List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates

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The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo. Norske nobelinstiutt 1.jpg
The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish : Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". [1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway. [2]

Norwegian Nobel Committee organization

The Norwegian Nobel Committee selects the recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize each year on behalf of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel's estate, based on instructions of Nobel's will.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Contents

Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize (that has varied throughout the years). [3] It is one of the five prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. [4]

Alfred Nobel Swedish chemist, innovator, and armaments manufacturer

Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Overview

The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. [5] Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.

Oslo Place in Østlandet, Norway

Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 962,154 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian institution

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.

The Nobel Peace Prize was first awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant — who shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor (equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008) — and, most recently, to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad in 2018.

Frédéric Passy French economist and statesman

Frédéric Passy was a French economist and a joint winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.

Henry Dunant Swiss businessman and founder of the Red Cross

Henry Dunant, also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. The 1864 Geneva Convention was based on Dunant's ideas. In 1901 he received the first Nobel Peace Prize together with Frédéric Passy, making Dunant the first Swiss Nobel laureate.

Denis Mukwege Congolese gynecologist, Nobel laureate

Denis Mukwege is a Congolese gynecologist and Pentecostal pastor. He founded and works in Panzi Hospital in Bukavu, where he specializes in the treatment of women who have been raped by armed rebels. He has treated thousands of women who were victims of rape since the Second Congo War, some of them more than once, performing up to ten operations a day during his 17-hour working days. According to The Globe and Mail, Mukwege is "likely the world's leading expert on repairing injuries of rape".

Linus Pauling American scientist

Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling. He published more than 1,200 papers and books, of which about 850 dealt with scientific topics. New Scientist called him one of the 20 greatest scientists of all time, and as of 2000, he was rated the 16th most important scientist in history.

Malala Yousafzai Pakistani childrens education activist

Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school. Her advocacy has grown into an international movement, and according to former Pakistani Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, she has become "the most prominent citizen" of the country.

Controversy

The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; with several of the selections having been criticised, [7] [8] and, on 19 occasions (as of 2018), no prize was awarded.

Laureates

As of 2018, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 106 individuals and 24 organizations. Seventeen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize. [11] Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944 and 1963) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981). [6] There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Lê Đức Thọ is the only person to refuse to accept a Nobel Peace Prize. [12] He was jointly awarded the 1973 award with Henry Kissinger but declined the prize on grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not for him [93] and that the Paris Peace Accords were not being adhered to in full.

