Physical cosmology

Last updated

Physical cosmology is a branch of cosmology concerned with the studies of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. [1] Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those physical laws. Physical cosmology, as it is now understood, began with the development in 1915 of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, followed by major observational discoveries in the 1920s: first, Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe contains a huge number of external galaxies beyond our own Milky Way; then, work by Vesto Slipher and others showed that the universe is expanding. These advances made it possible to speculate about the origin of the universe, and allowed the establishment of the Big Bang Theory, by Georges Lemaître, as the leading cosmological model. A few researchers still advocate a handful of alternative cosmologies; [2] however, most cosmologists agree that the Big Bang theory explains the observations better.

Cosmology academic study of the Universe

Cosmology is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to today and on into the future. It is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe's origin, its large-scale structures and dynamics, and its ultimate fate, as well as the laws of science that govern these areas.

Universe all of space and time and their contents

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the observable universe.

Science systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Contents

Dramatic advances in observational cosmology since the 1990s, including the cosmic microwave background, distant supernovae and galaxy redshift surveys, have led to the development of a standard model of cosmology. This model requires the universe to contain large amounts of dark matter and dark energy whose nature is currently not well understood, but the model gives detailed predictions that are in excellent agreement with many diverse observations. [3]

Cosmic microwave background Electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology

The cosmic microwave background is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology. In older literature, the CMB is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum. The accidental discovery of the CMB in 1964 by American radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson was the culmination of work initiated in the 1940s, and earned the discoverers the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physics.

Redshift survey astronomical survey focused on measuring red shifts of distant galaxies

In astronomy, a redshift survey is a survey of a section of the sky to measure the redshift of astronomical objects: usually galaxies, but sometimes other objects such as galaxy clusters or quasars. Using Hubble's law, the redshift can be used to estimate the distance of an object from Earth. By combining redshift with angular position data, a redshift survey maps the 3D distribution of matter within a field of the sky. These observations are used to measure detailed statistical properties of the large-scale structure of the universe. In conjunction with observations of early structure in the cosmic microwave background, these results can place strong constraints on cosmological parameters such as the average matter density and the Hubble constant.

Lambda-CDM model

The ΛCDM or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda, associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology because it is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of the following properties of the cosmos:

Cosmology draws heavily on the work of many disparate areas of research in theoretical and applied physics. Areas relevant to cosmology include particle physics experiments and theory, theoretical and observational astrophysics, general relativity, quantum mechanics, and plasma physics.

Physics Study of the fundamental properties of matter and energy

Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves.

Particle physics branch of physics

Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects, particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model and its various possible extensions, e.g. to the newest "known" particle, the Higgs boson, or even to the oldest known force field, gravity.

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space". Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Emissions from these objects are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. Because astrophysics is a very broad subject, astrophysicists apply concepts and methods from many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.

Subject history

-13 
-12 
-11 
-10 
-9 
-8 
-7 
-6 
-5 
-4 
-3 
-2 
-1 
0 

Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. In 1916, Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, which provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. [4] At the time, Einstein believed in a static universe, but found that his original formulation of the theory did not permit it. [5] This is because masses distributed throughout the universe gravitationally attract, and move toward each other over time. [6] However, he realized that his equations permitted the introduction of a constant term which could counteract the attractive force of gravity on the cosmic scale. Einstein published his first paper on relativistic cosmology in 1917, in which he added this cosmological constant to his field equations in order to force them to model a static universe. [7] The Einstein model describes a static universe; space is finite and unbounded (analogous to the surface of a sphere, which has a finite area but no edges). However, this so-called Einstein model is unstable to small perturbations—it will eventually start to expand or contract. [5] It was later realized that Einstein's model was just one of a larger set of possibilities, all of which were consistent with general relativity and the cosmological principle. The cosmological solutions of general relativity were found by Alexander Friedmann in the early 1920s. [8] His equations describe the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe, which may expand or contract, and whose geometry may be open, flat, or closed.

