Counseling psychology

Last updated
Counseling psychology
ICD-10-PCS GZ6
ICD-9-CM 94.45-94.49
MeSH D003376

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities. [1]

Contents

History

The term "counselling" is of American origin, coined by Carl Rogers, who, lacking a medical qualification was prevented from calling his work psychotherapy. [2] In the U.S., counselling psychology, like many modern psychology specialties, started as a result of World War II. During the war, the U.S. military had a strong need for vocational placement and training. In the 1940s and 1950s, the Veterans Administration created a specialty called "counseling psychology", and Division 17 [3] (now known as the Society for Counseling Psychology) of the APA was formed. The Society of Counseling Psychology unites psychologists, students and professionals who are dedicated to promote education and training, practice, scientific investigation, diversity and public interest in the field of professional psychology. [4] This fostered interest in counselor training, and the creation of the first few counseling psychology PhD programs. The first counseling psychology PhD programs were at the University of Minnesota; Ohio State University; University of Maryland, College Park; University of Missouri; Teachers College, Columbia University; and University of Texas at Austin. [5] [6]

In recent decades, counseling psychology as a profession has expanded and is now represented in numerous countries around the world. Books describing the present international state of the field include the Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy in an International Context; [7] the International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling; [8] and Counseling Around the World: An International Handbook. [9] Taken together these volumes trace the global history of the field, explore divergent philosophical assumptions, counseling theories, processes, and trends in different countries, and review a variety of global counselor education programs. Moreover, traditional and indigenous treatment and healing methods that may predate modern counseling methods by hundreds of years remain of significance in many non-Western and Western countries. [7] [10] [11]

Employment and salary

Counseling psychologists are employed in a variety of settings depending on the services they provide and the client populations they serve. Some are employed in colleges and universities as teachers, supervisors, researchers, and service providers. Others are employed in independent practice providing counseling, psychotherapy, assessment, and consultation services to individuals, couples/families, groups, and organizations. Additional settings in which counseling psychologists practice include community mental health centers, Veterans Administration medical centers and other facilities, family services, health maintenance organizations, rehabilitation agencies, business and industrial organizations and consulting within firms.

The amount of training required for psychologists differs based on the country in which they are practicing. Typically, a psychologist completes an Undergraduate Degree followed by 5–6 years of further study and/or training, leading to the Ph.D. While both psychologists and psychiatrists offer counselling, psychiatrists must possess a medical degree and thus are able to prescribe medication where psychologists are not.

In 2020, the median salary for counseling psychologists in the United States was US$98,620. [12]

Process and outcome

Counseling psychologists are interested in answering a variety of research questions about counseling process and outcome. Counseling process refers to how or why counseling happens and progresses. Counseling outcome addresses whether or not counseling is effective, under what conditions it is effective, and what outcomes are considered effective—such as symptom reduction, behavior change, or quality of life improvement. Topics commonly explored in the study of counseling process and outcome include therapist variables, client variables, the counseling or therapeutic relationship, cultural variables, process and outcome measurement, mechanisms of change, and process and outcome research methods. Classic approaches appeared early in the US in the field of humanistic psychology by Carl Rogers who identified the mission of counseling interview as "to permit deeper expression that the client would ordinarily allow himself" [13]

Therapist variables

Therapist variables include characteristics of a counselor or psychotherapist, as well as therapist technique, behavior, theoretical orientation and training. In terms of therapist behavior, technique and theoretical orientation, research on adherence to therapy models has found that adherence to a particular model of therapy can be helpful, detrimental, or neutral in terms of impact on outcome. [14]

A recent meta-analysis of research on training and experience suggests that experience level is only slightly related to accuracy in clinical judgment. [15] Higher therapist experience has been found to be related to less anxiety, but also less focus. [16] This suggests that there is still work to be done in terms of training clinicians and measuring successful training.