YearLaureateCountryRationale
1901 Jean Henri Dunant.jpg Henry Dunant Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland For his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross [10] [13]
Frederic Passy.jpg Frédéric Passy Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress" [10] [13]
1902 Ducommun.jpg Élie Ducommun Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau" [10] [14]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg Charles Albert Gobat "[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union" [10] [14]
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "[For his role as] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union" [10] [15]
1904 Logo of Institut de Droit International.svg Institute of International Law Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law" [10] [16]
1905 Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg Bertha von Suttner Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary For writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize [10] [17]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States "[For] his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case" [10] [18]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Italy "[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement" [10] [19]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague" [10] [19]
1908 KParnoldson.jpg Klas Pontus Arnoldson Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League" [10] [20]
Fredrik Bajer nobel.jpg Fredrik Bajer Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau" [10] [20]
1909 Beernaert.gif Auguste Beernaert Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union" [10] [21]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration" [10] [21]
1910 IPB logo svg.svg Permanent International Peace Bureau Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries" [22] [23]
1911 TMCasser.jpg Tobias Asser Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law" [10] [24]
Alfred Hermann Fried nobel.jpg Alfred Fried Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary "[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society" [10] [24]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root [A] Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court" [10] [25]
1913 HenriLaFontaine.jpg Henri La Fontaine Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau" [10] [26]
1914Not awarded due to World War I .
1915
1916
1917 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families" [10] [27]
1918Not awarded due to World War I .
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations" [10] [28]
1920 Leon Bourgeois.jpg Léon Bourgeois Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'" [10] [29]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg Hjalmar Branting Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "[F]or his work in the League of Nations" [10] [30]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg Christian Lange Flag of Norway.svg  Norway "[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union" [10] [30]
1922 Fridtjof Nansen LOC 03377u-3.jpg Fridtjof Nansen "[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace" [31] [32]
1923Not awarded
1924
1925 Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg Sir Austen Chamberlain [A] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom For work on the Locarno Treaties [10] [33]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Charles G. Dawes [A] Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925" [10] [33]
1926 Aristide Briand 2.jpg Aristide Briand Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France For work on the Locarno Treaties [10] [34]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany
1927 Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg Ferdinand Buisson Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation" [10] [35]
Ludwig Quidde nobel.jpg Ludwig Quidde Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany
1928Not awarded
1929 FrankKellogg.jpg Frank B. Kellogg [A] Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy" [10] [36]
1930 Nathan Soderblom nobel.jpg Nathan Söderblom Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace" [10] [37]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg Jane Addams Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom" [10] [38]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg Nicholas Murray Butler "[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement" [10] [38]
1932Not awarded
1933 Norman Angell 01.jpg Sir Norman Angell [A] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom For authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general" [39]
1934 1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg Arthur Henderson "[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament" [10] [40] [41]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg Carl von Ossietzky [B] Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany "[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament" [10] [42]
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpg Carlos Saavedra Lamas Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina "[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia" [10] [43]
1937 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood - Project Gutenberg eText 15306.jpg The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom For his work with the League of Nations [10] [44]
1938 Flag of the League of Nations (1939).svg Nansen International Office for Refugees Symbol of the League of Nations.svg  League of Nations For its work in aiding refugees [45]
1939Not awarded due to World War II .
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity" [46]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization" [47]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg Emily Greene Balch "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom" [48]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations" [48]
1947 Quaker star-T.svg The Quakers (represented by Friends Service Council and American Friends Service Committee) [49] [50] "compassion for others and the desire to help them" [49]
1948Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi in India.) [9]
1949 John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg The Lord Boyd-Orr Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agriculture Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations" [51]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg Ralph Bunche Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948" [52]
1951 Leon Jouhaux nobel.jpg Léon Jouhaux Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations" [53]
1952 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg Albert Schweitzer "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)" [54]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George C. Marshall Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan '" [55]
1954 Emblem of the United Nations.svg Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951" [56]
1955Not awarded
1956
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg  Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly"; [57] "for his role in helping to end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations." [10]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg Dominique Pire Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde"" [58]
1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg Philip Noel-Baker Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation" [59]
1960 Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg Albert Lutuli Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
"President of the African National Congress," [60] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa." [10]
1961 Dag Hammarskjold.jpg Dag Hammarskjöld [C] Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.," [61] awarded "for strengthening the organization." [10]
1962 Pauling.jpg Linus Pauling Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing" [62]
1963 Emblem of the ICRC.svg International Committee of the Red Cross Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland For their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence. [63]
Emblem of the IFRC.svg League of Red Cross Societies
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg Martin Luther King, Jr. Flag of the United States.svg  United States Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence." King spent his time working in various areas of the civil rights movement; from equal education to economic disenfranchisement of minorities. King also organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”. [64]
1965 UNICEF Logo.svg United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "An international aid organization." [65]
1966Not awarded
1967
1968 Rene Cassin nobel.jpg René Cassin Flag of France.svg  France "President of the European Court for Human Rights" [66]
1969 Flag of ILO.svg International Labour Organization Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations [67]
1970 Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg Norman E. Borlaug Flag of the United States.svg  United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;" [68] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America." [10]
1971 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik " [69]
1972Not awarded
1973 Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry Kissinger Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(Born in Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany)