General relativity Theory by Albert Einstein, covering gravitation in curved spacetime

General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

Static universe model of the universe that is not expanding or contracting, e.g. one in which the cosmological constant exactly balances things

A static universe, also referred to as a "stationary" or "infinite" or "static infinite" universe, is a cosmological model in which the universe is both spatially infinite and temporally infinite, and space is neither expanding nor contracting. Such a universe does not have so-called spatial curvature; that is to say that it is 'flat' or Euclidean. A static infinite universe was first proposed by Thomas Digges.

Cosmological constant constant representing stress-energy density of the vacuum in Einsteins equation

In cosmology, the cosmological constant is the energy density of space, or vacuum energy, that arises in Albert Einstein's field equations of general relativity. It is closely associated to the concepts of dark energy and quintessence.

History of the Universe - gravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, a faster-than-light expansion just after the Big Bang History of the Universe.svg
History of the Universegravitational waves are hypothesized to arise from cosmic inflation, a faster-than-light expansion just after the Big Bang

In the 1910s, Vesto Slipher (and later Carl Wilhelm Wirtz) interpreted the red shift of spiral nebulae as a Doppler shift that indicated they were receding from Earth. [12] [13] However, it is difficult to determine the distance to astronomical objects. One way is to compare the physical size of an object to its angular size, but a physical size must be assumed to do this. Another method is to measure the brightness of an object and assume an intrinsic luminosity, from which the distance may be determined using the inverse square law. Due to the difficulty of using these methods, they did not realize that the nebulae were actually galaxies outside our own Milky Way, nor did they speculate about the cosmological implications. In 1927, the Belgian Roman Catholic priest Georges Lemaître independently derived the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker equations and proposed, on the basis of the recession of spiral nebulae, that the universe began with the "explosion" of a "primeval atom" [14] —which was later called the Big Bang. In 1929, Edwin Hubble provided an observational basis for Lemaître's theory. Hubble showed that the spiral nebulae were galaxies by determining their distances using measurements of the brightness of Cepheid variable stars. He discovered a relationship between the redshift of a galaxy and its distance. He interpreted this as evidence that the galaxies are receding from Earth in every direction at speeds proportional to their distance. [15] This fact is now known as Hubble's law, though the numerical factor Hubble found relating recessional velocity and distance was off by a factor of ten, due to not knowing about the types of Cepheid variables.

Carl Wilhelm Wirtz German astronomer

Carl Wilhelm Wirtz was an astronomer who spent his time between the Kiel Observatory in Germany and the Observatory of Strasbourg, France. He is known for statistically showing the existence of a redshift-distance correlation for spiral galaxies.

Nebula Interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases

A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. Originally, the term was used to describe any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was once referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others.

Brightness perception of light level

Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light. In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. It is not necessarily proportional to luminance. This is a subjective attribute/property of an object being observed and one of the color appearance parameters of color appearance models. Brightness refers to an absolute term and should not be confused with Lightness.

Given the cosmological principle, Hubble's law suggested that the universe was expanding. Two primary explanations were proposed for the expansion. One was Lemaître's Big Bang theory, advocated and developed by George Gamow. The other explanation was Fred Hoyle's steady state model in which new matter is created as the galaxies move away from each other. In this model, the universe is roughly the same at any point in time. [16] [17]

Cosmological principle

In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.

Fred Hoyle British astronomer

Sir Fred Hoyle FRS was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He also held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, and his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth. He also wrote science fiction novels, short stories and radio plays, and co-authored twelve books with his son, Geoffrey Hoyle.

Steady state model alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of the universe

In cosmology, the steady state model is an alternative to the Big Bang theory of the evolution of the universe. In the steady state model, the density of matter in the expanding universe remains unchanged due to a continuous creation of matter, thus adhering to the perfect cosmological principle, a principle that asserts that the observable universe is basically the same at any time as well as at any place.

