Art therapy

Last updated
Art therapy
Correctional Activities at Central Jail Faisalabad, Pakistan in 2010 - Convict artists busy in drawing designs of carpets on graph papers.JPG
Two convict artists draw designs of carpets on graph paper at Industrial Workshops of Central Jail Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2010
MeSH D001155
Edited by: Samar Jammoul Mandala's Art .jpg
Edited by: Samar Jammoul

Art therapy (not to be confused with arts therapy, which includes other creative therapies such as drama therapy and music therapy) is a distinct discipline that incorporates creative methods of expression through visual art media. Art therapy, as a creative arts therapy profession, originated in the fields of art and psychotherapy and may vary in definition.

Contents

There are three main ways that art therapy is employed. The first one is called analytic art therapy. Analytic art therapy is based on the theories that come from analytical psychology, and in more cases, psychoanalysis. [1] Analytic art therapy focuses on the client, the therapist, and the ideas that are transferred between the both of them through art. [1] Another way that art therapy is utilized is art psychotherapy. This approach focuses more on the psychotherapist and their analysis of their clients artwork verbally. [1] The last way art therapy is looked at is through the lens of art as therapy. Some art therapists practicing art as therapy believe that analyzing the client’s artwork verbally is not essential, therefore they stress the creation process of the art instead. [1] In all of these different approaches to art therapy, the art therapist's client goes on the journey to delve into their inner thoughts and emotions by the use of paint, paper and pen, clay, sand, or maybe even fabric. [1]

Art therapy can be used to help people improve cognitive and sensory motor function, self-esteem, self awareness, emotional resilience. [2] It may also aide in resolving conflicts and reduce distress.

Current art therapy includes a vast number of other approaches such as person-centered, cognitive, behavior, Gestalt, narrative, Adlerian, and family. The tenets of art therapy involve humanism, creativity, reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, and personal growth. [3]

History

In the history of mental health treatment, art therapy (combining studies of psychology and art) emerged much later as a new field. This type of unconventional therapy is used to cultivate self-esteem and awareness, improve cognitive and motor abilities, resolve conflicts or stress, and inspire resilience in patients. [2] It invites sensory, kinesthetic, perceptual, and sensory symbolization to address issues that verbal psychotherapy cannot reach. [2] Although art therapy is a relatively young therapeutic discipline, its roots lie in the use of the arts in the 'moral treatment' of psychiatric patients in the late 18th century. [4]

Art therapy as a profession began in the mid-20th century, arising independently in English-speaking and European countries. Art had been used at the time for various reasons: communication, inducing creativity in children, and in religious contexts. [1] The early art therapists who published accounts of their work acknowledged the influence of aesthetics, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, rehabilitation, early childhood education, and art education, to varying degrees, on their practices. [4]

The British artist Adrian Hill coined the term art therapy in 1942. [5] Hill, recovering from tuberculosis in a sanatorium, discovered the therapeutic benefits of drawing and painting while convalescing. He wrote that the value of art therapy lay in "completely engrossing the mind (as well as the fingers)…releasing the creative energy of the frequently inhibited patient", which enabled the patient to "build up a strong defence against his misfortunes". He suggested artistic work to his fellow patients. That began his art therapy work, which was documented in 1945 in his book, Art Versus Illness. [6]

Edward Adamson, "the father of art therapy in Britain". Adamsonportrait.jpg
Edward Adamson, "the father of art therapy in Britain".

The artist Edward Adamson, demobilised after WW2, joined Adrian Hill to extend Hill's work to the British long stay mental hospitals. Other early proponents of art therapy in Britain include E. M. Lyddiatt, Michael Edwards, Diana Raphael-Halliday and Rita Simons. The British Association of Art Therapists was founded in 1964. [8]

U.S. art therapy pioneers Margaret Naumburg and Edith Kramer began practicing at around the same time as Hill. Naumburg, an educator, asserted that "art therapy is psychoanalytically oriented" and that free art expression "becomes a form of symbolic speech which…leads to an increase in verbalization in the course of therapy." [9] Edith Kramer, an artist, pointed out the importance of the creative process, psychological defenses, and artistic quality, writing that "sublimation is attained when forms are created that successfully contain…anger, anxiety, or pain." [10] Other early proponents of art therapy in the United States include Elinor Ulman, Robert "Bob" Ault, and Judith Rubin. The American Art Therapy Association was founded in 1969. [11]

National professional associations of art therapy exist in many countries, including Brazil, Canada, Finland, Lebanon, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, South Korea, and Sweden. International networking contributes to the establishment of standards for education and practice. [12]

Art Therapist process work Arttherapyprocess.jpg
Art Therapist process work

Diverse perspectives exist on history of art therapy, which complement those that focus on the institutionalization of art therapy as a profession in Britain and the United States. [13] [14] [15]

Definitions

An art therapist watches over a person with mental health problems during an art therapy workshop in Senegal. Fortier DAKAR art therapy 30dec11 300.jpg
An art therapist watches over a person with mental health problems during an art therapy workshop in Senegal.

