List of Nobel laureates in Physics

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Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947 Nobel medal.png
Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish : Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics. [1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. [2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. [3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years. [4]

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is one of the royal academies of Sweden. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for ptomoting the natural sciences and mathematics and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

Contents

Statistics

The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Maria Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was, until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25. He remains the youngest recipient of the Physics Prize. [5] Three women have won the prize: Curie, Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), and Donna Strickland (2018). [6] As of 2018, the prize has been awarded to 209 individuals. [7]

Wilhelm Röntgen German physicist

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901. In honour of his accomplishments, in 2004 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) named element 111, roentgenium, a radioactive element with multiple unstable isotopes, after him.

Swedish krona currency of Sweden

The krona is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it but, especially in the past, it sometimes preceded the value. In English, the currency is sometimes referred to as the Swedish crown, as krona literally means crown in Swedish. The Swedish krona was the ninth-most traded currency in the world by value in April 2016.

John Bardeen American physicist and engineer

John Bardeen was an American physicist and electrical engineer. He is the only person to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.

There have been six years in which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942). There were also eight years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was delayed for one year. The Prize was not awarded in 1917, as the Nobel Committee for Physics decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria, but was awarded to Charles Glover Barkla in 1918 and counted as the 1917 prize. [8] This precedent was followed for the 1918 prize awarded to Max Planck in 1919, [9] the 1921 prize awarded to Albert Einstein in 1922, [10] , the 1924 prize awarded to Manne Siegbahn in 1925, [11] the 1925 prize awarded to James Franck and Gustav Hertz in 1926, [12] the 1928 prize awarded to Owen Richardson in 1929, [13] the 1932 prize awarded to Werner Heisenberg in 1933, [14] and the 1943 prize awarded to Otto Stern in 1944. [15]

Charles Glover Barkla English physicist

Charles Glover Barkla FRS FRSE was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays.

Max Planck German theoretical physicist

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

Albert Einstein German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics. His work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. He is best known to the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation". He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect", a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