For a number of years, support for these theories was evenly divided. However, the observational evidence began to support the idea that the universe evolved from a hot dense state. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965 lent strong support to the Big Bang model, [17] and since the precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background by the Cosmic Background Explorer in the early 1990s, few cosmologists have seriously proposed other theories of the origin and evolution of the cosmos. One consequence of this is that in standard general relativity, the universe began with a singularity, as demonstrated by Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking in the 1960s. [18]

An alternative view to extend the Big Bang model, suggesting the universe had no beginning or singularity and the age of the universe is infinite, has been presented. [19] [20] [21]

Energy of the cosmos

The lightest chemical elements, primarily hydrogen and helium, were created during the Big Bang through the process of nucleosynthesis. [22] In a sequence of stellar nucleosynthesis reactions, smaller atomic nuclei are then combined into larger atomic nuclei, ultimately forming stable iron group elements such as iron and nickel, which have the highest nuclear binding energies. [23] The net process results in a later energy release, meaning subsequent to the Big Bang. [24] Such reactions of nuclear particles can lead to sudden energy releases from cataclysmic variable stars such as novae. Gravitational collapse of matter into black holes also powers the most energetic processes, generally seen in the nuclear regions of galaxies, forming quasars and active galaxies .

Cosmologists cannot explain all cosmic phenomena exactly, such as those related to the accelerating expansion of the universe, using conventional forms of energy. Instead, cosmologists propose a new form of energy called dark energy that permeates all space. [25] One hypothesis is that dark energy is just the vacuum energy, a component of empty space that is associated with the virtual particles that exist due to the uncertainty principle. [26]

There is no clear way to define the total energy in the universe using the most widely accepted theory of gravity, general relativity. Therefore, it remains controversial whether the total energy is conserved in an expanding universe. For instance, each photon that travels through intergalactic space loses energy due to the redshift effect. This energy is not obviously transferred to any other system, so seems to be permanently lost. On the other hand, some cosmologists insist that energy is conserved in some sense; this follows the law of conservation of energy. [27]

Thermodynamics of the universe is a field of study that explores which form of energy dominates the cosmos – relativistic particles which are referred to as radiation, or non-relativistic particles referred to as matter. Relativistic particles are particles whose rest mass is zero or negligible compared to their kinetic energy, and so move at the speed of light or very close to it; non-relativistic particles have much higher rest mass than their energy and so move much slower than the speed of light.

As the universe expands, both matter and radiation in it become diluted. However, the energy densities of radiation and matter dilute at different rates. As a particular volume expands, mass energy density is changed only by the increase in volume, but the energy density of radiation is changed both by the increase in volume and by the increase in the wavelength of the photons that make it up. Thus the energy of radiation becomes a smaller part of the universe's total energy than that of matter as it expands. The very early universe is said to have been 'radiation dominated' and radiation controlled the deceleration of expansion. Later, as the average energy per photon becomes roughly 10 eV and lower, matter dictates the rate of deceleration and the universe is said to be 'matter dominated'. The intermediate case is not treated well analytically. As the expansion of the universe continues, matter dilutes even further and the cosmological constant becomes dominant, leading to an acceleration in the universe's expansion.

History of the universe

The history of the universe is a central issue in cosmology. The history of the universe is divided into different periods called epochs, according to the dominant forces and processes in each period. The standard cosmological model is known as the Lambda-CDM model.

Equations of motion

Within the standard cosmological model, the equations of motion governing the universe as a whole are derived from general relativity with a small, positive cosmological constant. [28] The solution is an expanding universe; due to this expansion, the radiation and matter in the universe cool down and become diluted. At first, the expansion is slowed down by gravitation attracting the radiation and matter in the universe. However, as these become diluted, the cosmological constant becomes more dominant and the expansion of the universe starts to accelerate rather than decelerate. In our universe this happened billions of years ago. [29]

Particle physics in cosmology

During the earliest moments of the universe the average energy density was very high, making knowledge of particle physics critical to understanding this environment. Hence, scattering processes and decay of unstable elementary particles are important for cosmological models of this period.

