ultimately controlled by a small, wealthy elite. [193]

Noting the entrenchment of such an economic system, Chomsky believes that change is possible through the organized cooperation of large numbers of people who understand the problem and know how they want to reorganize the economy more equitably. [193] Acknowledging that corporate domination of media and government stifles any significant change to this system, he sees reason for optimism in historical examples such as the social rejection of slavery as immoral, the advances in women's rights, and the forcing of government to justify invasions. [191] He views violent revolution to overthrow a government as a last resort to be avoided if possible, citing the example of historical revolutions where the population's welfare has worsened as a result of upheaval. [193]

Chomsky sees libertarian socialist and anarcho-syndicalist ideas as the descendants of the classical liberal ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, [194] arguing that his ideological position revolves around "nourishing the libertarian and creative character of the human being". [195] He envisions an anarcho-syndicalist future with direct worker control of the means of production and government by workers' councils, who would select representatives to meet together at general assemblies. [196] He believes that there will be no need for political parties. [197] By controlling their productive life, he believes that individuals can gain job satisfaction and a sense of fulfillment and purpose. [198] He argues that unpleasant and unpopular jobs could be fully automated, carried out by workers who are specially remunerated, or shared among everyone. [199]

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Israel uses sophisticated attack jets and naval vessels to bomb densely-crowded refugee camps, schools, apartment blocks, mosques, and slums to attack a [Palestinian] population that has no air force, no air defense, no navy, no heavy weapons, no artillery units, no mechanized armor, no command in control, no army… and calls it a war. It is not a war, it is murder.

Chomsky criticizing Israel, 2012 [200]

Chomsky has written prolifically on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, aiming to raise public awareness of it. [201] He has long endorsed the left binationalist program in Israel and Palestine, seeking to create a democratic state in the Levant that is home to both Jews and Arabs. [202] Nevertheless, given the realpolitik of the situation, he has also considered a two-state solution on the condition that the nation-states exist on equal terms. [203] Chomsky was denied entry to the West Bank in 2010 because of his criticisms of Israel. He had been invited to deliver a lecture at Bir Zeit University and was to meet with Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad. [204] [205] [206] [207] An Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman later said that Chomsky was denied entry by mistake. [208]

News media and propaganda

External video
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Chomsky on propaganda and the manufacturing of consent, June 1, 2003

Chomsky's political writings have largely focused on ideology, social and political power, the media, and state policy. [209] One of his best-known works, Manufacturing Consent , dissects the media's role in reinforcing and acquiescing to state policies across the political spectrum while marginalizing contrary perspectives. Chomsky asserts that this version of censorship, by government-guided "free market" forces, is subtler and harder to undermine than was the equivalent propaganda system in the Soviet Union. [210] As he argues, the mainstream press is corporate-owned and thus reflects corporate priorities and interests. [211] Acknowledging that many American journalists are dedicated and well-meaning, he argues that the mass media's choices of topics and issues, the unquestioned premises on which that coverage rests, and the range of opinions expressed are all constrained to reinforce the state's ideology: [212] although mass media will criticize individual politicians and political parties, it will not undermine the wider state-corporate nexus of which it is a part. [213] As evidence, he highlights that the U.S. mass media does not employ any socialist journalists or political commentators. [214] He also points to examples of important news stories that the U.S. mainstream media has ignored because reporting on them would reflect badly upon the country, including the murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton with possible FBI involvement, the massacres in Nicaragua perpetrated by U.S.-funded contras, and the constant reporting on Israeli deaths without equivalent coverage of the far larger number of Palestinian deaths in that conflict. [215] To remedy this situation, Chomsky calls for grassroots democratic control and involvement of the media. [216]

Chomsky considers most conspiracy theories fruitless, distracting substitutes for thinking about policy formation in an institutional framework, where individual manipulation is secondary to broader social imperatives. [217] While not dismissing them outright, he considers them unproductive to challenging power in a substantial way. In response to the labeling of his own ideas as a conspiracy theory, Chomsky has said that it is very rational for the media to manipulate information in order to sell it, like any other business. He asks whether General Motors would be accused of conspiracy if it deliberately selected what it used or discarded to sell its product. [218]


Chomsky's intellectual life had been divided between his work in linguistics and his political activism, philosophy coming as a distant third. Nonetheless, his influence among analytic philosophers has been enormous ... he has persistently defended his views against all takers, engaging in important debates with many of the major figures in analytic philosophy throughout his career.