There are various definitions of the term art therapy. [16] :1

The British Association of Art Therapists defines art therapy as "a form of psychotherapy that uses art media as its primary mode of expression and communication." [17]

The American Art Therapy Association defines art therapy as: "an integrative mental health and human services profession that enriches the lives of individuals, families, and communities through active art-making, creative process, applied psychological theory, and human experience within a psychotherapeutic relationship." [18]

Uses

As a regulated mental health profession, art therapy is employed in many clinical and other settings with diverse populations. It is increasingly recognized as a valid form of therapy. Art therapy can also be found in non-clinical settings, as well as in art studios and in creativity development workshops. Licensing for art therapists can vary from state to state with some recognizing art therapy as a separate license and some licensing under a related field such a professional counseling, mental health counselor. [19] Art therapists must have a master's degree that includes training on the creative process, psychological development, group therapy, and must complete a clinical internship. [20] Art therapists may also pursue additional credentialing through the Art Therapy Credentials Board. [21] Art therapists work with populations of all ages and with a wide variety of disorders and diseases. Art therapists provide services to children, adolescents, and adults, whether as individuals, couples, families, or groups.

Using their evaluative and psychotherapy skills, art therapists choose materials and interventions appropriate to their clients' needs and design sessions to achieve therapeutic goals and objectives. They use the creative process to help their clients increase insight, cope with stress, work through traumatic experiences, increase cognitive, memory and neurosensory abilities, improve interpersonal relationships and achieve greater self-fulfillment. The activities an art therapist chooses to do with clients depend on a variety of factors such as their mental state or age. Art therapists may draw upon images from resources such as ARAS (Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism) to incorporate historical art and symbols into their work with patients. Depending on the state, province, or country, the term "art therapist" may be reserved for those who are professionals trained in both art and therapy and hold a master or doctoral degree in art therapy or certification in art therapy obtained after a graduate degree in a related field. [22] Other professionals, such as mental health counselors, social workers, psychologists, and play therapists optionally combine art-making with basic psychotherapeutic modalities in their treatment. Therapists may better understand a client's absorption of information after assessing elements of their artwork. [23]

A systemic literature review compiled and evaluated different research studies, some of which are listed below. Overall, this survey publication revealed that both the high level of variability (such as incorporating talk therapy) and limited number of studies done with certified art therapists made it difficult to generalize over findings. Despite these limitations, art therapy has, to an extent, proved its efficacy in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life. [24]

General illness

Art-making is a common activity used by many people to cope with illness. Art and the creative process can alleviate many illnesses (cancer, heart disease, influenza, etc.). This form of therapy helps benefit those who suffer from mental illnesses as well (chronic depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, etc.). It is difficult to measure the efficacy of art therapy as it treats various mental illnesses to different degrees; although, people can escape the emotional effects of various illness through art making and many creative methods. [25] Sometimes people cannot express the way they feel, as it can be difficult to put into words, and art can help people express their experiences. "During art therapy, people can explore past, present and future experiences using art as a form of coping". [25] Art can be a refuge for the intense emotions associated with illness; there are no limits to the imagination in finding creative ways to express emotions.

Hospitals have started studying the influence of arts on patient care and found that participants in art programs have better vitals and fewer complications sleeping. Artistic influence does not need to be participation in a program, but studies have found that a landscape picture in a hospital room had reduced need for narcotic pain killers and less time in recovery at the hospital. [25] In addition, either looking at or creating art in hospitals helped stabilize vital signs, speed up the healing process, and in general, bring a sense of hope and soul to the patient. Family, care workers, doctors and nurses are also positively affected.

Cancer diagnosis

Many studies have been conducted on the benefits of art therapy on cancer patients. Art therapy has been found to be useful to support patients during the stress of such things as chemotherapy treatment. [26]

Art therapists have conducted studies to understand why some cancer patients turned to art making as a coping mechanism and a tool to creating a positive identity outside of being a cancer patient. Women in the study participated in different art programs ranging from pottery and card making to drawing and painting. The programs helped them regain an identity outside of having cancer, lessened emotional pain of their on-going fight with cancer, and also giving them hope for the future.

In a study involving women facing cancer-related difficulties such as fear, pain, altered social relationships, etc., it was found that:

Engaging in different types of visual art (textiles, card making, collage, pottery, watercolor, acrylics) helped these women in 4 major ways. First, it helped them focus on positive life experiences, relieving their ongoing preoccupation with cancer. Second, it enhanced their self-worth and identity by providing them with opportunities to demonstrate continuity, challenge, and achievement. Third, it enabled them to maintain a social identity that resisted being defined by cancer. Finally, it allowed them to express their feelings in a symbolic manner, especially during chemotherapy. [25]

Another study showed those who participated in these types of activities were discharged earlier than those who did not participate. [25]

Furthermore, another study revealed the healing effects of art therapy on female breast cancer patients. Studies revealed that relatively short-term art therapy interventions significantly improved patients’ emotional states and perceived symptoms. [24]

Studies have also shown how the emotional distress of cancer patients has been reduced when utilizing the creative process. The women made drawings of themselves throughout the treatment process while also doing yoga and meditating; these actions combined helped to alleviate some symptoms. [25]

Another study looked at the efficacy of mindfulness-based art therapy, combining meditation with art, on a large study with 111 participants. [27] The study used measurements such as quality of life, physical symptoms, depression, and anxiety to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. This yielded optimistic results that there was a significant decrease in distress and significant improvement in quality of life.