"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces" [10] [70]
LeDucTho1973.jpg Lê Đức Thọ [D] Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam (North)
1974 Sean MacBride 1984.jpg Seán MacBride Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland
(Born in Flag of France.svg France)
"President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia." [71] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists" [10]
Sato Eisaku.jpg Eisaku Satō Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan "Prime Minister of Japan," [71] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation" [10]
1975 RIAN archive 25981 Academician Sakharov.jpg Andrei Sakharov [E] Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations" [72]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)" [73]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg Mairead Corrigan
1977 Amnesty International "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience" [10] [74]
1978 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat Flag of Egypt (1972-1984).svg  Egypt "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel" [75]
Menachem Begin 2.jpg Menachem Begin Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland
(Born in Flag of Russia.svg Russia)
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg Mother Teresa Flag of India.svg  India
(Born in Skopje, now Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia)
"Founder of Missionaries of Charity" [76]
1980 Adolfo Perez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina "Human rights leader;" [77] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)." [10]
1981 Emblem of the United Nations.svg Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951" [78]
1982 ARB-Alva-Myrdal.jpg Alva Myrdal Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition" [79] [80]
Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg Alfonso García Robles Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
1983 Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg Lech Wałęsa Flag of Poland.svg Poland "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights" [81]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg Desmond Tutu Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa "... as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. ... Through the award of this year's Peace Prize, the Committee wishes to direct attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring their country out of conflict and crisis." [82]
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Flag of the United States.svg  United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues." [83]
1986 Elie Wiesel.jpg Elie Wiesel Flag of the United States.svg  United States
(Born in Flag of Romania.svg Romania)
"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust"" [84]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year" [85]
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations" [86] [87]
1989 Dalai Lama at WhiteHouse (cropped).jpg Tenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
Flag of India.svg  India
(Born in Flag of Tibet.svg Tibet) [88]
"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people." [89] [90]
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpg Mikhail Gorbachev Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community" [91]
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi.jpg Aung San Suu Kyi [F] Flag of Myanmar (1974-2010).svg  Burma "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights" [92]
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPG Rigoberta Menchú Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala "for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples" [93]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg Nelson Mandela Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa" [94]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk
1994 ArafatEconomicForum.jpg Yasser Arafat Flag of Palestine.svg  Palestine
(Born in Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg Egypt)
"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East." [95]
Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg Yitzhak Rabin Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg Shimon Peres Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
(Born in Flag of Poland (1919-1928).svg Poland)
1995 Josef Rotblat ID badge.png Joseph Rotblat Flag of Poland.svg  Poland "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms" [96]
Peace sign.svg Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo Flag of East Timor.svg  East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor." [97]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg José Ramos-Horta
1997 Icbl english.pdf International Campaign to Ban Landmines Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines" [98]
JodyWilliamsMay2010.jpg Jody Williams Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg John Hume Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland" [99]
David Trimble.jpg David Trimble Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1999 MSF HQ.jpg Médecins Sans Frontières Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents" [100]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae-jung Flag of South Korea (1997-2011).svg  South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular" [101]
2001 Emblem of the United Nations.svg United Nations Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world" [102]
Kofi Annan4 2007 04 20.jpg Kofi Annan Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana
2002 US Navy 050811-N-0653J-006 Former President Jimmy Carter looks over the navigation table in the control room of his namesake ship, the Sea Wolf-class attack submarine USS Jimmy Carter (SSN 23).jpg Jimmy Carter Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development" [103]
2003 Shirin Ebadi - Fronteiras do Pensamento Sao Paulo 2011 (5839607998, cropped).jpg Shirin Ebadi Flag of Iran.svg  Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children." [104]
2004 Wangari Maathai portrait by Martin Rowe.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace" [105]
2005 Flag of IAEA.svg International Atomic Energy Agency Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way" [106]
Mohamed ElBaradei.jpg Mohamed ElBaradei Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
2006 Professor Muhammad Yunus- Building Social Business Summit (8758300102).jpg Muhammad Yunus Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work" [107]
Grameen Bank
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Flag of the United Nations.svg  United Nations "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change" [108]
Al Gore.jpg Al Gore Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Martti Ahtisaari Flag of Finland.svg  Finland "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts" [109]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples." [110]
2010 Liu Xiaobo Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China" [111]
2011 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work" [112]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg Leymah Gbowee
Tawakkul Karman (2011).jpg Tawakkul Karman Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen
2012 Flag of Europe.svg European Union Flag of Europe.svg  European Union "for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe." [113]
2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands [114] "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons." [115]
2014 Kailash Satyarthi.jpg Kailash Satyarthi Flag of India.svg  India "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education" [116]
Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014.jpg Malala Yousafzai Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
2015 Tunisian national dialogue (October 2012).jpg Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011" [117]
2016 Juan Manuel Santos in 2018.jpg Juan Manuel Santos Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people" [118]
2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons" [119] .
2018 Denis Mukwege par Claude Truong-Ngoc novembre 2014.jpg Denis Mukwege Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg  Democratic Republic of the Congo "for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict" [120]
Nadia Murad in Washington - 2018 (42733243785) (cropped).jpg Nadia Murad Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq

See also

Notes

A Elihu Root, Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes, Frank B. Kellogg, and Norman Angell were all awarded their respective Prizes one year late because the Committee decided that none of the nominations in the year in which they are listed as being awarded the Prize met the criteria in Nobel's will; per its rules the Committee delayed the awarding of the Prizes until the next year, although they were awarded as the previous year's Prize. [25] [33] [36] [39]
B Carl von Ossietzky's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of Germany. [121]
C Dag Hammarskjöld's Prize was awarded posthumously.
D Lê Đức Thọ declined to accept the Prize. [70]
E Andrei Sakharov's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of the Soviet Union. [122]
F Aung San Suu Kyi's Prize was awarded in absentia because she was being held prisoner by the government of Burma. Following her release from house arrest and election to the Pyithu Hluttaw, Suu Kyi accepted her award in person on 16 June 2012. [123]
G Liu Xiaobo's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was imprisoned in China. [124]

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