Zoltán Gendler Szabó, 2004 [159]

Chomsky has also been active in a number of philosophical fields, including philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. [219] In these fields he is credited with ushering in the "cognitive revolution", [219] a significant paradigm shift that rejected logical positivism, the prevailing philosophical methodology of the time, and reframed how philosophers think about language and the mind. [159] Chomsky views the cognitive revolution as rooted in 17th-century rationalist ideals. One of his key works in this area is Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought (1966). [220] Chomsky's defense of his rationalism in his debate against French continental philosopher Michel Foucault has since become famous,[ why? ] and intellectual historian David Golumbia notes that "Chomsky's mark endures precisely ... in the new mechanical-rationalist position he licensed in the heart of Western philosophical practice." [220] Notable analytic philosophers Chomsky has debated include Tyler Burge, Donald Davidson, Michael Dummett, Saul Kripke, Thomas Nagel, Hilary Putnam, Willard Van Orman Quine, and John Searle. [159]

Personal life

Chomsky (far right) and his wife Valeria (second from right) with David and Carolee Krieger of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 2014 Chomsky and others.jpg
Chomsky (far right) and his wife Valeria (second from right) with David and Carolee Krieger of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 2014

Chomsky endeavors to keep his family life, linguistic scholarship, and political activism strictly separate from one another, [221] calling himself "scrupulous at keeping my politics out of the classroom". [222] An intensely private person, [223] he is uninterested in appearances and the fame his work has brought him. [224] He also has little interest in modern art and music. [225] McGilvray suggests that Chomsky was never motivated by a desire for fame, but impelled to tell what he perceived as the truth and a desire to aid others in doing so. [226] Chomsky acknowledges that his income affords him a privileged life compared to the majority of the world's population; [227] nevertheless, he characterizes himself as a "worker", albeit one who uses his intellect as his employable skill. [228] He reads four or five newspapers daily; in the U.S., he subscribes to The Boston Globe , The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , Financial Times , and The Christian Science Monitor . [229]

Chomsky is non-religious, but has expressed approval of forms of religion such as liberation theology. [230] He is known for the use of irony in his writings [231] [ example needed ] and has attracted controversy for calling established political and academic figures "corrupt", "fascist", and "fraudulent". [232] Chomsky's colleague Steven Pinker has said that he "portrays people who disagree with him as stupid or evil, using withering scorn in his rhetoric", and that this contributes to the extreme reactions he receives from critics. [233] Chomsky avoids attending academic conferences, including left-oriented ones such as the Socialist Scholars Conference, preferring to speak to activist groups or hold university seminars for mass audiences. [234] His approach to academic freedom has led him to support MIT academics whose actions he deplores; in 1969, when Chomsky heard that Walt Rostow, a major architect of the Vietnam war, wanted to return to work at MIT, Chomsky threatened "to protest publicly" if Rostow was denied a position at MIT. In 1989, when Pentagon adviser John Deutch applied to be president of MIT, Chomsky supported his candidacy. Later, when Deutch became head of the CIA, The New York Times quoted Chomsky as saying, "He has more honesty and integrity than anyone I've ever met. ... If somebody's got to be running the C.I.A., I'm glad it's him." [235] [236] [237]

Chomsky was married to Carol Doris Chomsky (Schatz) from 1949 until her death in 2008. [228] They had three children together: Aviva (b. 1957), Diane (b. 1960), and Harry (b. 1967). [238] In 2014 Chomsky married Valeria Wasserman. [239]

Reception and influence

[Chomsky's] voice is heard in academia beyond linguistics and philosophy: from computer science to neuroscience, from anthropology to education, mathematics and literary criticism. If we include Chomsky's political activism then the boundaries become quite blurred, and it comes as no surprise that Chomsky is increasingly seen as enemy number one by those who inhabit that wide sphere of reactionary discourse and action.