Client variables

Client characteristics such as help-seeking attitudes and attachment style have been found to be related to client use of counseling, as well as expectations and outcome. Stigma against mental illness can keep people from acknowledging problems and seeking help. Public stigma has been found to be related to self-stigma, attitudes towards counseling, and willingness to seek help. [17]

In terms of attachment style, clients with avoidance styles have been found to perceive greater risks and fewer benefits to counseling, and are less likely to seek professional help, than securely attached clients. Those with anxious attachment styles perceive greater benefits as well as risks to counseling. [18] Educating clients about expectations of counseling can improve client satisfaction, treatment duration and outcomes, and is an efficient and cost-effective intervention. [19]

Counseling relationship

The relationship between a counselor and client is the feelings and attitudes that a client and therapist have towards one another, and the manner in which those feelings and attitudes are expressed. [20] Some theorists have suggested that the relationship may be thought of in three parts: transference and countertransference, working alliance, and the real—or personal—relationship. [21] Other theorists argue that the concepts of transference and countertransference are outdated and inadequate. [22] [23] [24]

Transference can be described as the client's distorted perceptions of the therapist. This can have a great effect on the therapeutic relationship. For instance, the therapist may have a facial feature that reminds the client of their parent. Because of this association, if the client has significant negative or positive feelings toward their parent, they may project these feelings onto the therapist. This can affect the therapeutic relationship in a few ways. For example, if the client has a very strong bond with their parent, they may see the therapist as a father or mother figure and have a strong connection with the therapist. This can be problematic because as a therapist, it is not ethical to have a more than "professional" relationship with a client. It can also be a good thing, because the client may open up greatly to the therapist. In another way, if the client has a very negative relationship with their parent, the client may feel negative feelings toward the therapist. This can then affect the therapeutic relationship as well. For example, the client may have trouble opening up to the therapist because he or she lacks trust in their parent (projecting these feelings of distrust onto the therapist). [25]

Another theory about the function of the counseling relationship is known as the secure-base hypothesis, which is related to attachment theory. This hypothesis proposes that the counselor acts as a secure base from which clients can explore and then check in with. Secure attachment to one's counselor and secure attachment in general have been found to be related to client exploration. Insecure attachment styles have been found to be related to less session depth than securely attached clients. [26]

Cultural variables

Counseling psychologists are interested in how culture relates to help-seeking and counseling process and outcome. Standard surveys exploring the nature of counselling across cultures and various ethnic groups include Counseling Across Cultures by Paul B. Pedersen, Juris G. Draguns, Walter J. Lonner and Joseph E. Trimble, [27] Handbook of Multicultural Counseling by Joseph G. Ponterotto, J. Manueal Casas, Lisa A. Suzuki and Charlene M. Alexander [28] and Handbook of Culture, Therapy, and Healing by Uwe P. Gielen, Jefferson M. Fish and Juris G. Draguns. [29] Janet E. Helms' racial identity model can be useful for understanding how the relationship and counseling process might be affected by the client's and counselor's racial identity. [30] Recent research suggests that clients who are Black are at risk for experiencing racial micro-aggression from counselors who are White. [31]

Efficacy for working with clients who are lesbians, gay men, or bisexual might be related to therapist demographics, gender, sexual identity development, sexual orientation, and professional experience. [32] Clients who have multiple oppressed identities might be especially at-risk for experiencing unhelpful situations with counselors, so counselors might need help with gaining expertise for working with clients who are transgender, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender people of color, and other oppressed populations. [33]

Gender role socialization can also present issues for clients and counselors. Implications for practice include being aware of stereotypes and biases about male and female identity, roles and behavior such as emotional expression. [34] The APA guidelines for multicultural competence outline expectations for taking culture into account in practice and research. [35]

Counseling ethics and regulation

Perceptions on ethical behaviors vary depending upon geographical location, but ethical mandates are similar throughout the global community. Ethical standards are created to help practitioners, clients and the community avoid any possible harm or potential for harm. The standard ethical behaviors are centered on "doing no harm" and preventing harm.

Counselors cannot share any confidential information that is obtained through the counseling process without specific written consent by the client or legal guardian except to prevent clear, imminent danger to the client or others, or when required to do so by a court order. [36] Insurance companies or government programs will also be notified of certain information about your diagnosis and treatment to determine if your care is covered. Those companies and government programs are bound by HIPAA to keep that information strictly confidential. [37]

Counselors are held to a higher standard than most professionals because of the intimacy of their therapeutic delivery. Counselors are not only to avoid fraternizing with their clients. They should avoid dual relationships, and never engage in sexual relationships.