As a rule of thumb, a scattering or a decay process is cosmologically important in a certain epoch if the time scale describing that process is smaller than, or comparable to, the time scale of the expansion of the universe.[ clarification needed ] The time scale that describes the expansion of the universe is with being the Hubble parameter, which varies with time. The expansion timescale is roughly equal to the age of the universe at each point in time.

Timeline of the Big Bang

Observations suggest that the universe began around 13.8 billion years ago. [30] Since then, the evolution of the universe has passed through three phases. The very early universe, which is still poorly understood, was the split second in which the universe was so hot that particles had energies higher than those currently accessible in particle accelerators on Earth. Therefore, while the basic features of this epoch have been worked out in the Big Bang theory, the details are largely based on educated guesses. Following this, in the early universe, the evolution of the universe proceeded according to known high energy physics. This is when the first protons, electrons and neutrons formed, then nuclei and finally atoms. With the formation of neutral hydrogen, the cosmic microwave background was emitted. Finally, the epoch of structure formation began, when matter started to aggregate into the first stars and quasars, and ultimately galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters formed. The future of the universe is not yet firmly known, but according to the ΛCDM model it will continue expanding forever.

Areas of study

Below, some of the most active areas of inquiry in cosmology are described, in roughly chronological order. This does not include all of the Big Bang cosmology, which is presented in Timeline of the Big Bang.

Very early universe

The early, hot universe appears to be well explained by the Big Bang from roughly 10−33 seconds onwards, but there are several problems. One is that there is no compelling reason, using current particle physics, for the universe to be flat, homogeneous, and isotropic (see the cosmological principle). Moreover, grand unified theories of particle physics suggest that there should be magnetic monopoles in the universe, which have not been found. These problems are resolved by a brief period of cosmic inflation, which drives the universe to flatness, smooths out anisotropies and inhomogeneities to the observed level, and exponentially dilutes the monopoles. [31] The physical model behind cosmic inflation is extremely simple, but it has not yet been confirmed by particle physics, and there are difficult problems reconciling inflation and quantum field theory.[ vague ] Some cosmologists think that string theory and brane cosmology will provide an alternative to inflation. [32]

Another major problem in cosmology is what caused the universe to contain far more matter than antimatter. Cosmologists can observationally deduce that the universe is not split into regions of matter and antimatter. If it were, there would be X-rays and gamma rays produced as a result of annihilation, but this is not observed. Therefore, some process in the early universe must have created a small excess of matter over antimatter, and this (currently not understood) process is called baryogenesis . Three required conditions for baryogenesis were derived by Andrei Sakharov in 1967, and requires a violation of the particle physics symmetry, called CP-symmetry, between matter and antimatter. [33] However, particle accelerators measure too small a violation of CP-symmetry to account for the baryon asymmetry. Cosmologists and particle physicists look for additional violations of the CP-symmetry in the early universe that might account for the baryon asymmetry. [34]

Both the problems of baryogenesis and cosmic inflation are very closely related to particle physics, and their resolution might come from high energy theory and experiment, rather than through observations of the universe.[ speculation? ]

Big Bang Theory

Big Bang nucleosynthesis is the theory of the formation of the elements in the early universe. It finished when the universe was about three minutes old and its temperature dropped below that at which nuclear fusion could occur. Big Bang nucleosynthesis had a brief period during which it could operate, so only the very lightest elements were produced. Starting from hydrogen ions (protons), it principally produced deuterium, helium-4, and lithium. Other elements were produced in only trace abundances. The basic theory of nucleosynthesis was developed in 1948 by George Gamow, Ralph Asher Alpher, and Robert Herman. [35] It was used for many years as a probe of physics at the time of the Big Bang, as the theory of Big Bang nucleosynthesis connects the abundances of primordial light elements with the features of the early universe. [22] Specifically, it can be used to test the equivalence principle, [36] to probe dark matter, and test neutrino physics. [37] Some cosmologists have proposed that Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggests there is a fourth "sterile" species of neutrino. [38]