A review of 12 studies investigating the use of art therapy in cancer patients by Wood, Molassiotis, and Payne (2010) investigated the symptoms of emotional, social, physical, global functioning, and spiritual controls of cancer patients. They found that art therapy can improve the process of psychological readjustment to the change, loss, and uncertainty associated with surviving cancer. It was also suggested that art therapy can provide a sense of "meaning-making" because of the physical act of creating the art. When given five individual sessions of art therapy once per week, art therapy was shown to be useful for personal empowerment by helping the cancer patients understand their own boundaries in relation to the needs of other people. In turn, those who had art therapy treatment felt more connected to others and found social interaction more enjoyable than individuals who did not receive art therapy treatment. Furthermore, art therapy improved motivation levels, abilities to discuss emotional and physical health, general well-being, and increased global quality of life in cancer patients. [28]

In sum, relatively short-term intervention of art therapy that is individualized to various patients has the potential to significantly improve emotional state and quality of life, while reducing perceived symptoms relating to the cancer diagnosis. [24]

Disaster relief

Art therapy has been used in a variety of traumatic experiences, including disaster relief and crisis intervention. Art therapists have worked with children, adolescents and adults after natural and manmade disasters, encouraging them to make art in response to their experiences. Some suggested strategies for working with victims of disaster include: assessing for distress or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD [29] ), normalizing feelings, modeling coping skills, promoting relaxation skills, establishing a social support network, and increasing a sense of security and stability. [30] :137ff [31] :120ff

Dementia

While art therapy helps with behavioral issues, it does not appear to affect worsening mental abilities. [32] Tentative evidence supports benefits with respect to quality of life. [33] Art therapy had no clear results on affecting memory or emotional well being scales. [34] However, Alzheimer's association states art and music can enrich people's lives and allow for self expression. [35]

Autism

Art therapy is increasingly recognized to help address challenges of people with autism, as evidenced through these sources. [3] Art therapy may address core symptoms of the autism spectrum disorder by promoting sensory regulation, supporting psychomotor development and facilitating communication. [36] Art therapy is also thought to promote emotional and mental growth by allowing self expression, visual communication, and creativity. [37]

Schizophrenia

A 2005 systematic review of art therapy as an add on treatment for schizophrenia found unclear effects. [38] Group art therapy has been shown to improve some symptoms of schizophrenia. While studies concluded that art therapy did not improve Clinical Global Impression or Global Assessment of Functioning, they showed that the use of haptic art materials to express one’s emotions, cognitions, and perceptions in a group setting lowered depressing themes and may improve self-esteem, enforce creativity, and facilitate the integrative therapeutic process for people with schizophrenia. [39] Studies reveal that cognitive-behavioral therapy has proven to be most effective for this disorder. [24]

Geriatric patients

Studies conducted by Regev reveal that geriatric art therapy has been significantly useful in helping depression for the elderly, although not particularly successful among dementia patients. [24] Group therapy versus individual sessions proved to be more effective.

Trauma and children

Art therapy may alleviate trauma-induced emotions, such as shame and anger. [40] It is also likely to increase trauma survivors' sense of empowerment [41] and control by encouraging children to make choices in their artwork. [40] Art therapy in addition to psychotherapy offered more reduction in trauma symptoms than just psychotherapy alone. [42]

Because traumatic memories are encoded visually, [43] [44] creating art may be the most effective way to access them. Through art therapy, children may be able to make more sense of their traumatic experiences and form accurate trauma narratives. Gradual exposure to these narratives may reduce trauma-induced symptoms, such as flashbacks and nightmares. [40] Repetition of directives reduces anxiety, and visually creating narratives help clients build coping skills and balanced nervous system responses. [45] This only works in long-term art therapy interventions. [24]

Children who have experienced trauma may benefit from group art therapy. The group format is effective in helping survivors develop relationships with others who have experienced similar situations. [41] Group art therapy may also be beneficial in helping children with trauma regain trust and social self-esteem. [40] Usually, participants who undergo art therapy through group interventions have positive experiences and give their internal feelings validation. [46]

Veterans and post-traumatic stress disorder

Art therapy has an established history of being used to treat veterans, with the American Art Therapy Association documenting its use as early as 1945. [47] As with other sources of trauma, combat veterans may benefit from art therapy to access memories and to engage with treatment. A 2016 randomized control trial found that art therapy in conjunction with cognitive processing therapy (CPT) was more beneficial than CPT alone. [48] Walter Reed Army Medical Center, the National Intrepid Center of Excellence and other Veteran Association institutions use art therapy to help veterans with PTSD. [49]

Bereavement

A number of therapists use art therapy to assist those who have recently experienced the death of a loved one. This is proposed to be particularly beneficial where clients find it difficult to verbalize their feelings of loss and shock, and so may use creative means to express their feelings. [50] For example, it has been used to enable children to express their feelings of the loss where they may lack the maturity to verbalize and communicate their bereavement.

