The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish : Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee selects the recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize each year on behalf of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel's estate, based on instructions of Nobel's will.
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.
Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize (that has varied throughout the years).It is one of the five prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm.Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 962,154 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.
The Nobel Peace Prize was first awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant — who shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor (equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008) — and, most recently, to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad in 2018.
Frédéric Passy was a French economist and a joint winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.
Henry Dunant, also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. The 1864 Geneva Convention was based on Dunant's ideas. In 1901 he received the first Nobel Peace Prize together with Frédéric Passy, making Dunant the first Swiss Nobel laureate.
Denis Mukwege is a Congolese gynecologist and Pentecostal pastor. He founded and works in Panzi Hospital in Bukavu, where he specializes in the treatment of women who have been raped by armed rebels. He has treated thousands of women who were victims of rape since the Second Congo War, some of them more than once, performing up to ten operations a day during his 17-hour working days. According to The Globe and Mail, Mukwege is "likely the world's leading expert on repairing injuries of rape".
Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, and as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history.
Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has grown into an international movement, and according to former Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, she has become "the most prominent citizen" of the country.
The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; with several of the selections having been criticised,and, on 19 occasions (as of 2018), no prize was awarded.
As of 2018 [update] , the Peace Prize has been awarded to 106 individuals and 24 organizations. Seventeen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize. Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944 and 1963) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981). There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.
Lê Đức Thọ is the only person to refuse to accept a Nobel Peace Prize.He was jointly awarded the 1973 award with Henry Kissinger but declined the prize on grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not for him  and that the Paris Peace Accords were not being adhered to in full.
|1901||Henry Dunant||For his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross|
|Frédéric Passy||"[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress"|
|1902||Élie Ducommun||"[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"|
|Charles Albert Gobat||"[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"|
|1903||William Randal Cremer||"[For his role as] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"|
|1904||Institute of International Law||"[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law"|
|1905||Bertha von Suttner||For writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize|
|1906||Theodore Roosevelt||"[For] his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"|
|1907||Ernesto Teodoro Moneta||"[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"|
|Louis Renault||"[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"|
|1908||Klas Pontus Arnoldson||"[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"|
|Fredrik Bajer||"[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"|
|1909||Auguste Beernaert||"[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"|
|Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant||"[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"|
|1910||Permanent International Peace Bureau||"[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries"|
|1911||Tobias Asser||"[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law"|
|Alfred Fried||"[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society"|
|1912||Elihu Root [A]||"[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"|
|1913||Henri La Fontaine||"[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau"|
|1914||Not awarded due to World War I .|
|1917||International Committee of the Red Cross||"[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families"|
|1918||Not awarded due to World War I .|
|1919||Woodrow Wilson||"[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"|
|1920||Léon Bourgeois||"[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'"|
|1921||Hjalmar Branting||"[F]or his work in the League of Nations"|
|Christian Lange||"[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"|
|1922||Fridtjof Nansen||"[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace"|
|1925||Sir Austen Chamberlain [A]||For work on the Locarno Treaties|
|Charles G. Dawes [A]||"[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"|
|1926||Aristide Briand||For work on the Locarno Treaties|
|1927||Ferdinand Buisson||"[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"|
|1929||Frank B. Kellogg [A]||"[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy"|
|1930||Nathan Söderblom||"[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"|
|1931||Jane Addams||"[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"|
|Nicholas Murray Butler||"[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"|
|1933||Sir Norman Angell [A]||For authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general"|
|1934||Arthur Henderson||"[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"|
|1935||Carl von Ossietzky [B]||"[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"|
|1936||Carlos Saavedra Lamas||"[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia"|
|1937||The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood||For his work with the League of Nations|
|1938||Nansen International Office for Refugees||For its work in aiding refugees|
|1939||Not awarded due to World War II .|
|1944||International Committee of the Red Cross||"[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity"|
|1945||Cordell Hull||"[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"|
|1946||Emily Greene Balch||"Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"|
|John Raleigh Mott||"Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"|
|1947||The Quakers (represented by Friends Service Council and American Friends Service Committee)||"compassion for others and the desire to help them"|
|1948||Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi in India.)|
|1949||The Lord Boyd-Orr||"Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agriculture Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"|
|1950||Ralph Bunche||"Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"|
|1951||Léon Jouhaux||"President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"|
|1952||Albert Schweitzer||"Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"|
|1953||George C. Marshall||"General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan '"|
|1954||Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees||"An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"|
|1957||Lester Bowles Pearson||"former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly"; "for his role in helping to end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."|
|1958||Dominique Pire||"Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""|