Counselors are to avoid receiving gifts, favors, or trade for therapy. In some communities, it may be avoidable given the economic standing of that community. In cases of children, children and the mentally handicapped, they may feel personally rejected if an offering is something such as a "cookie". As counselors, a judgement call must be made, but in a majority of cases, avoiding gifts, favors, and trade can be maintained.

The National Board for Certified Counselors states that counselors "shall discuss important considerations to avoid exploitation before entering into a non-counseling relationship with a former client. Important considerations to be discussed include amount of time since counseling service termination, duration of counseling, nature and circumstances of client's counseling, the likelihood that the client will want to resume counseling at some time in the future; circumstances of service termination and possible negative effects or outcomes." [38]

Outcome measurement

Counseling outcome measures might look at a general overview of symptoms, symptoms of specific disorders, or positive outcomes, such as subjective well-being or quality of life. The Outcome Questionnaire-45 is a 45-item self-report measure of psychological distress. [39] An example of disorder-specific measure is the Beck Depression Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory is a 17-item self-report life satisfaction measure. [40]

Process and outcome research methods

Research about the counseling process and outcome uses a variety of research methodologies to answer questions about if, how, and why counseling works. Quantitative methods include randomly controlled clinical trials, correlation studies over the course of counseling, or laboratory studies about specific counseling process and outcome variables. Qualitative research methods can involve conducting, transcribing and coding interviews; transcribing and/or coding therapy sessions; or fine-grain analysis of single counseling sessions or counseling cases.

Training and supervision

Professional training process

Counseling psychologists are trained in graduate programs. Almost all programs grant a PhD, but a few grant a Psy.D. or Ed.D. Most doctoral programs take 5–6 years to complete. Graduate work in counseling psychology includes coursework in general psychology and statistics, counseling practice, and research. [41] Students must complete an original dissertation at the end of their graduate training. Students must also complete a one-year full-time internship at an accredited site before earning their doctorate. In order to be licensed to practice, counseling psychologists must gain clinical experience under supervision, and pass a standardized exam.

Australia

In Australia, there are counseling psychology programs are accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC). To become registered as a counseling psychologist, one must meet the criteria for the area of practice endorsement. This includes an undergraduate degree in the science of psychology, an Honours degree or Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology, and a Master's or Doctorate degree in counseling psychology. Graduates must then complete a registrar program to obtain an area of practice endorsement and use the title counseling psychologist. [42] A substantial component of this master's degree is dedicated to individual psychotherapy, family and couples therapy, group therapy, developmental theory and psychopathology. [43]

Training models and research

Counseling psychology includes the study and practice of counselor training and counselor supervision. As researchers, counseling psychologists may investigate what makes training and supervision effective. As practitioners, counseling psychologists may supervise and train a variety of clinicians. Counselor training tends to occur in formal classes and training programs. Part of counselor training may involve counseling clients under the supervision of a licensed clinician. Supervision can also occur between licensed clinicians, as a way to improve clinicians' quality of work and competence with various types of counseling clients.

As the field of counseling psychology formed in the mid-20th century, initial training models included Robert Carkuff's human relations training model, [44] Norman Kagan's Interpersonal Process Recall, [45] and Allen Ivey's microcounseling skills. [46] Modern training models include Gerard Egan's skilled helper model, [47] and Clara E. Hill's three-stage model (exploration, insight, and action). [48] A recent analysis of studies on counselor training found that modeling, instruction, and feedback are common to most training models, and seem to have medium to large effects on trainees. [49]

Supervision models and research

Like the models of how clients and therapists interact, there are also models of the interactions between therapists and their supervisors. Edward S. Bordin proposed a model of supervision working alliance similar to his model of therapeutic working alliance. The Integrated Development Model considers the level of a client's motivation/anxiety, autonomy, and self and other awareness. The Systems Approach to Supervision views the relationship between supervisor and supervised as most important, in addition to characteristics of the supervisor's personal characteristics, counseling clients, training setting, as well as the tasks and functions of supervision. The Critical Events in Supervision model focuses on important moments that occur between the supervisor and supervised. [50]