Laureates

YearImageLaureate [A] Country [B] Rationale [C] Ref
1901 WilhelmRontgen.JPG Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him" [16]
1902 H A Lorentz (Nobel).jpg Hendrik Lorentz Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena" [17]
Pieter Zeeman.jpg Pieter Zeeman Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
1903 Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg Antoine Henri Becquerel Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity" [18]
PierreCurie.jpg Pierre Curie Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel" [18]
Mariecurie.jpg Maria Skłodowska-Curie Flag of the Congress of Poland.svg  Poland
1904 John William Strutt.jpg Lord Rayleigh Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies" [19]
1905 Phillipp Lenard in 1900.jpg Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary
Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
"for his work on cathode rays" [20]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg Joseph John Thomson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases" [21]
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg Albert Abraham Michelson Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States
Flag of the Congress of Poland.svg  Poland
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid" [22]
1908 G lippmann.jpg Gabriel Lippmann Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference" [23]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy" [24]
Ferdinand Braun.jpg Karl Ferdinand Braun Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals.jpg Johannes Diderik van der Waals Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids" [25]
1911 Wilhelm Wien 1911.jpg Wilhelm Wien Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" [26]
1912 Nils Gustaf Dalen.jpg Nils Gustaf Dalén Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys" [27]
1913 Kamerlingh portret.jpg Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium" [28]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg Max von Laue Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals", an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy. [29]
1915 Wh-bragg.jpg William Henry Bragg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays", an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography [30]
Wl-bragg.jpg William Lawrence Bragg Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1916
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg Charles Glover Barkla Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements", another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy [8]
1918 Max Planck 1933.jpg Max Planck Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta" [9]
1919 Johannes Stark.jpg Johannes Stark Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" [31]
1920 Guillaume 1920.jpg Charles Édouard Guillaume Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys" [32]
1921 Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg Albert Einstein Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect" [10]
1922 Niels Bohr.jpg Niels Bohr Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them" [33]
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg Robert Andrews Millikan Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect" [34]
1924 1924 Karl Manne Siegbahn.jpg Manne Siegbahn Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy" [11]
1925 James Franck 1925.jpg James Franck Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom" [12]
Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
1926 Jean Perrin 1926.jpg Jean Baptiste Perrin Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium" [35]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg Arthur Holly Compton Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him" [36]
CTR Wilson.jpg Charles Thomson Rees Wilson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour" [36]
1928 Owen Richardson.jpg Owen Willans Richardson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him" [13]
1929 Broglie Big.jpg Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg  France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons" [37]
1930 Sir CV Raman.JPG Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Flag of India.svg  India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him" [38]
1931
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg Werner Heisenberg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen" [14]
1933 Erwin Schrodinger (1933).jpg Erwin Schrödinger Flag of Austria.svg  Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" [39]
Dirac 4.jpg Paul Dirac Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1934
1935 James Chadwick.tif James Chadwick Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron" [40]
1936 Hess.jpg Victor Francis Hess Flag of Austria.svg  Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation" [41]
Carl David Anderson.jpg Carl David Anderson Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discovery of the positron" [41]
1937 Clinton Davisson.jpg Clinton Joseph Davisson Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals" [42]
George Paget Thomson.jpg George Paget Thomson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1938 Enrico Fermi 1943-49 140x190.jpg Enrico Fermi Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg  Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons" [43]
1939 Ernest Lawrence.jpg Ernest Lawrence Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements" [44]
1940
1941
1942
1943 Otto Stern.jpg Otto Stern Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton" [15]
1944 II Rabi.jpg Isidor Isaac Rabi Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei" [45]
1945 Pauli.jpg Wolfgang Pauli Flag of Austria.svg  Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle" [46]
1946 Bridgman.jpg Percy Williams Bridgman Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics" [47]
1947 Appleton.jpg Edward Victor Appleton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer" [48]
1948 Blackett-large.jpg Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation" [49]
1949 Yukawa.jpg Hideki Yukawa Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces" [50]
1950 Cecil Powell.jpg Cecil Frank Powell Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" [51]
1951 Cockcroft.jpg John Douglas Cockcroft Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" [52]
Ernest Walton.jpg Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom (Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland)
1952 Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg Felix Bloch Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith" [53]
Edward Mills Purcell.jpg Edward Mills Purcell Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1953 Zernike.jpg Frits Zernike Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope" [54]
1954 Max Born.jpg Max Born Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction" [55]
Bothe.jpg Walther Bothe Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith" [55]
1955 Willis Lamb 1955.jpg Willis Eugene Lamb Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum" [56]
Polykarp Kusch.jpg Polykarp Kusch Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron" [56]
1956 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect" [57]
Brattain.jpg Walter Houser Brattain Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
William Shockley, Stanford University.jpg William Bradford Shockley Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States