Eating disorders

Art therapy may help people with anorexia with weight improvements and may help with depression level. [51] Traumatic or negative childhood experiences can result in unintentionally harmful coping mechanisms, such as eating disorders. As a result, clients may be cut off from their emotions, self-rejecting, and detached from their strengths. [52] Art therapy may provide an outlet for exploring these inaccessible strengths and emotions; this is important because persons with eating disorders may not know how to vocalize their emotions. [52]

Art therapy may be beneficial for clients with eating disorders because clients can create visual representations with art material of progress made, represent alterations to the body, and provide a nonthreatening method of acting out impulses. [52] Individuals with eating disorders tend to rely heavily on defense mechanisms to feel a sense of control; it is important that clients feel a sense of authority over their art products through freedom of expression and controllable art materials. [52] Through controllable media, such as pencils, markers, and colored pencils, along with freedom of choice with the media, clients with eating disorders can create boundaries around unsettling themes. [53]

Another systematic literature review found conclusive evidence that art therapy resulted in significant weight loss in patients with obesity, as well as helping with a range of psychological symptoms. [24]

Ongoing Daily Challenges

Those who do not suffer from a mental illness or physical disease were also tested, these patients have ongoing daily challenges such as high-intensity jobs, financial constraints, and other personal issues. Findings revealed that art therapy reduces levels of stress and burnout related to patients' professions. [24]

Containment

The term containment, within art therapy and other therapeutic settings, has been used to describe what the client can experience within the safety and privacy of a trusting relationship between client and counselor. [54] [55] This term has also been equated, within art therapy research, with the holding or confining of an issue within the boundaries of visual expression, like a border or the circumference of a mandala. [56] The creation of mandalas for symptom regulation is not a new approach within the field of art therapy, and numerous studies have been conducted in order to assess their efficacy. [57] [58]

Purpose

Art media commonly used in art therapy Art Mediums commonly used for Art Therapy.JPG
Art media commonly used in art therapy

The purpose of art therapy is essentially one of healing. Art therapy can be successfully applied to clients with physical, mental or emotional problems, diseases and disorders. Any type of visual art and art medium can be employed within the therapeutic process, including painting, drawing, sculpting, photography, and digital art. [59] Art therapy may include creative exercises such as drawing or painting a certain emotion, creative journaling, or freestyle creation. [60]

One proposed learning mechanism is through the increased excitation, and as a consequence, strengthening of neuronal connections. [61]

A typical session

A man draws in response to an art therapy directive Adult Male ART T.JPG
A man draws in response to an art therapy directive

Art therapy can take place in a variety of different settings. Art therapists may vary the goals of art therapy and the way they provide art therapy, depending upon the institution's or client's needs. After an assessment of the client's strengths and needs, art therapy may be offered in either an individual or group format, according to which is better suited to the person. Art therapist Dr. Ellen G. Horovitz wrote, "My responsibilities vary from job to job. It is wholly different when one works as a consultant or in an agency as opposed to private practice. In private practice, it becomes more complex and far reaching. If you are the primary therapist then your responsibilities can swing from the spectrum of social work to the primary care of the patient. This includes dovetailing with physicians, judges, family members, and sometimes even community members that might be important in the caretaking of the individual." [62] Like other psychotherapists in private practice, some art therapists find it important to ensure, for the therapeutic relationship, that the sessions occur each week in the same space and at the same time. [63]

Art therapy is often offered in schools as a form of therapy for children because of their creativity and interest in art as a means of expression. Art therapy can benefit children with a variety of issues, such as learning disabilities, speech and language disorders, behavioral disorders, and other emotional disturbances that might be hindering a child's learning. [63] Similar to other psychologists that work in schools, art therapists should be able to diagnose the problems facing their student clients, and individualize treatment and interventions. Art therapists work closely with teachers and parents in order to implement their therapy strategies. [63]

Art-based assessments

Art therapists and other professionals use art-based assessments to evaluate emotional, cognitive, and developmental conditions. There are also many psychological assessments that utilize artmaking to analyze various types of mental functioning (Betts, 2005). Art therapists and other professionals are educated to administer and interpret these assessments, most of which rely on simple directives and a standardized array of art materials (Malchiodi 1998, 2003; Betts, 2005). [64] The first drawing assessment for psychological purposes was created in 1906 by German psychiatrist Fritz Mohr (Malchiodi 1998). [64] In 1926, researcher Florence Goodenough created a drawing test to measure the intelligence in children called the Draw-A-Man Test (Malchiodi 1998). [64] The key to interpreting the Draw-A-Man Test was that the more details a child incorporated into the drawing, the MORE intelligent they were (Malchiodi, 1998). [64] Goodenough and other researchers realized the test had just as much to do with personality as it did intelligence (Malchiodi, 1998). [64] Several other psychiatric art assessments were created in the 1940s, and have been used ever since (Malchiodi 1998). [64]

Notwithstanding, many art therapists eschew diagnostic testing and indeed some writers (Hogan 1997) question the validity of therapists making interpretative assumptions. More recent literature, however, highlights the utility of standardized approaches to treatment planning and clinical decision-making, such as is evidenced through this source. Below are some examples of art therapy assessments:

Mandala Assessment Research Instrument

In this assessment, a person is asked to select a card from a deck with different mandalas (designs enclosed in a geometric shape) and then must choose a color from a set of colored cards. The person is then asked to draw the mandala from the card they choose with an oil pastel of the color of their choice. The artist is then asked to explain if there were any meanings, experiences, or related information related to the mandala they drew. This test is based on the beliefs of Joan Kellogg, who sees a recurring correlation between the images, pattern and shapes in the mandalas that people draw and the personalities of the artists. This test assesses and gives clues to a person's psychological progressions and their current psychological condition (Malchiodi 1998). The mandala originates in Buddhism; its connections with spirituality help us to see links with transpersonal art.