Problems can arise in supervision and training. First, supervisors are liable for malpractice.[ citation needed ] Also, questions have arisen as far as a supervisor's need for formal training to be a competent supervisor. [51] Recent research suggests that conflicting, multiple relationships can occur between supervisors and clients, such as that of the client, instructor, and clinical supervisor. [51] The occurrence of racial micro-aggression against Black clients [52] suggests potential problems with racial bias in supervision. In general, conflicts between a counselor and his or her own supervisor can arise when supervisors demonstrate disrespect, lack of support, and blaming. [50]

Vocational development and career counseling

Vocational theories

There are several types of theories of vocational choice and development. These types include trait and factor theories, social cognitive theories, and developmental theories. Two examples of trait and factor theories, also known as person–environment fit, are Holland's theory and the Theory of Work Adjustment.

John Holland hypothesized six vocational personality/interest types and six work environment types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. When a person's vocational interests match his or her work environment types, this is considered congruence. Congruence has been found to predict occupation and college major. [53]

The Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), as developed by René Dawis and Lloyd Lofquist, [54] hypothesizes that the correspondence between a worker's needs and the reinforced systems predicts job satisfaction, and that the correspondence between a worker's skills and a job's skill requirements predicts job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and personal satisfaction together should determine how long one remains at a job. When there is a discrepancy between a worker's needs or skills and the job's needs or skills, then change needs to occur either in the worker or the job environment.

Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) has been proposed by Robert D. Lent, Steven D. Brown and Gail Hackett. The theory takes Albert Bandura's work on self-efficacy and expands it to interest development, choice making, and performance. Person variables in SCCT include self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations and personal goals. The model also includes demographics, ability, values, and environment. Efficacy and outcome expectations are theorized to interrelate and influence interest development, which in turn influences choice of goals, and then actions. Environmental supports and barriers also affect goals and actions. Actions lead to performance and choice stability over time. [53]

Career development theories propose vocational models that include changes throughout the lifespan. Donald Super's model proposes a lifelong five-stage career development process. The stages are growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement. Throughout life, people have many roles that may differ in terms of importance and meaning. Super also theorized that career development is an implementation of self-concept. Gottfredson also proposed a cognitive career decision-making process that develops through the lifespan.[ citation needed ] The initial stage of career development is hypothesized to be the development of self-image in childhood, as the range of possible roles narrows using criteria such as sex-type, social class, and prestige. During and after adolescence, people take abstract concepts into consideration, such as interests.

Career counseling

Career counseling may include provision of occupational information, modeling skills, written exercises, and exploration of career goals and plans. [55] Career counseling can also involve the use of personality or career interest assessments, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is based on Carl Jung's theory of psychological type, or the Strong Interest Inventory, which makes use of Holland's theory. Assessments of skills, abilities, and values are also commonly assessed in career counseling.

Professional journals

In the United States, the premier scholarly journals of the profession are the Journal of Counseling Psychology [56] and The Counseling Psychologist . [57]

In Australia, counseling psychology articles are published in the counseling psychology section of the Australian Psychologist.

In Europe, the scholarly journals of the profession include the European Journal of Counselling Psychology (under the auspices of the European Association of Counselling Psychology) [58] and the Counselling Psychology Review (under the auspices of the British Psychological Society). [59] Counselling Psychology Quarterly is an international interdisciplinary publication of Routledge (part of the Taylor & Francis Group). [60]

See also

Related Research Articles

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction with adults, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. There are also numerous types of psychotherapy designed for children and adolescents, such as play therapy. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. Others have been criticized as pseudoscience.

Psychologist Professional who evaluates, diagnoses, treats, and studies behavior and mental processes

A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism. With its roots running from Socrates through the Renaissance, this approach emphasizes the individual's inherent drive toward self-actualization, the process of realizing and expressing one's own capabilities and creativity.

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory, and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession.

Integrative psychotherapy is the integration of elements from different schools of psychotherapy in the treatment of a client. Integrative psychotherapy may also refer to the psychotherapeutic process of integrating the personality: uniting the "affective, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological systems within a person".