Sperlich, 2006 [240]

Chomsky's legacy is as both a "leader in the field" of linguistics and "a figure of enlightenment and inspiration" for political dissenters. [241] Despite his academic success, his political viewpoints and activism have resulted in him being distrusted by the mainstream media apparatus, and he is regarded as being "on the outer margin of acceptability." [242]

In academia

McGilvray observes that Chomsky inaugurated the "cognitive revolution" in linguistics, [243] and that he is largely responsible for establishing the field as a formal, natural science, [244] moving it away from the procedural form of structural linguistics dominant during the mid-20th century. [245] As such, some have called Chomsky "the father of modern linguistics". [lower-alpha 4] Linguist John Lyons further remarked that within a few decades of publication, Chomskyan linguistics had become "the most dynamic and influential" school of thought in the field. [246] By the 1970s his work had also come to exert a considerable influence on philosophy, [247] and a Minnesota State University Moorhead poll ranked Syntactic Structures as the single most important work in cognitive science. [248] In addition, his work in automata theory and the Chomsky hierarchy have become well known in computer science, and he is much cited in computational linguistics. [249] [250] [251]

More than any other figure, Noam Chomsky defined the intellectual climate in the English-speaking world in the second half of the 20th century ... not only did Chomsky redefine the entire academic discipline of linguistics, but his work has been something close to definitive in psychology, philosophy, cognitive science, and even computer science.

Intellectual historian David Golumbia, 2009 [252]

Chomsky's criticisms of behaviorism contributed substantially to the decline of behaviorist psychology; [253] in addition, he is generally regarded as one of the primary founders of the field of cognitive science. [254] [219] Some arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results; [255] Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University, was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability. [256]

ACM Turing Award winner Donald Knuth credited Chomsky's work with helping him to become a professor of computer science at Stanford University. [lower-alpha 11] IBM computer scientist John Backus, another Turing Award winner, used some of Chomsky's concepts to help him develop FORTRAN, the first widely-used high-level computer programming language. [257] The laureates of the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineGeorges J. F. Köhler, César Milstein, and Niels Kaj Jerne — used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, [258] equating "components of a generative grammar ... with various features of protein structures." [259] Chomsky's theory of generative grammar has also influenced work in music theory and analysis. [260] [261] [262]

An MIT press release stated that Chomsky was cited within the Arts and Humanities Citation Index more often than any other living scholar from 1980 to 1992. [263] Chomsky was also extensively cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index during the same time period, with the librarian who conducted the research commenting that the statistics show that "he is very widely read across disciplines and that his work is used by researchers across disciplines ... it seems that you can't write a paper without citing Noam Chomsky." [252] Despite their respect for his intellectual contributions, some scholars have been critical of Chomsky's view of language as a discrete cognitive faculty that evolved as a means of clarifying our internal thoughts, rather than an extension of general cognitive and learning mechanisms that evolved as a means of communicating with others. These critics include Elizabeth Bates, Margaret Boden, Nick Chater, Morten H. Christiansen, Jeffrey Elman, Vyvyan Evans, Nicholas Evans, Daniel Everett, Adele Goldberg, Mark H. Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Chris Knight, Stephen Levinson, Geoffrey K. Pullum, Pieter Seuren and Michael Tomasello. [264]

In politics

Chomsky biographer Wolfgang B. Sperlich characterizes him as "one of the most notable contemporary champions of the people"; [223] journalist John Pilger has described him as a "genuine people's hero; an inspiration for struggles all over the world for that basic decency known as freedom. To a lot of people in the margins—activists and movements—he's unfailingly supportive." [233] Arundhati Roy has called him "one of the greatest, most radical public thinkers of our time", [265] and Edward Said thought him "one of the most significant challengers of unjust power and delusions". [233] Fred Halliday has said that by the start of the 21st century Chomsky had become a "guru" for the world's anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements. [233] The propaganda model of media criticism that he and Herman developed has been widely accepted in radical media critiques and adopted to some level in mainstream criticism of the media, [266] also exerting a significant influence on the growth of alternative media, including radio, publishers, and the Internet, which in turn have helped to disseminate his work. [267]

[Chomsky's] become the guru of the new anti-capitalist and Third World movements. They take his views very uncritically; it's part of the Seattle mood – whatever America does is wrong. He confronts orthodoxy but he's becoming a big simplifier. What he cannot see is Third World and other regimes that are oppressive and not controlled by America.