|1959||Philip Noel-Baker||"Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"|
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
|"President of the African National Congress," "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."|
|1961||Dag Hammarskjöld [C]||"Secretary General of the U.N.," awarded "for strengthening the organization."|
|1962||Linus Pauling||"for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"|
|1963||International Committee of the Red Cross||For their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.|
|League of Red Cross Societies|
|1964||Martin Luther King, Jr.||Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence." King spent his time working in various areas of the civil rights movement; from equal education to economic disenfranchisement of minorities. King also organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”.|
|1965||United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)||"An international aid organization."|
|1968||René Cassin||"President of the European Court for Human Rights"|
|1969||International Labour Organization|
|1970||Norman E. Borlaug||"International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;" "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."|
|1971||Willy Brandt||"Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik "|
|"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"|
|Lê Đức Thọ [D]|
|"President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia." "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"|
|Eisaku Satō||"Prime Minister of Japan," "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"|
|1975||Andrei Sakharov [E]||"[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"|
|1976||Betty Williams||"Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"|
|1977||Amnesty International||"[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"|
|1978||Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat||"for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"|
(Born in Skopje, now
|"Founder of Missionaries of Charity"|
|1980||Adolfo Pérez Esquivel||"Human rights leader;" "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."|
|1981||Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees||"An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"|
|1982||Alva Myrdal||"[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"|
|Alfonso García Robles|
|1983||Lech Wałęsa||"Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"|
|1984||Desmond Tutu||"... as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. ... Through the award of this year's Peace Prize, the Committee wishes to direct attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring their country out of conflict and crisis."|
|1985||International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War||For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."|
|"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""|
|1987||Óscar Arias||"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"|
|1988||United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces||"[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"|
|1989|| Tenzin Gyatso,|
14th Dalai Lama
|"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."|
|1990||Mikhail Gorbachev||General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"|
|1991||Aung San Suu Kyi [F]||"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"|
|1992||Rigoberta Menchú||"for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"|
|1993||Nelson Mandela||"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"|
|Frederik Willem de Klerk|
|"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."|
|1995||Joseph Rotblat||"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"|
|Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs|
|1996||Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo||"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."|
|1997||International Campaign to Ban Landmines||"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"|
|1998||John Hume||"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"|
|1999||Médecins Sans Frontières||"in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"|
|2000||Kim Dae-jung||"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"|
|2001||United Nations||"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"|
|2002||Jimmy Carter||"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"|
|2003||Shirin Ebadi||"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."|
|2004||Wangari Muta Maathai||"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"|
|2005||International Atomic Energy Agency||"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"|
|2006||Muhammad Yunus||"for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"|
|2007||Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change||"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"|
|2008||Martti Ahtisaari||"for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"|
|2009||Barack Obama||"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."|
|2010||Liu Xiaobo||"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"|
|2011||Ellen Johnson Sirleaf||"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"|
|2012||European Union||"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."|
|2013||Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons||"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."|
|2014||Kailash Satyarthi||"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"|
|2015||Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet||"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011"|
|2016||Juan Manuel Santos||"for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"|
|2017||International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons||"for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons" .|
|2018||Denis Mukwege||"for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict"|
The Abel Prize is a Norwegian prize awarded annually by the King of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians. It is named after Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (1802–1829) and directly modeled after the Nobel Prizes. It comes with a monetary award of 6 million Norwegian Kroner (NOK).
The Professor Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize (Raftoprisen) is a human rights award established in the memory of the Norwegian human rights activist, Thorolf Rafto.
The Nobel Peace Center in Oslo, Norway is a showcase for the Nobel Peace Prize and the ideals it represents. The Center is also an arena where culture and politics merge to promote involvement, debate and reflection around topics such as war, peace and conflict resolution.
The International Peace Bureau (IPB), founded in 1891, is one of the world's oldest international peace federations.
Fredrik Stang Heffermehl is a Norwegian jurist, writer and peace activist. He formerly worked as a lawyer and civil servant from 1965 to 1982 and was the first secretary-general of the Norwegian Humanist Association from 1980 to 1982. He later made his mark as a writer and activist for peace and against nuclear arms. He is the honorary president, and former president, of the Norwegian Peace Council, a former vice president of the International Peace Bureau, which received the 1910 Nobel Peace Prize, and a former vice president of the International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to United States President Barack Obama for his "extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between people". The Norwegian Nobel Committee announced the award on October 9, 2009, citing Obama's promotion of nuclear nonproliferation and a "new climate" in international relations fostered by Obama, especially in reaching out to the Muslim world.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nobel Peace Prize laureates .|