Person-centered therapy, also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy, is a form of psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers beginning in the 1940s and extending into the 1980s. Person-centered therapy seeks to facilitate a client's self-actualizing tendency, "an inbuilt proclivity toward growth and fulfillment", via acceptance, therapist congruence (genuineness), and empathic understanding.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy or psychoanalytic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension.

Online counseling is the provision of professional mental health counseling services through the Internet. Services are typically offered via email, real-time chat, and video conferencing. Some clients use online counseling in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy, or nutritional counseling, and a growing number of clients are using online counseling as a replacement for office visits.

Supervision is used in counselling, psychotherapy, and other mental health disciplines as well as many other professions engaged in working with people. Supervision may be applied as well to practitioners in somatic disciplines for their preparatory work for patients as well as collateral with patients. Supervision is a replacement instead of formal retrospective inspection, delivering evidence about the skills of the supervised practitioners.

The therapeutic relationship refers to the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client or patient. It is the means by which a therapist and a client hope to engage with each other and effect beneficial change in the client.

Les Greenberg is a Canadian psychologist born in Johannesburg, South Africa, and is one of the originators and primary developers of Emotion-Focused Therapy for individuals and couples. He is a professor emeritus of psychology at York University in Toronto, and also director of the Emotion-Focused Therapy Clinic in Toronto. His research has addressed questions regarding empathy, psychotherapy process, the therapeutic alliance, and emotion in human functioning.

Emotionally focused therapy and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are a family of related approaches to psychotherapy with individuals, couples, or families. EFT approaches include elements of experiential therapy, systemic therapy, and attachment theory. EFT is usually a short-term treatment. EFT approaches are based on the premise that human emotions are connected to human needs, and therefore emotions have an innately adaptive potential that, if activated and worked through, can help people change problematic emotional states and interpersonal relationships. Emotion-focused therapy for individuals was originally known as process-experiential therapy, and it is still sometimes called by that name.

Common factors theory, a theory guiding some research in clinical psychology and counseling psychology, proposes that different approaches and evidence-based practices in psychotherapy and counseling share common factors that account for much of the effectiveness of a psychological treatment. This is in contrast to the view that the effectiveness of psychotherapy and counseling is best explained by specific or unique factors that are suited to treatment of particular problems. According to one review, "it is widely recognized that the debate between common and unique factors in psychotherapy represents a false dichotomy, and these factors must be integrated to maximize effectiveness". In other words, "therapists must engage in specific forms of therapy for common factors to have a medium through which to operate". Common factors is one route by which psychotherapy researchers have attempted to integrate psychotherapies.

Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. It tends to view change in terms of the systems of interaction between family members.

The Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) is a behavioral health outcomes management system for counseling and therapy services developed by Barry Duncan and Scott Miller. The therapeutic approach was inspired by Michael J. Lambert’s research regarding the use of consumer feedback during the therapeutic process with the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ) and is designed to be a briefer method to measure therapeutic outcome.

Anca Ramsden is a Sydney based clinical psychologist notable for dealing with children and adults with emotional, behavioural, social, learning and performance problems.

Paradox psychology is an approach that aims to advance the general field of psychology and treatment. These advances include: An approach that specifically addresses a 'hard-to-treat' or resistant client; A scientific understanding that supports a process for 'spontaneous change'; Unifying behavioral, cognitive, and psychodynamic orientations under a single umbrella theory; A science-based model showing how treating secondary non-criminogenic behaviors will impact primary targeted (volatile) criminogenic behaviors

Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) is a mind-body psychotherapy that is informed by research in the areas of attachment theory, emotion theory, and neuroscience of change. This model of psychotherapy incorporates techniques from experiential therapies and ISTDP.

Jay Lebow is an American family psychologist who is senior scholar at the Family Institute at Northwestern University, clinical professor at Northwestern University and is editor-in-chief of the journal Family Process. He is board certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology. Lebow is known for his publications and presentations about the practice of couple and family therapy, integrative psychotherapy, the relationship of research and psychotherapy practice, and psychotherapy in difficult divorce, as well as for his role as an editor in the fields of couple and family therapy and family science. He is the author or editor of 13 books and has written 200 journal articles and book chapters.