Standard model of Big Bang cosmology

The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM). It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology. [39] [40]

Cosmic microwave background

Evidence of gravitational waves in the infant universe may have been uncovered by the microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 radio telescope. PIA17993-DetectorsForInfantUniverseStudies-20140317.jpg
Evidence of gravitational waves in the infant universe may have been uncovered by the microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 radio telescope.

The cosmic microwave background is radiation left over from decoupling after the epoch of recombination when neutral atoms first formed. At this point, radiation produced in the Big Bang stopped Thomson scattering from charged ions. The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. Cosmological perturbation theory, which describes the evolution of slight inhomogeneities in the early universe, has allowed cosmologists to precisely calculate the angular power spectrum of the radiation, and it has been measured by the recent satellite experiments (COBE and WMAP) [42] and many ground and balloon-based experiments (such as Degree Angular Scale Interferometer, Cosmic Background Imager, and Boomerang). [43] One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics. The results of measurements made by WMAP, for example, have placed limits on the neutrino masses. [44]

Newer experiments, such as QUIET and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, are trying to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. [45] These measurements are expected to provide further confirmation of the theory as well as information about cosmic inflation, and the so-called secondary anisotropies, [46] such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and Sachs-Wolfe effect, which are caused by interaction between galaxies and clusters with the cosmic microwave background. [47] [48]

On March 17, 2014, astronomers of the BICEP2 Collaboration announced the apparent detection of B-mode polarization of the CMB, considered to be evidence of primordial gravitational waves that are predicted by the theory of inflation to occur during the earliest phase of the Big Bang. [9] [10] [11] [41] However, later that year the Planck collaboration provided a more accurate measurement of cosmic dust, concluding that the B-mode signal from dust is the same strength as that reported from BICEP2. [49] [50] On January 30, 2015, a joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck data was published and the European Space Agency announced that the signal can be entirely attributed to interstellar dust in the Milky Way. [51]

Formation and evolution of large-scale structure

Understanding the formation and evolution of the largest and earliest structures (i.e., quasars, galaxies, clusters and superclusters) is one of the largest efforts in cosmology. Cosmologists study a model of hierarchical structure formation in which structures form from the bottom up, with smaller objects forming first, while the largest objects, such as superclusters, are still assembling. [52] One way to study structure in the universe is to survey the visible galaxies, in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of the galaxies in the universe and measure the matter power spectrum. This is the approach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. [53] [54]

Another tool for understanding structure formation is simulations, which cosmologists use to study the gravitational aggregation of matter in the universe, as it clusters into filaments, superclusters and voids. Most simulations contain only non-baryonic cold dark matter, which should suffice to understand the universe on the largest scales, as there is much more dark matter in the universe than visible, baryonic matter. More advanced simulations are starting to include baryons and study the formation of individual galaxies. Cosmologists study these simulations to see if they agree with the galaxy surveys, and to understand any discrepancy. [55]

Other, complementary observations to measure the distribution of matter in the distant universe and to probe reionization include:

These will help cosmologists settle the question of when and how structure formed in the universe.