1957 TD Lee.jpg Tsung-Dao Lee Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles" [58]
CNYang.jpg Chen-Ning Yang Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
1958 Cerenkov.jpg Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect" [59]
Ilya Frank.jpg Ilya Frank Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Igor Tamm.jpg Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
1959 Segre.jpg Emilio Gino Segrè Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of the United States (1959-1960).svg  United States
"for their discovery of the antiproton" [60]
Owen Chamberlain.jpg Owen Chamberlain Flag of the United States (1959-1960).svg  United States
1960 Donald Glaser 1.jpg Donald Arthur Glaser Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber" [61]
1961 Robert Hofstadter.jpg Robert Hofstadter Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons" [62]
Mossbauer.jpg Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name" [62]
1962 Landau.jpg Lev Davidovich Landau Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium" [63]
1963 Wigner.jpg Eugene Paul Wigner Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles" [64]
Mayer.jpg Maria Goeppert-Mayer Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure" [64]
Jensen.jpg J. Hans D. Jensen Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1964 Basov.jpg Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser laser principle" [65]
Aleksandr Prokhorov.jpg Alexander Prokhorov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Charles Townes Nobel.jpg Charles Hard Townes Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1965 Richard Feynman Nobel.jpg Richard Phillips Feynman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" [66]
Schwinger.jpg Julian Schwinger Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Tomonaga.jpg Shin'ichirō Tomonaga Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan
1966 Kastler.jpg Alfred Kastler Flag of France.svg  France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms" [67]
1967 Hans Bethe.jpg Hans Albrecht Bethe Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" [68]
1968 LWA Picture Final.jpg Luis Walter Alvarez Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" [69]
1969 MurrayGellMannJI1.jpg Murray Gell-Mann Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions" [70]
1970 YoungAlfven.jpg Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics" [71]
Louis Neel 1970.jpg Louis Néel Flag of France.svg  France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics" [71]
1971 Dennis Gabor 1971b.jpg Dennis Gabor Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
"for his invention and development of the holographic method" [72]
1972 Bardeen.jpg John Bardeen Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory" [73]
Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg Leon Neil Cooper Flag of the United States.svg  United States
John Robert Schrieffer.jpg John Robert Schrieffer Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1973 Leo Esaki 1959.jpg Leo Esaki Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" [74]
Ivar Giaever.jpg Ivar Giaever Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
Cmglee Cambridge Wikimedia Meetup 23 tour Brian Josephson.jpg
Brian David Josephson Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect" [74]
1974 Martin Ryle Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars" [75]
Antony Hewish Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
1975 Aage Bohr.jpg Aage Bohr Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection" [76]
Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg Ben Roy Mottelson Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark
James Rainwater 2.jpg Leo James Rainwater Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1976 Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg Burton Richter Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind" [77]
Samuel ting 10-19-10.jpg Samuel Chao Chung Ting Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1977 Andersonphoto.jpg Philip Warren Anderson Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems" [78]
Mott,Nevill Francis Heisenberg 1952 London.jpg Nevill Francis Mott Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
JH van Vleck 1974.jpg John Hasbrouck Van Vleck Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1978 Pyotr L Kapitsa Russian physicist 1964.jpg Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics" [79]
Arno Penzias.jpg Arno Allan Penzias Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation" [79]
Wilson penzias200.jpg Robert Woodrow Wilson Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1979 Sheldon Glashow at Harvard cropped.jpg Sheldon Lee Glashow Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current" [80]
Abdus Salam 1987.jpg Abdus Salam Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
Steven weinberg 2010.jpg Steven Weinberg Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1980 James-cronin.jpg James Watson Cronin Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons" [81]
Val Fitch.jpg Val Logsdon Fitch Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981.jpg Nicolaas Bloembergen Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy" [82]
Artur Schawlow, Stanford University.jpg Arthur Leonard Schawlow Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Kai Manne Borje Siegbahn 2.jpg Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy" [82]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions" [83]
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.gif Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars" [84]
William A. Fowler Los Alamos ID.png William Alfred Fowler Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe" [84]
1984 Carlo Rubbia 2012.jpg Carlo Rubbia Flag of Italy.svg  Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction" [85]
Simon Van der Meer.png Simon van der Meer Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
1985 Klausvonklitzing.jpg Klaus von Klitzing Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" [86]
1986 Ernst Ruska Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope" [87]
Gerd Binnig sw.jpg Gerd Binnig Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" [87]
Rohrer.jpg Heinrich Rohrer Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
1987 Ibmgb.jpg Johannes Georg Bednorz Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials" [88]
Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg Karl Alexander Müller Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
1988 Leon M. Lederman.jpg Leon Max Lederman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino" [89]
Melvin Schwartz Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG Jack Steinberger Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey 1970 (cropped).jpg Norman Foster Ramsey Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks" [90]
Hans Georg Dehmelt Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
"for the development of the ion trap technique" [90]
Wolfgang Paul Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
1990 Physics Nobel laureate Jerry Friedman, 2016.jpg Jerome I. Friedman Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics" [91]
Henry Kendall by Tom Frost crop.jpg Henry Way Kendall Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Richard E. Taylor.jpg Richard E. Taylor Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
1991 Pierre-Gilles crop.jpg Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Flag of France.svg  France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers" [92]