Eclectic psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which the clinician uses more than one theoretical approach, or multiple sets of techniques, to help with clients' needs. The use of different therapeutic approaches will be based on the effectiveness in resolving the patient's problems, rather than the theory behind each therapy.

References

  1. Gelso, C.J., Williams, E.N. & Fretz, B. (2014). Counseling Psychology (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  2. Woolfe, Ray, et al. “Counselling Psychology in Context.” Handbook of Counselling Psychology, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, 2003, p. 4.
  3. http://www.div17.org/
  4. Heppner, P., Leong, F.T.L., & Chiao, H. (2008). A growing internationalization of counseling psychology. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed). New York: Wiley.
  5. http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation/counspsy.html
  6. Fadul, Jose A. . Encyclopedia of Theory & Practice in Psychotherapy & Counseling. Lulu Press, 2015.
  7. 1 2 Moodley, Gielen, & Wu (2013). Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy in an International Context. New York: Routledge.
  8. Gerstein, Heppner, Ægisdóttir, Leung, & Norsworthy (2009). International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Counseling: Cultural Assumptions and Practices Worldwide. Los Angeles: Sage.
  9. Hohenshil, Amundson, & Niles (2013). Counseling Around the World: An International Handbook. Alexandria, VA : American Counseling Association.
  10. Gielen, Fish, & Draguns (2004). Handbook of Culture, Therapy, and Healing. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  11. Gielen, U. P., Draguns, J. G., Fish, J. (Eds.). (2008). Principles of multicultural counseling and therapy. New York: Routledge, pp. x-xviii, 1-464.
  12. "Clinical Psychologist Salaries in the United States". www.indeed.com. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  13. Rogers, Carl R. (1947). "Some Observations on the Organization of Personality". American Psychologist. 2 (9): 358–68. doi:10.1037/h0060883. PMID   20260596.
  14. Imel, Z.E. & Wampold, B.E. (2008). The importance of treatment and the science of common factors in psychotherapy. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed). New York: Wiley.
  15. Spengler, P.M., White, M.J., Aegisdottir, S., Maugherman, A.S., Anderson, L.A., Cook, R.S., Nichols, C.N., Lampropoulos, G.K., Walker, B.S., Cohen, G.R., & Rush, J.D. (2009). The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Effects of Experience in Judgment Accuracy. The Counseling Psychologist 37: 350–399
  16. Williams, E.N., Hayes, J.A., & Fauth, J. (2008). Therapist self-awareness: interdisciplinary connections and future directions. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed) (pp. 267–283). New York: Wiley.
  17. Vogel, D.L., Wade, N.G., & Hackler, A.H. (2007). Perceived public stigma and the willingness to seek counseling: the mediating roles of self-stigma and attitudes towards counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 40–50.
  18. Shaffer, P.A., Vogel, D.L., & Wei, M. (2006). The mediating roles of anticipated risks, anticipated benefits, and attitudes on the decision of seek professional help: an attachment perspective. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 422–452
  19. Swift, J.K., & Callahan, J.L. (2008). A delay discounting measure of great expectations and the effectiveness of psychotherapy client decision making. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 581–588.
  20. Gelso, C.J. & Samstag, L.W. (2008). A tripartite model of the therapeutic relationship. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed.) (pp. 267–283). NY: Wiley.
  21. Gelso, C.J. and Hayes, J.A. (1998). The Psychotherapy Relationship: Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 22–46). New York: Wiley.
  22. Menaker, E. (1991). Questioning the sacred cow of the transference. In: Curtis, R.C. & Stricker, G. How People Change: Inside and Outside Therapy (pp. 13–20). New York: Plenum Press. doi : 10.1007/978-1-4899-0741-7_2
  23. Schachter, J. (2002). Transference: Shibboleth Or Albatross? Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
  24. Bacal, H. & Carlton, L. (2011). The Power of Specificity in Psychotherapy: When Therapy Works—And When It Doesn't (pp. 81, 101–105). Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.
  25. Levy, K. N. & Scala, J. (2012). Transference, transference interpretations, and transference-focused psychotherapies. Psychotherapy, 49(3), 391–403. doi : 10.1037/a0029371
  26. Romano, V., Fitzpatrick, M., & Janzen, J. (2008). The secure-base hypothesis: global attachment, attachment to counselor, and session exploration in psychotherapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 495–504.