Dark matter

Evidence from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background, structure formation, and galaxy rotation curves suggests that about 23% of the mass of the universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter, whereas only 4% consists of visible, baryonic matter. The gravitational effects of dark matter are well understood, as it behaves like a cold, non-radiative fluid that forms haloes around galaxies. Dark matter has never been detected in the laboratory, and the particle physics nature of dark matter remains completely unknown. Without observational constraints, there are a number of candidates, such as a stable supersymmetric particle, a weakly interacting massive particle, a gravitationally-interacting massive particle, an axion, and a massive compact halo object. Alternatives to the dark matter hypothesis include a modification of gravity at small accelerations (MOND) or an effect from brane cosmology. [59]

Dark energy

If the universe is flat, there must be an additional component making up 73% (in addition to the 23% dark matter and 4% baryons) of the energy density of the universe. This is called dark energy. In order not to interfere with Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, it must not cluster in haloes like baryons and dark matter. There is strong observational evidence for dark energy, as the total energy density of the universe is known through constraints on the flatness of the universe, but the amount of clustering matter is tightly measured, and is much less than this. The case for dark energy was strengthened in 1999, when measurements demonstrated that the expansion of the universe has begun to gradually accelerate. [60]

Apart from its density and its clustering properties, nothing is known about dark energy. Quantum field theory predicts a cosmological constant (CC) much like dark energy, but 120 orders of magnitude larger than that observed. [61] Steven Weinberg and a number of string theorists (see string landscape) have invoked the 'weak anthropic principle': i.e. the reason that physicists observe a universe with such a small cosmological constant is that no physicists (or any life) could exist in a universe with a larger cosmological constant. Many cosmologists find this an unsatisfying explanation: perhaps because while the weak anthropic principle is self-evident (given that living observers exist, there must be at least one universe with a cosmological constant which allows for life to exist) it does not attempt to explain the context of that universe. [62] For example, the weak anthropic principle alone does not distinguish between:

Other possible explanations for dark energy include quintessence [63] or a modification of gravity on the largest scales. [64] The effect on cosmology of the dark energy that these models describe is given by the dark energy's equation of state, which varies depending upon the theory. The nature of dark energy is one of the most challenging problems in cosmology.

A better understanding of dark energy is likely to solve the problem of the ultimate fate of the universe. In the current cosmological epoch, the accelerated expansion due to dark energy is preventing structures larger than superclusters from forming. It is not known whether the acceleration will continue indefinitely, perhaps even increasing until a big rip, or whether it will eventually reverse, lead to a big freeze, or follow some other scenario. [65]

Gravitational waves

Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves at the speed of light, generated in certain gravitational interactions that propagate outward from their source. Gravitational-wave astronomy is an emerging branch of observational astronomy which aims to use gravitational waves to collect observational data about sources of detectable gravitational waves such as binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; and events such as supernovae, and the formation of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang. [66]

In 2016, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration teams announced that they had made the first observation of gravitational waves, originating from a pair of merging black holes using the Advanced LIGO detectors. [67] [68] [69] On June 15, 2016, a second detection of gravitational waves from coalescing black holes was announced. [70] Besides LIGO, many other gravitational-wave observatories (detectors) are under construction. [71]

Other areas of inquiry

Cosmologists also study:

See also

Related Research Articles

Big Bang The prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure and Hubble's law. If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the prediction is that just before a period of very high density there was a singularity which is typically associated with the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe. After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, and later simple atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements later coalesced through gravity, eventually forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Astronomers also observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter but it is unclear exactly what it is made out of.

Inflation (cosmology) rapid expansion of the universe

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang singularity to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.

Dark matter Hypothetical form of matter comprising most of the matter in the universe

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density. The majority of dark matter is thought to be non-baryonic in nature, possibly being composed of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles. Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects that cannot be explained unless more matter is present than can be seen. For this reason, most experts think dark matter to be ubiquitous in the universe and to have had a strong influence on its structure and evolution. Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with observable electromagnetic radiation, such as light, and is thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, making it extremely difficult to detect using usual astronomical equipment.

Accelerating expansion of the universe rate of increase in the expansion of the universe

The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the expansion of the universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.