House–Tree–Person

4-year-old's drawing of a person Child Art Aged 4.5 Person 2.png
4-year-old's drawing of a person

In the house-tree-person test, the client is asked to make a drawing that includes a house, a tree and a person, after which the therapist asks several questions about each. For example, with reference to the house, Buck (1984) wrote questions such as, “Is it a happy house?” and “What is the house made of?” Regarding the tree, questions include, “About how old is that tree?” and “Is the tree alive?” Concerning the person, questions include, “Is that person happy?” and “How does that person feel?”

The house-tree-person test (HTP) is a projective personality test, a type of exam in which the test taker responds to or provides ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli (often in the form of pictures or drawings). It is to measure aspects of a person’s personality through interpretation of drawings and responses to questions, self-perceptions and attitudes. [65]

Outsider art

The relation between the fields of art therapy and outsider art has been widely debated. The term 'art brut' was first coined by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture. Dubuffet used the term 'art brut' to focus on artistic practice by insane-asylum patients. The English translation "outsider art" was first used by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972. [66] [67]

Both terms have been criticized because of their social and personal impact on both patients and artists. Art therapy professionals have been accused of not putting enough emphasis on the artistic value and meaning of the artist's works, considering them only from a medical perspective. This led to the misconception of the whole outsiderart practice, while addressing therapeutical issues within the field of aesthetical discussion. Outsider Art, on the contrary, has been negatively judged because of the labeling of the artists' work, i.e. the equation artist = genius = insane. Moreover, the business-related issues on the term outsider art carry some misunderstandings. [68] [69] While the outsider artist is part of a specific art system, which can add a positive value to both the artist's work as well as his personal development, it can also imprison him within the boundaries of the system itself. [70] [71]

See also

Related Research Articles

Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction with adults, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. There are also numerous types of psychotherapy designed for children and adolescents, such as play therapy. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders. Others have been criticized as pseudoscience.

Music therapy

Music therapy, an allied health profession, "is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program."

Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in USA/ Australia or dance movement psychotherapy (DMP) in the UK is the psychotherapeutic use of movement and dance to support intellectual, emotional, and motor functions of the body. As a modality of the creative arts therapies, DMT looks at the correlation between movement and emotion.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy developed by Francine Shapiro starting in 1988 in which the person being treated is asked to recall distressing images; the therapist then directs the patient in one type of bilateral stimulation, such as side-to-side eye rapid movement or hand tapping. According to the 2013 World Health Organization practice guideline: "This therapy [EMDR] is based on the idea that negative thoughts, feelings and behaviours are the result of unprocessed memories. The treatment involves standardized procedures that include focusing simultaneously on (a) spontaneous associations of traumatic images, thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations and (b) bilateral stimulation that is most commonly in the form of repeated eye movements."

Psychodynamic psychotherapy or psychoanalytic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension.

The Dodo bird verdict is a controversial topic in psychotherapy, referring to the claim that all empirically validated psychotherapies, regardless of their specific components, produce equivalent outcomes. It is named after the Dodo character in Alice in Wonderland. The conjecture was introduced by Saul Rosenzweig in 1936, drawing on imagery from Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, but only came into prominence with the emergence of new research evidence in the 1970s.

Somatic experiencing is a form of alternative therapy aimed at relieving the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental and physical trauma-related health problems by focusing on the client's perceived body sensations. It was developed by trauma therapist Peter A. Levine.

Dissociative disorders (DD) are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. People with dissociative disorders use dissociation as a defense mechanism, pathologically and involuntarily. The individual suffers these dissociations to protect themselves. Some dissociative disorders are triggered by psychological trauma, but depersonalization-derealization disorder may be preceded only by stress, psychoactive substances, or no identifiable trigger at all.

Play therapy childrens mental health therapy method

Play therapy refers to a range of methods of capitalising on children's natural urge to explore and harnessing it to meet and respond to the developmental and later also their mental health needs. It is also used for forensic or psychological assessment purposes where the individual is too young or too traumatised to give a verbal account of adverse, abusive or potentially criminal circumstances in their life.

Animal-assisted therapy

Animal-assisted therapy is an alternative or complementary type of therapy that includes the use of animals in a treatment. It falls under the realm of Animal Assisted Intervention, which encompasses any intervention that includes an animal in a therapeutic context such as emotional support animals, service animals trained to assist with daily activities, and animal assisted activity. Animal-assisted therapy can be classified by the type of animal, the targeted population, and how the animal is incorporated into the therapeutic plan. The most commonly used types of animal-assisted therapy are canine-assisted therapy and equine-assisted therapy. The goal of animal-assisted therapy is to improve a patient's social, emotional, or cognitive functioning and literature reviews state that animals can be useful for educational and motivational effectiveness for participants. Studies have documented the positive effects of the therapy as reported on subjective self-rating scales and on objective physiological measures such as blood pressure and hormone levels.