  27. Pedersen, P. B., Draguns, J. G., Lonner, W. J., & Trimble, J. E. (Eds.). (2008). Counseling across cultures (6th ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  28. Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of multicultural counseling (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  29. Gielen, U. P., Fish, J. M., & Draguns, J. G. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of culture, therapy, and healing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  30. Helms, J.E. (1995). An update on Helms' White and people of color racial identity models. In: J.G. Ponterotto, J.M. Casas, L.A. Suzuki, & G.M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  31. Constantine, M. (2007). Racial micro-aggression against African American clients in cross-racial counseling relationships. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), 1–16.
  32. Dillon, F., Worthington, R., Soth-McNett, A., & Schwartz, S. (2008). Gender and sexual identity-based predictors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative counseling self-efficacy. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 353–360.
  33. Israel, T., Gorcheva, R., Walther, W., Sulzner, J., & Cohen, J. (2008). Therapists' helpful and unhelpful situations with LGBT clients: An exploratory study. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(3), 361–368.
  34. Nutt, R.L. & Brooks, G.R. (2008). Psychology of gender. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed) (pp. 267–283). New York: Wiley.
  35. http://www.apa.org/pi/multiculturalguidelines/homepage.html
  36. (OCR), Office for Civil Rights (2014-02-20). "Sharing Information Related to Mental Health". HHS.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
  37. "Protecting your privacy: Understanding confidentiality". www.apa.org. Retrieved 2017-02-06.
  38. National Board of Certified Counselors (June 8, 2012). "NATIONAL BOARD FOR CERTIFIED COUNSELORS (NBCC) CODE OF ETHICS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-21.
  39. Lambert, M.J., Gregerson, A.T., & Burlingame, G.M. (2004). The Outcome Questionnaire-45. In M. Maruish (Ed.). Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment (3rd ed) (pp. 191–234). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  40. Frisch, M., Cornell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P. (1992). Clinical validation of the Quality of Life Inventory. A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4(1), 92–101.
  41. Norcross, J., Sayette, M., & Mayne, T. (2008) Insider's Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology. Guilford Press.
  42. "Australian Psychological Society : Study pathways". www.psychology.org.au. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  43. "Australian Psychological Society: Counselling psychology". www.psychology.org.au. Retrieved 2015-06-22.
  44. Carkuff, R. (1969). Helping and Human Relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  45. Kagan, N., Krathwohl, D., and Farquhar, W. (1965). IPR—Interpersonal Process Recall. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
  46. Ivey, A. (1971). Microcounseling: Innovations in Interviewing Training. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
  47. Egan, G. (2010). The Skilled Helper (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole, Cengage Learning.
  48. Hill, C.E. (2014). Helping Skills (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  49. Hill, C.E. & Lent, R. (2006). A narrative and meta-analytic review of helping skills training: time to revive a dormant area of inquiry. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(2), 154–172
  50. 1 2 Ladany, N. & Inman, A. (2008) Developments in counseling skills training and supervision. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons: New York.
  51. 1 2 Westefeld, J.S. (2009). Supervision of psychotherapy: models, issues, and recommendations. The Counseling Psychologist, 37, 296–316.
  52. Constantine, M. & Sue, D. (2007). Perceptions of racial micro-aggression among black clients in cross-racial studies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(2), 142–153.
  53. 1 2 Betz, N. (2008). Advances in vocational theories. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed). New York: Wiley
  54. Dawis, R. V. & Lofquist, L.H. (1984). A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment: An Individual-Differences Model and its Applications. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  55. Whiston, S.C. & Rahardja, D. (2008). Vocational counseling process and outcome. In: Brown, S.D. & Lent, R.W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology (4th ed). New York: Wiley.
  56. http://www.apa.org/journals/cou/
  57. http://tcp.sagepub.com/
  58. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-25. Retrieved 2009-09-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  59. http://www.bps.org.uk
  60. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-15. Retrieved 2009-09-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)