Big Bang nucleosynthesis The earliest production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen during the early phases of the Universe

In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen during the early phases of the Universe. Primordial nucleosynthesis is believed by most cosmologists to have taken place in the interval from roughly 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang, and is calculated to be responsible for the formation of most of the universe's helium as the isotope helium-4 (4He), along with small amounts of the hydrogen isotope deuterium, the helium isotope helium-3 (3He), and a very small amount of the lithium isotope lithium-7 (7Li). In addition to these stable nuclei, two unstable or radioactive isotopes were also produced: the heavy hydrogen isotope tritium ; and the beryllium isotope beryllium-7 (7Be); but these unstable isotopes later decayed into 3He and 7Li, as above.

In cosmology and physics, cold dark matter (CDM) is a hypothetical type of dark matter. Observations indicate that approximately 85% of the matter in the universe is dark matter, with only a small fraction being the ordinary baryonic matter that composes stars, planets, and living organisms. Cold refers to the fact that the dark matter moves slowly compared to the speed of light, while dark indicates that it interacts very weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation.

Ultimate fate of the universe topic in physical cosmology

The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated. Based on available observational evidence, deciding the fate and evolution of the universe have now become valid cosmological questions, being beyond the mostly untestable constraints of mythological or theological beliefs. Many possible dark futures have been predicted by rival scientific hypotheses, including that the universe might have existed for a finite and infinite duration, or towards explaining the manner and circumstances of its beginning.

Non-standard cosmology

A non-standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that was, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the then-current standard model of cosmology. The term non-standard is applied to any theory that does not conform to the scientific consensus. Because the term depends on the prevailing consensus, the meaning of the term changes over time. For example, hot dark matter would not have been considered non-standard in 1990, but would be in 2010. Conversely, a non-zero cosmological constant resulting in an accelerating universe would have been considered non-standard in 1990, but is part of the standard cosmology in 2010.

Observable universe A spherical part of the universe which contains all matter that can be observed from the Earth at the present time

The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. There are at least 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe. Assuming the Universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe has a spherical volume centered on the observer. Every location in the Universe has its own observable universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth.

Baryonic dark matter

In astronomy and cosmology, baryonic dark matter is dark matter composed of baryons. Only a small proportion of the dark matter in the universe is likely to be baryonic.

Cyclic model

A cyclic model is any of several cosmological models in which the universe follows infinite, or indefinite, self-sustaining cycles. For example, the oscillating universe theory briefly considered by Albert Einstein in 1930 theorized a universe following an eternal series of oscillations, each beginning with a big bang and ending with a big crunch; in the interim, the universe would expand for a period of time before the gravitational attraction of matter causes it to collapse back in and undergo a bounce.

Jim Peebles American astronomer

Phillip James Edwin Peebles is a Canadian-American physicist and theoretical cosmologist who is currently the Albert Einstein Professor Emeritus of Science at Princeton University. He is widely regarded as one of the world's leading theoretical cosmologists in the period since 1970, with major theoretical contributions to primordial nucleosynthesis, dark matter, the cosmic microwave background, and structure formation. His three textbooks have been standard references in the field.

Structure formation The formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations

In physical cosmology, structure formation is the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations. The universe, as is now known from observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, began in a hot, dense, nearly uniform state approximately 13.8 billion years ago. However, looking in the sky today, we see structures on all scales, from stars and planets to galaxies and, on still larger scales, galaxy clusters and sheet-like structures of galaxies separated by enormous voids containing few galaxies. Structure formation attempts to model how these structures formed by gravitational instability of small early density ripples.

Chronology of the universe The history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology

The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology. The earliest stages of the universe's existence are estimated as taking place 13.8 billion years ago, with an uncertainty of around 21 million years at the 68% confidence level.

Dark energy An unknown physical entity (lato sensu) that causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. It might be a completely new component of physics or a broader extension of known physics, for example, gravity.

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.

The Hoyle–Narlikar theory of gravity is a Machian and conformal theory of gravity proposed by Fred Hoyle and Jayant Narlikar that originally fits into the quasi steady state model of the universe.