Writing therapy

Writing therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the act of writing and processing the written word as therapy. Writing therapy posits that writing one's feelings gradually eases feelings of emotional trauma. Writing therapeutically can take place individually or in a group and it can be administered in person with a therapist or remotely through mailing or the Internet.

Experience Focussed Counselling (EFC) is a normalising, non-pathologizing approach to counselling or psychosocial support/accompaniment aimed particularly, but not exclusively, at persons who may be distressed by their experiences of hearing voices aka auditory hallucinations, visions or other phenomena which are commonly associated with diagnoses such as schizophrenia and other mental disorders.

Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is a form of behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy designed to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. It is characterized by two main treatment procedures – imaginal and in vivo exposures. Imaginal exposure is repeated 'on-purpose' retelling of the trauma memory. In vivo exposure is gradually confronting situations, places, and things that are reminders of the trauma or feel dangerous. Additional procedures include processing of the trauma memory and breathing retraining.

Supportive psychotherapy is a psychotherapeutic approach that integrates various therapeutic schools such as psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral, as well as interpersonal conceptual models and techniques.

Sensory art therapy is a type of treatment that uses all kinds of art to explore emotions, resolve psychological conflicts, reduce anxiety, as well as decrease physical pain. The creative and nonconventional process of sensory art therapy often elicits better results for individuals who suffer from chronic stress, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as those who have been diagnosed with learning/development disabilities.

The mainstay of management of borderline personality disorder is various forms of psychotherapy with medications being found to be of little use.


Occupational Therapy is used to manage the issues caused by seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Occupational therapists assist with the management of SAD through the incorporation of a variety of healthcare disciplines into therapeutic practice. Potential patients with SAD are assessed, treated and evaluated primarily using treatments such as drug therapies, light therapies, and psychological therapies. Therapists are often involved in designing an individualised treatment plan that most effectively meets the client's goals and needs around their responsiveness to a variety of treatments.

Film/Video-Based Therapy involves making movies with clients. It draws from several disciplines from cinema therapy, expressive therapy, narrative therapy, art therapy, digital storytelling, and phototherapy which requires a collaboration to integrate the many dynamic aspects of art and medicine. Joshua Lee Cohen Ph.D., author and co-editor of Video and Filmmaking as Psychotherapy: Research and Practice, helped to establish a collaborative effort in forming film/video-based therapy. This form of therapy is about making films with clients, as opposed to cinema therapy, which involves watching films. Dr. Cohen has utilized watching films and mindfulness in his work. Dr. Cohen has been cited in Tuval-Mashiach and Patton's clinical trial and participated in peer reviewed research on the use of video narrative in cancer research. It is not trademarked for advertising or financial purposes but intended to protect the sanctity of the license for mental health professionals and the use of the word "therapy" when used in conjunction with film/video in the United States.

Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) is a mind-body psychotherapy that is informed by research in the areas of attachment theory, emotion theory, and neuroscience of change. This model of psychotherapy incorporates techniques from experiential therapies and ISTDP.