1992 CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG Georges Charpak Flag of France.svg  France
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber" [93]
1993 Russell Alan Hulse.jpg Russell Alan Hulse Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation" [94]
2008JosephTaylor.jpg Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1994 Bertram Brockhouse.jpg Bertram Brockhouse Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [95]
HD.3F.113 (10347363986).jpg Clifford Glenwood Shull Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter" [95]
1995 Martin Perl - tau.jpg Martin Lewis Perl Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [96]
Frederick Reines.jpg Frederick Reines Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics" [96]
1996 Nobel Laureate David Morris Lee in 2007.jpg David Morris Lee Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3" [97]
Douglas Osheroff NSF.jpg Douglas D. Osheroff Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Robert Coleman Richardson.jpg Robert Coleman Richardson Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1997 Steven Chu official portrait headshot.jpg Steven Chu Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light." [98]
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG Claude Cohen-Tannoudji Flag of France.svg  France
William D. Phillips.jpg William Daniel Phillips Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1998 Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg Robert B. Laughlin Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations" [99]
Horst Stormer cropped.jpg Horst Ludwig Störmer Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui.jpg Daniel Chee Tsui Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
1999 Gerard 't Hooft.jpg Gerard 't Hooft Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics" [100]
Martinus Veltman.jpg Martinus J. G. Veltman Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
2000 Zhores Alferov.jpg Zhores Ivanovich Alferov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics" [101]
Herbert Kroemer (cropped).jpg Herbert Kroemer Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit" [101]
2001 Physics Nobel Laureate Eric Allin Cornell, in June of 2015.jpg Eric Allin Cornell Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" [102]
Carl Wieman.jpg Carl Edwin Wieman Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Ketterle.jpg Wolfgang Ketterle Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr 2001.jpg Raymond Davis Jr. Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" [103]
Masatoshi Koshiba 2002.jpg Masatoshi Koshiba Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
RiccardoGiacconi.jpg Riccardo Giacconi Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources" [103]
2003 AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids" [104]
Ginzburg in MSU opaque.jpg Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Nobel Laureate Sir Anthony James Leggett in 2007.jpg Anthony James Leggett Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2004 David Gross LANL.jpg David J. Gross Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction" [105]
Hugh David Politzer Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek 2007.jpg Frank Wilczek Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2005 Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg Roy J. Glauber Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" [106]
John L. Hall.jpg John L. Hall Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique" [106]
Theodor W Haensch.jpg Theodor W. Hänsch Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2006 John-C-Mather5.jpg John C. Mather Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation" [107]
George Smoot crop.jpg George F. Smoot Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2007 Albert Fert 0109.jpg Albert Fert Flag of France.svg  France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance" [108]
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg Peter Grünberg Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
2008 Mkobayashi.jpg Makoto Kobayashi Flag of Japan.svg  Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" [109]
Masukawa.jpg Toshihide Maskawa Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
YoichiroNambu.jpg Yoichiro Nambu Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" [109]
2009 Charles K. Kao cropped 2.jpg Charles K. Kao Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" [110]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-23.jpg Willard S. Boyle Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor" [110]
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-27.jpg George E. Smith Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2010 Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg Andre Geim Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" [111]
Konstantin Novoselov at MIPT.jpg Konstantin Novoselov Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2011 Saul Perlmutter.jpg Saul Perlmutter Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" [112]
Brian P Schmidt.jpg Brian P. Schmidt Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Adam Riess.jpg Adam G. Riess Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2012 Serge Haroche - Theatre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg Serge Haroche Flag of France.svg  France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems." [113]
David Wineland 2008crop.jpg David J. Wineland Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2013 Francois Englert.jpg François Englert Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider" [114]
Higgs, Peter (1929)3.jpg Peter Higgs Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2014 Isamu Akasaki 20141211.jpg Isamu Akasaki Flag of Japan.svg  Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" [115]
Hiroshi Amano 20141211.jpg Hiroshi Amano Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Shiju.jpg Shuji Nakamura Flag of Japan.svg  Japan
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2015 Takaaki Kajita 5171-2015.jpg Takaaki Kajita Flag of Japan.svg  Japan "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass" [116]
Arthur B. McDonald 5193-2015.jpg Arthur B. McDonald Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
2016 DavidThouless 1995 UW.jpg David J. Thouless Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter" [117]
Duncan Haldane.jpg F. Duncan M. Haldane Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Jkosterl.jpg John M. Kosterlitz Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
2017 Rainer Weiss - December 2006 (cropped).jpg Rainer Weiss Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of the United States.svg  United States
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves" [118]
Kip Thorne at Caltech.jpg Kip Thorne Flag of the United States.svg  United States
05-0367-92D.hr.jpg Barry Barish Flag of the United States.svg  United States
2018 Arthur Ashkin EM1B5678 (44417135450).jpg Arthur Ashkin Flag of the United States.svg  United States "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems" [119]
Gerard Mourou (cropped).jpg Gérard Mourou Flag of France.svg  France "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics", in particular "for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"
Donna Strickland, OSA Holiday Party 2012.jpg Donna Strickland Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

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