|Purpose||Working for a World without war|
|Methods||Seminars and Conferences, Education, Advocation|
|Council of the|
|Assembly of the International Peace Bureau|
The International Peace Bureau (IPB) (French : Bureau international de la paix), founded in 1891, is one of the world's oldest international peace federations.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or heterogeneous groups.
IPB was founded under the name Permanent International Peace Bureau (Bureau International Permanent de la Paix). From 1912 onward it used the name International Peace Bureau. Between 1946 and 1961, it was known under the name International Liaison Committee of Organizations for Peace – ILCOP (Comité de liaison international des organisations de paix – CLIOP).
The organisation was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910 "[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries". As of 2012 [update] , eleven other Nobel Peace Prize laureates have been members of the IPB.In 1913 Henri La Fontaine was also awarded the Prize "[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau".
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Henri La Fontaine, was a Belgian international lawyer and president of the International Peace Bureau. He received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913 because " he was the effective leader of the peace movement in Europe".
The current Co-Presidents are:
|Reiner Braun||International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms|
|Lisa Clark||Beati i Costruttore di Pace|
The current Treasurer is:
|Lohes Rajeswaran||Beati i Costruttore di Pace|
The Vice-Presidents deputise for the President when necessary. The current Vice-Presidents are:
|Jordi Calvo||Centre Delàs|
|Tarja Cronberg||Peace Union of Finland|
|Joseph Gerson||Peace Action|
|Dave Webb||Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament|
The members of the Steering Committee are the aforementioned officers, as well as the following persons:
|Ali Al-Rufaie||Iraqi Peace & Solidarity Council|
|Albert Caramés||Fundacio per la Pau|
|Nathalie Gauchet||Mouvement de la paix|
|Alexander Harang||Norwegian Peace Association|
|Yeshua Moser-Puangsuwan||Nonviolence International|
|Laura Lodenius||Peace Union of Finland|
|Tore Naerland||Bike for Peace|
|Suleyman Selanger||International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms|
|Steve Staples||Science for Peace|
|Etienne de Jonghe||Pax Christi International||(Co-opted)|
The Board of the IPB comprises all elected officers (President, Treasurer and the Vice Presidents), as well as all members of the Steering Committee.
The Global Campaign on Military Spending (GCOMS) is a permanent, global, year-round campaign that was created in December 2014 by the IPB to tackle the worldwide issue of excessive military spending.
The aim of the campaign is to pressure the world's governments to invest money in the sectors of health, education, employment and climate change rather than military. It also calls for an annual, minimum reallocation of 10% from the military budgets of all states. Finally, it advocates the reduction of arms production and international weapons trade.
It works to achieve this goal through:
The campaign organises the Global Day of Action on Military Spending (GDAMS) to bring public, media and political attention to the costs of military spending and the need to invest in new priorities.
Established in 1992, the Seán MacBride Peace Prize is awarded by the International Peace Bureau to a person or organisation that "has done outstanding work for peace, disarmament and/or human rights."It is named after Seán MacBride, a former Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, who was chairman of the IPB from 1968–74 and president from 1974-1985.
The following are the recipients of the Seán MacBride Peace Prize since its inception in 1992:
|1992||Michael D. Higgins|
|1993||Motarilavoa Hilda Lini||Played a key role in the WHO’s decision to approve a request to the World Court on the legal status of nuclear weapons.|
|1994||Mordechai Vanunu||Sentenced to 18 years solitary confinement for revealing details of Israel’s nuclear arsenal.|
|1995||The Committee of Soldiers' Mothers of Russia||Foremost among Russian citizens’ groups opposing the war in Chechnya.|
|1996||Selim Bešlagić||For "his fight against nationalism, ethnic cleansing and intolerance during his country's war."|
|1997||Seeds of Hope Group||For disarming a Hawk aircraft bound for Indonesia.|
|1998||John Hume||For "his contribution to the Northern Ireland peace process."|
|1999||Barbara Gladysch||For her "extraordinary and year-long commitment to disarmament and practical solidarity with victims of wars and disasters."|
|2000||1) Praful Bidwai |
2) Achin Vanaik
|For being at the "forefront of the international campaign against the nuclearisation of South Asia."|
|2001||Rosalie Bertell||For "her lifelong engagement to the cause of peace and for her deep concern for the well-being of peoples all over the planet.|
|2002||Barbara Lee||For "her sole vote against the bombing of Afghanistan."|
|2003||Nihon Hidankyō||Survivors of the A bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. They have devoted the rest of their lives to the elimination of nuclear weapons.|
|2004||Geneva Initiative on the Middle East|
|2005||No award made|
|2006|| Mayors for Peace: ||For "its achievements in arousing international public demand for the abolition of nuclear weapons and lasting world peace."|
|2007||Jayantha Dhanapala||For "his dedication to the cause of disarmament and his initiatives towards creating the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapons Free Zone."|
|2008||Jacqueline Cabasso||For "her years of outstanding work with NGOs and initiatives toward peace and the abolition of nuclear weapons."|
|2009||Betty Reardon||For "her contribution to peace education and to the wider peace movement."|
|2010||Binalakshmi Nepram||For "her extraordinary efforts to promote disarmament and an end to gun violence in India."|
|2011||1) Hanaa Edwar |
2) Dr. Peter Becker
|1) For "her contribution to the advancement of democracy and human rights, as well as her firm stand against violence and war;" |
2) For his work with the German section of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA).