Sexual trauma therapy is medical and psychological interventions provided to survivors of sexual violence aiming to treat their physical injuries and cope with mental trauma caused by the event. Examples of sexual violence include any acts of unwanted sexual actions like sexual harassment, groping, rape, and circulation of sexual content without consent.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Hogan, Susan (2001). Healing Arts: The History of Art Therapy. United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers London and Philadelphia. pp. 21, 22. ISBN   1-85302-799-5.
  2. 1 2 3 "About Art Therapy". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  3. 1 2 Wadeson, H., Durkin, J., & Perach, D. (1989). Advances in art therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  4. 1 2 Directory, Therapist (2017-04-16). "Art Therapy". Therapist Directory. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  5. Hogan, S. (2001). Healing arts: The history of art therapy. London: Jessica Kingsley. p. 135.
  6. Hill, A. (1945). Art versus illness: A story of art therapy. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  7. Walker, J. (1992). Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed. London, Library Association Publishing
  8. Waller, D. (1991). Becoming a profession: A history of art therapy 1940–82. London: Routledge.
  9. Naumburg, M. (1953). Psychoneurotic art: Its function in psychotherapy. New York: Grune & Stratton, p. 3.
  10. Kramer, E. (1971). Art as therapy with children. New York: Schocken Books, p. 219.
  11. Junge, M. (2010). The modern history of art therapy in the United States. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. ISBN   978-0-398-07940-6
  12. Coulter-Smith, A. (August, 1990). International Networking Group of Art Therapists, Newsletter No. 1.
  13. Potash, J. S.; Ramirez, W. A. (2013). "Broadening history, expanding possibilities: Contributions of Wayne Ramirez to art therapy". Art Therapy. 30 (4): 169–176. doi:10.1080/07421656.2014.847084. S2CID   145761884.
  14. Kalmanowitz, D.; Lloyd, B. (1999). "Fragments of art at work: Art therapy in the former Yugoslavia". The Arts in Psychotherapy. 26 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1016/s0197-4556(98)00027-6.
  15. Boston C. G. (2005). "Life story of an art therapist of color". Art Therapy. 22 (4): 189–192. doi:10.1080/07421656.2005.10129519. S2CID   145467423.
  16. Edwards, David (2004). Art therapy. London: SAGE. ISBN   978-0761947509.
  17. "About Art Therapy". British Association of Art Therapists. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  18. "About Art Therapy". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  19. "State Advocacy". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  20. "Becoming an Art Therapist". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  21. "Credentials and Licensure". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  22. "Becoming an Art Therapist". American Art Therapy Association. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  23. Lusebrink, Vija B. (2010). "Assessment and Therapeutic Application of the Expressive Therapies Continuum: Implications for Brain Structures and Functions" (PDF). Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 27 (4): 168–177. doi:10.1080/07421656.2010.10129380. S2CID   6758378.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Regev, Dafna; Cohen-Yatziv, Liat (2018-08-29). "Effectiveness of Art Therapy With Adult Clients in 2018—What Progress Has Been Made?". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 1531. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01531. ISSN   1664-1078. PMC   6124538 . PMID   30210388.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stuckey, HL; Nobel, J (February 2010). "The connection between art, healing, and public health: a review of current literature". American Journal of Public Health. 100 (2): 254–63. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.156497. PMC   2804629 . PMID   20019311.
  26. Forzoni, Silvia; Perez, Michela; Martignetti, Angelo; Crispino, Sergio (March 2010). "Art therapy with cancer patients during chemotherapy sessions: an analysis of the patients' perception of helpfulness". Palliative & Supportive Care. 8 (1): 41–48. doi:10.1017/S1478951509990691. ISSN   1478-9523. PMID   20163759.
  27. Monti, Daniel A.; Peterson, Caroline; Kunkel, Elisabeth J. Shakin; Hauck, Walter W.; Pequignot, Edward; Rhodes, Lora; Brainard, George C. (May 2006). "A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) for women with cancer". Psycho-Oncology. 15 (5): 363–373. doi:10.1002/pon.988. ISSN   1057-9249. PMID   16288447.
  28. Wood M. J.; Molassiotis A.; Payne S. (2011). "What research evidence is there for the use of art therapy in the management of symptoms in adults with cancer? A systematic review". Psycho-Oncology. 20 (2): 135–145. doi:10.1002/pon.1722. PMID   20878827.
  29. "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  30. Malchiodi, Cathy A. (2008). The art therapy sourcebook (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN   978-0071468275.
  31. Wadeson, Harriet (2010). Art psychotherapy (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN   978-0470417003.
  32. Cowl, Andrielle L.; Gaugler, Joseph E. (2014-10-02). "Efficacy of Creative Arts Therapy in Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: A Systematic Literature Review". Activities, Adaptation & Aging. 38 (4): 281–330. doi:10.1080/01924788.2014.966547. ISSN   0192-4788. S2CID   144965747.
  33. Chancellor, B; Duncan, A; Chatterjee, A (2014). "Art therapy for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 39 (1): 1–11. doi:10.3233/JAD-131295. PMID   24121964.
  34. Deshmukh, Sunita R.; Holmes, John; Cardno, Alastair (13 September 2018). "Art therapy for people with dementia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD011073. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011073.pub2. ISSN   1469-493X. PMC   6513479 . PMID   30215847.
  35. Alzheimer's Association (2020). "Art and Music". Alzheimer's Association. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  36. Durrani, Huma (2019-04-03). "A Case for Art Therapy as a Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorder". Art Therapy. 36 (2): 103–106. doi:10.1080/07421656.2019.1609326. ISSN   0742-1656. S2CID   181370829.
  37. "The Impact of Art on Autism". Autism Care Today. 2017-10-22. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  38. Lloyd, J; Ruddy, R; Milnes, D (2005). "Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (4): CD003728.pub2. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003728.pub2. PMID   16235338.