Fred Halliday, 2001 [233]

Sperlich also notes that Chomsky has been vilified by corporate interests, particularly in the mainstream press. [136] University departments devoted to history and political science rarely include Chomsky's work on their undergraduate syllabi. [268] Critics have argued that despite publishing widely on social and political issues, Chomsky has no formal expertise in these areas; he has responded that such issues are not as complex as many social scientists claim and that almost everyone is able to comprehend them regardless of whether they have been academically trained to do so. [173] According to McGilvray, many of Chomsky's critics "do not bother quoting his work or quote out of context, distort, and create straw men that cannot be supported by Chomsky's text". [173]

Chomsky's far-reaching criticisms of U.S. foreign policy and the legitimacy of U.S. power have raised controversy. [lower-alpha 12] A document obtained pursuant to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request from the U.S. government revealed that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) monitored his activities and for years denied doing so. The CIA also destroyed its files on Chomsky at some point, possibly in violation of federal law. [269] He has often received undercover police protection at MIT and when speaking on the Middle East, but has refused uniformed police protection. [270] German newspaper Der Spiegel described Chomsky as "the Ayatollah of anti-American hatred", [136] while conservative commentator David Horowitz called him "the most devious, the most dishonest and ... the most treacherous intellect in America", whose work is infused with "anti-American dementia" and evidences his "pathological hatred of his own country". [271] Writing in Commentary magazine, the journalist Jonathan Kay described Chomsky as "a hard-boiled anti-American monomaniac who simply refuses to believe anything that any American leader says". [272]

Chomsky's criticism of Israel has led to his being called a traitor to the Jewish people and an anti-Semite. [273] Criticizing Chomsky's defense of the right of individuals to engage in Holocaust denial on the grounds that freedom of speech must be extended to all viewpoints, Werner Cohn called Chomsky "the most important patron" of the neo-Nazi movement. [274] The Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which has been accused of monitoring Chomsky's activities, [275] called him a Holocaust denier, [276] describing him as a "dupe of intellectual pride so overweening that he is incapable of making distinctions between totalitarian and democratic societies, between oppressors and victims". [276] In turn, Chomsky has claimed that the ADL is dominated by "Stalinist types" who oppose democracy in Israel. [273] The lawyer Alan Dershowitz has called Chomsky a "false prophet of the left"; [277] Chomsky called Dershowitz "a complete liar" who is on "a crazed jihad, dedicating much of his life to trying to destroy my reputation". [278] In early 2016 President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey publicly rebuked Chomsky after he signed an open letter condemning Erdoğan for his anti-Kurdish repression and double standards on terrorism. [279] Chomsky accused Erdoğan of hypocrisy, noting that Erdoğan supports al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate, [280] the al-Nusra Front. [279]

Academic achievements, awards, and honors

Chomsky receiving an award from the president of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, David Krieger (2014) Chomsky and Krieger.jpg
Chomsky receiving an award from the president of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, David Krieger (2014)

In 1970 the London Times named Chomsky one of the "makers of the twentieth century". [148] He was voted the world's leading public intellectual in The 2005 Global Intellectuals Poll jointly conducted by American magazine Foreign Policy and British magazine Prospect. [281] New Statesman listed Chomsky among the foremost "heroes of our time" in 2006. [282] [ clarification needed ]

In the United States he is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Linguistic Society of America, the American Philosophical Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [283] Abroad he is a member of the Utrecht Society of Arts and Sciences, the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina, a corresponding fellow of the British Academy, an honorary member of the British Psychological Society, [283] and a foreign member of the Department of Social Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. [284] He received a 1971 Guggenheim Fellowship, the 1984 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology, the 1988 Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences, the 1996 Helmholtz Medal, [283] the 1999 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science, [285] the 2010 Erich Fromm Prize, [286] and the British Academy's 2014 Neil and Saras Smith Medal for Linguistics. [287] He is also a two-time winner of both the Gustavus Myers Center Award (1986 and 1988) and the NCTE George Orwell Award for Distinguished Contribution to Honesty and Clarity in Public Language (1987 and 1989). [283] He has also received the Rabindranath Tagore Centenary Award from The Asiatic Society. [288]

In 2004 Chomsky received the Carl-von-Ossietzky Prize from the city of Oldenburg, Germany, to acknowledge his body of work as a political analyst and media critic. [289] In 2005 he received an honorary fellowship from the Literary and Historical Society. [290] In February 2008 he received the President's Medal from the Literary and Debating Society of the National University of Ireland, Galway. [291] Since 2009 he has been an honorary member of International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters (IAPTI). [292] He received the University of Wisconsin's A.E. Havens Center's Award for Lifetime Contribution to Critical Scholarship [293] and was inducted into IEEE Intelligent Systems' AI's Hall of Fame for "significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems." [294] Chomsky has an Erdős number of four. [295]

For his work in human rights Chomsky received the 2011 Sydney Peace Prize , [296] the 2017 Seán MacBride Peace Prize [297] and the Dorothy Eldridge Peacemaker Award. [285] The citations for these awards noted his commitment to social criticism, human rights, and peace.