|2012||1) Lina Ben Mhenni |
2) Nawal El Saadawi
|For showing "great courage and ... substantial contributions to what is known as the Arab Spring."|
|2013||Chelsea Manning||For "his courageous actions in revealing information about US war crimes."|
|2014||The People and Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands||For "courageously taking the nine nuclear weapons-possessing countries to the International Court of Justice to enforce compliance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty and international customary law."|
|2015||The People and the Island Communities of Lampedusa, Italy and Jeju Island, South Korea||For showing "a profound commitment to peace and social justice."|
|2016||IPB Secretary-General Colin Archer||For 26 years "in the service of peace and of the IPB community."|
|2017||1) All Okinawa Council Against Henoko New Base |
2) Noam Chomsky
3) Jeremy Corbyn
|1) For "its unflagging commitment to close the Futemna Marine Air Base, and for its nonviolent opposition to the construction of a massive new air, land and sea base in Henoko;" |
2) For his "tireless commitment to peace, his strong critiques to U.S. foreign policy, and his anti-imperialism;"
3) For his "sustained and powerful political work for disarmament and peace."
|2018||1) Association For Historical Dialogue and Research and Home for Cooperation |
2) Helena Maleno
3) Douglas Roche
|1) For its "efforts and promotion of [a] Culture of Peace and as well as the peace building activities;" |
2) For her "efforts to save hundreds of lives in the Mediterranean Sea, and her strong commitment to defending human rights;"
3) For his "tireless efforts to promote international peace and disarmament."
IPB's work was rewarded by the Nobel Peace Prize in 1910, which has also been awarded to some of its members:
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Élie Ducommun was a Swiss peace activist. He was a Nobel laureate, awarded the 1902 Nobel Peace Prize, which he shared with Charles Albert Gobat.
Eisaku Satō was a Japanese politician and the 39th Prime Minister of Japan, elected on 9 November 1964, and re-elected on 17 February 1967, and 14 January 1970, serving until 7 July 1972. As such, he is the longest uninterrupted serving PM in Japanese history and the first Prime Minister to have been born in the 20th century. He is also the only Japanese laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Seán MacBride was an Irish Clann na Poblachta politician who served as Minister for External Affairs from 1948 to 1951, Leader of Clann na Poblachta from 1946 to 1965 and Chief of Staff of the IRA from 1936 to 1939. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1947 to 1957.
Charles Albert Gobat was a Swiss lawyer, educational administrator, and politician who jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize with Élie Ducommun in 1902 for their leadership of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
Clare Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. Founded in 1966 by Clare College, Clare Hall is a college for advanced study, admitting only postgraduate students alongside postdoctoral researchers and fellows. It was established to serve as an Institute of Advanced Studies and has slowly grown and developed into a full constituent college.
The title Man of Peace was created in 1999 by the annual World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates in Rome. The purpose of the award is to recognize individuals who "from personalities from the world of culture and entertainment who have stood up for human rights and for the spread of the principles of Peace and Solidarity in the world, made an outstanding contribution to international social justice and peace".
Fredrik Stang Heffermehl is a Norwegian jurist, writer and peace activist. He formerly worked as a lawyer and civil servant from 1965 to 1982 and was the first secretary-general of the Norwegian Humanist Association from 1980 to 1982. He later made his mark as a writer and activist for peace and against nuclear arms. He is the honorary president, and former president, of the Norwegian Peace Council, a former vice president of the International Peace Bureau, which received the 1910 Nobel Peace Prize, and a former vice president of the International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms.
The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to United States President Barack Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between people". The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the award on October 9, 2009, citing Obama's promotion of nuclear nonproliferation and a "new climate" in international relations fostered by Obama, especially in reaching out to the Muslim world.
The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union (EU) "for over six decades [having] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe" by a unanimous decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has grown into an international movement, and according to former Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, she has become "the most prominent citizen" of the country.
The World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates was initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev in the 90s, as a forum in which the Nobel Peace Laureates and the Peace Laureate Organizations could come together to address global issues with a view to encourage and support peace and human well being in the world. Its Permanent Secretariat is an independent, non-profit, ECOSOC non-governmental organization, based in Rome, operating on a permanent basis. A permanent staff, mainly composed of volunteers, promotes the work of the Nobel Peace Prize Winners and organizes the World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates on a yearly basis. To date, the Permanent Secretariat has organized 16 Summits, the most recent having been held in February 2017 in the city of Bogota, Colombia. This was the first time that the Summit took place in Latin America.
The Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organization is a group formed by hibakusha in 1956 with the goals of pressuring the Japanese government to improve support of the victims and lobbying governments for the abolition of nuclear weapons.
The 2017 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition on such weapons," according to the Norwegian Nobel Committee announcement on October 6, 2017. The award announcement acknowledged the fact that "the world's nine nuclear-armed powers and their allies" neither signed nor supported the treaty-based prohibition known as the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons or nuclear ban treaty, yet in an interview Committee Chair Berit Reiss-Andersen told reporters that the award was intended to give "encouragement to all players in the field" to disarm. The award was hailed by civil society as well as governmental and intergovernmental representatives who support the nuclear ban treaty, but drew criticism from those opposed. At the Nobel Peace Prize award ceremony held in Oslo City Hall on December 10, 2017, Setsuko Thurlow, an 85-year-old survivor of the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, and ICAN Executive Director Beatrice Fihn jointly received a medal and diploma of the award on behalf of ICAN and delivered the Nobel lecture.
The 2018 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad "for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict," according to the Norwegian Nobel Committee announcement on 5 October 2018 in Oslo, Norway. "Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, such war crimes," according to the award citation. After reading the citation, Committee Chair Berit Reiss-Andersen told reporters that the impact of this year's award is to highlight sexual abuse with the goal that every level of governance take responsibility to end such crimes and impunities.
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