  39. GM, Gajić (2013). "Group art therapy as adjunct therapy for the treatment of schizophrenic patients in day hospital". Vojnosanitetski Pregled. PubMed.gov. 70 (11): 1065–1069. doi: 10.2298/vsp1311065m . PMID   24397206 . Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  40. 1 2 3 4 Pifalo, Terry (January 2007). "Jogging the Cogs: Trauma-Focused Art Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Sexually Abused Children". Art Therapy. 24 (4): 170–175. doi:10.1080/07421656.2007.10129471. ISSN   0742-1656. S2CID   42145148.
  41. 1 2 Brooke, Stephanie L. (January 1995). "Art therapy: An approach to working with sexual abuse survivors". The Arts in Psychotherapy. 22 (5): 447–466. doi:10.1016/0197-4556(95)00036-4. ISSN   0197-4556.
  42. Schouten, Karin Alice; de Niet, Gerrit J.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Kleber, Rolf J.; Hutschemaekers, Giel J. M. (April 2015). "The Effectiveness of Art Therapy in the Treatment of Traumatized Adults: A Systematic Review on Art Therapy and Trauma". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 16 (2): 220–228. doi:10.1177/1524838014555032. ISSN   1524-8380. PMID   25403446. S2CID   19653241.
  43. Writer, Mary PolsStaff (2017-11-19). "A young survivor finds a refuge in Maine". Press Herald. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  44. "Pit bull attacked eight-year-old boy, now 18". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  45. Hass-Cohen, Noah; Findlay, Joanna Clyde; Carr, Richard; Vanderlan, Jessica (2014-04-03). ""Check, Change What You Need To Change and/or Keep What You Want": An Art Therapy Neurobiological-Based Trauma Protocol". Art Therapy. 31 (2): 69–78. doi:10.1080/07421656.2014.903825. ISSN   0742-1656. S2CID   144163177.
  46. Cole Andrea, Jenefsky Nadia, Ben-David Shelly, Munson Michelle R (2018). "Feeling Connected and Understood: The Role of Creative Arts in Engaging Young Adults in Their Mental Health Services". Social Work with Groups. 41 (1–2): 6–20. doi:10.1080/01609513.2016.1258619. S2CID   151448815.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  47. Sornborger, Jo; Fann, Alice; Serpa, J. Greg; Ventrelle, Jennifer; R D N, M. S.; Ming Foynes, Melissa; Carleton, Megan; Sherrill, Andrew M.; Kao, Lan K.; Jakubovic, Rafaella; Bui, Eric (October 2017). "Integrative Therapy Approaches for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Special Focus on Treating Veterans". Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing). 15 (4): 390–398. doi:10.1176/appi.focus.20170026. ISSN   1541-4094. PMC   6519541 . PMID   31975869.
  48. Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P. (2016). "Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 33 (4): 169–177. doi:10.1080/07421656.2016.1226643. ISSN   0742-1656. PMC   5764181 . PMID   29332989.
  49. "Art & Healing | PTSD". The UnLonely Project. 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  50. Trevor J. Buser, Juleen K. Buser & Samuel T. Gladding (2005) 'Good Grief: The Part of Arts in Healing Loss and Grief' Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 1:3-4, 173-183.
  51. Lock, James; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Agras, William S.; Weinbach, Noam; Jo, Booil (January 2018). "Feasibility Study Combining Art Therapy or Cognitive Remediation Therapy with Family-based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa". European Eating Disorders Review: The Journal of the Eating Disorders Association. 26 (1): 62–68. doi:10.1002/erv.2571. ISSN   1099-0968. PMC   5732028 . PMID   29152825.
  52. 1 2 3 4 Hinz, Lisa (2006). Drawing from within: Using art to treat eating disorders. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN   9781846425431.
  53. Thompson, L. (2001). Integration of art, movement, and verbal processing with women in an eating disorders program. In S. Riley (Ed.), Group process made visible: Group art therapy (pp.209-220). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.
  54. Farrell-Kirk, R (2001). "Secrets, symbols, synthesis, and safety: The role of boxes in art therapy". American Journal of Art Therapy. 39 (3): 88–92.
  55. Stace, S (2014). "Therapeutic doll making in art psychotherapy for complex trauma". Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 31 (1): 12–20. doi:10.1080/07421656.2014.873689. S2CID   71227013.
  56. Chambala, A (2008). "Anxiety and art therapy: Treatment in the public eye". Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 25 (4): 187–189. doi:10.1080/07421656.2008.10129540. S2CID   142683904.
  57. Henderson, P; Rosen, D; Mascaro, N (2007). "Empirical study on the healing nature of mandalas". Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. 1 (3): 148–154. doi:10.1037/1931-3896.1.3.148.
  58. Martin, L; Oepen, N; Bauer, K; Nottensteiner, A; Mergheim, K; Gruber, H; Koch, S (2018). "Creative arts interventions for stress management and prevention – A systematic review". Behavioral Sciences. 8 (28): 28. doi:10.3390/bs8020028. PMC   5836011 . PMID   29470435.
  59. Thong, Sairalyn Ansano (2007). "Redefining the Tools of Art Therapy" (PDF). Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association. 24 (2): 52–58. doi:10.1080/07421656.2007.10129583. S2CID   56181715.
  60. Foundation for Art and Healing (2011). "Creative Exercises" (PDF). The Foundation of Art and healing: The Unlonely Project. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  61. Hass-Cohen, Noah; Carr, Richard (2008). Art Therapy and Clinical Neuroscience . London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp.  79. ISBN   978-1-84310-868-9.
  62. "Directory of Art Schools & Colleges – ArtSchools.com". Archived from the original on 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  63. 1 2 3 "ACB – FCC Certification Services for Wireless Equipment". Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Machioldi, C. (1998) Understanding Children's Drawings. Guildford Publications
  65. "House-Tree-Person Test | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  66. ^ Cardinal, R. (1972), Outsider Art, London
  67. Tosatti, B. (2007) Les Fascicules de l'Art brut, un saggio sull'artista Antonio dalla Valle (Paragraphs on Outsider Art. An essay on artist Antonio dalla Valle)
  68. Baumann, Daniel (2001), Art Brut? Outsider art? Denkfigur und Behauptung (Art Brut? Outsider Art? Meanings and Shapes of thought), Kunst-Bulletin, Geneva
  69. Navratil, Leo (1996) Art Brut & Psychiatry, Raw Vision, Geneva
  70. Bedoni, Giorgio; Tosatti, Bianca (2000),Arte e psichiatria. Uno sguardo sottile (Art and psychiatry. A thin look), Mazzotta, Milano
  71. Rexer, Lyle (2005), How to Look at Outsider Art, New York:Abrams