Chomsky has received honorary doctorates from institutions including the University of London and the University of Chicago (1967), Loyola University Chicago and Swarthmore College (1970), Bard College (1971), Delhi University (1972), and the University of Massachusetts (1973) among others. [96] His public lectures have included the 1969 John Locke Lectures, [285] 1975 Whidden Lectures, [97] 1977 Huizinga Lecture, and 1988 Massey Lectures, among others. [285]

Various tributes to Chomsky have been dedicated over the years. He is the eponym for Megachile chomskyi, a species of bee [298] . Indian university Jamia Millia Islamia named a building complex in his honor. [299] Actor Viggo Mortensen and avant-garde guitarist Buckethead dedicated their 2003 album Pandemoniumfromamerica to Chomsky. [300]

Selected bibliography

See also


  1. English: /nmˈɒmski/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )
    Hebrew:  ['noam 'χomski] (like Chanukah )
  2. "In thinking about the Effect of Chomsky's work, we have had to dwell upon the reception of Chomsky's work and the perception of Chomsky as a Jew, a linguist, a philosopher, a historian, a gadfly, an icon, and an anarchist." (Barsky 2007:107)
  3. "Since his Cartesian linguistics (1966) it has been clear that Chomsky is a superb intellectual historian—a historian of philosophy in the case of his 1966 book, his earliest incursion into the field; later writings (e.g., Year 501) extended the coverage to world history. The lectures just mentioned and other writings take on highly significant and sometimes not properly appreciated, and often misunderstood, developments in the history of science." (Chomsky 2003:416)
  4. 1 2
    • "Mr. Chomsky ... is the father of modern linguistics and remains the field's most influential practitioner." (Fox 1998)
    • "Noam Chomsky is an Institute Professor and professor of linguistics emeritus at MIT, widely known as the father of modern linguistics, a philosopher, prolific author, and globally influential political activist." (MIT150: Noam Chomsky 2011)
    • "As the founder of modern linguistics, Noam Chomsky, observed, each of the following sequences of words is nonsense ..." (Tymoczko & Henle 2004:101)
    • "At 87, Noam Chomsky, the founder of modern linguistics, remains a vital presence in American intellectual life." (Tanenhaus 2016)
  5. "Born in l896 in Kopel, a town in Volhynia, Ukraine, [William Chomsky] emigrated to Baltimore with his parents and two sisters in l9l3, when he was seventeen." (Feinberg 1999:13)
  6. "[My father] came over [to the United States] as an immigrant and didn't know any English. He went to work at a sweatshop in Baltimore." (Chomsky 2009)
  7. "My father came from a tiny village in the Ukraine and on arriving here worked in a sweatshop. My mother's background was similar.... My relatives here were mostly working class. Many had little formal education. The one who influenced me more than anyone in my life never got beyond fourth grade. They were first-generation immigrants — seamstresses, labourers, etc. — mostly unemployed when I was growing up during the [ Great Depression ]." (Chomsky 1996a)
  8. "The real importance of Carey's work is that it's the first effort and until now the major effort to bring some of this to public attention. It's had a tremendous influence on the work I've done." (Chomsky 1996b:28–29)
  9. "Chomsky came to be opposed by the 'empiricists,' who claim that all knowledge derives from external stimuli, including language." (Baughman et al. 1998)
  10. See Macintyre (2010) as well as:
    • Burris (2013): "Noam Chomsky has built his entire reputation as a political dissident on his command of the facts."
    • McNeill (2014): "[Chomsky is] often dubbed one of the world's most important intellectuals and its leading public dissident..."
  11. "I found the mathematical approach to grammar immediately appealing---so much so, in fact, that I must admit to taking a copy of Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures along with me on my honeymoon in 1961. During odd moments, while crossing the Atlantic in an ocean liner and while camping in Europe, I read that book rather thoroughly and tried to answer some basic theoretical questions. Here was a marvelous thing: a mathematical theory of language in which I could use a computer programmer's intuition! The mathematical, linguistic, and algorithmic parts of my life had previously been totally separate. During the ensuing years those three aspects became steadily more intertwined; and by the end of the 1960s I found myself a Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, primarily because of work that I had done with respect to languages for computer programming." (Knuth 2003:1)
  12. "Ask this intellectual radical why he is shunned by the mainstream, and he'll say that established powers have never been able to handle his brand of dissent." (Flint 1995)


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Further reading