John G. Hartnett, is an Australian young Earth creationist and cosmologist. He has been active with Creation Ministries International and is known for his opposition to the Big Bang theory and criticism of the dark matter and dark energy hypotheses.

References

  1. For an overview, see George FR Ellis (2006). "Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology". In Jeremy Butterfield & John Earman. Philosophy of Physics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science) 3 volume set. North Holland. arXiv: astro-ph/0602280 . Bibcode:2006astro.ph..2280E. ISBN   978-0-444-51560-5.
  2. "An Open Letter to the Scientific Community as published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004". cosmologystatement.org. 2014-04-01. Archived from the original on 1 April 2014. Retrieved 2017-09-27.
  3. Beringer, J.; et al. (Particle Data Group) (2012). "2013 Review of Particle Physics" (PDF). Phys. Rev. D. 86 (1): 010001. Bibcode:2012PhRvD..86a0001B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.86.010001.
  4. "Nobel Prize Biography". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  5. 1 2 Liddle, A. (May 26, 2003). An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. p. 51. ISBN   978-0-470-84835-7.
  6. Vilenkin, Alex (2007). Many worlds in one : the search for other universes. New York: Hill and Wang, A division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 19. ISBN   978-0-8090-6722-0.
  7. Jones, Mark; Lambourne, Robert (2004). An introduction to galaxies and cosmology. Milton Keynes Cambridge, UK; New York: Open University Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN   978-0-521-54623-2.
  8. Jones, Mark; Lambourne, Robert (2004). An introduction to galaxies and cosmology. Milton Keynes Cambridge, UK; New York: Open University Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN   978-0-521-54623-2.
  9. 1 2 3 Staff (March 17, 2014). "BICEP2 2014 Results Release". National Science Foundation . Retrieved 18 March 2014.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  10. 1 2 3 Clavin, Whitney (March 17, 2014). "NASA Technology Views Birth of the Universe". NASA. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  11. 1 2 3 Overbye, Dennis (March 17, 2014). "Detection of Waves in Space Buttresses Landmark Theory of Big Bang". The New York Times . Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  12. Slipher, V. M. (1922), Fox, Philip; Stebbins, Joel, eds., "Further Notes on Spectrographic Observations of Nebulae and Clusters", Publications of the American Astronomical Society, 4: 284–286, Bibcode:1922PAAS....4..284S
  13. Seitter, Waltraut C.; Duerbeck, Hilmar W. (1999), Egret, Daniel; Heck, Andre, eds., "Carl Wilhelm Wirtz – Pioneer in Cosmic Dimensions", Harmonizing Cosmic Distance Scales in a Post-Hipparcos Era, ASP Conference Series, 167: 237–242, Bibcode:1999ASPC..167..237S, ISBN   978-1-886733-88-6
  14. Lemaître, G. (1927), "Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extra-galactiques", Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles (in French), A47: 49–59, Bibcode:1927ASSB...47...49L
  15. Hubble, Edwin (March 1929), "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 (3): 168–173, Bibcode:1929PNAS...15..168H, doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168, PMC   522427 , PMID   16577160
  16. Hoyle, F. (1948), "A New Model for the Expanding Universe", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 108 (5): 372–382, Bibcode:1948MNRAS.108..372H, doi:10.1093/mnras/108.5.372
  17. 1 2 "Big Bang or Steady State?", Ideas of Cosmology, American Institute of Physics, retrieved 2015-07-29
  18. Earman, John (1999), Goenner, Hubert; Jürgen; Ritter, Jim; Sauer, Tilman, eds., "The Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorems: History and Implications – The expanding worlds of general relativity", The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity, Birk presentations of the fourth conference on the and gravitation: 235–267, Bibcode:1999ewgr.book..235E, doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-0639-2_7, ISBN   978-1-4612-6850-5
  19. Ghose, Tia (26 February 2015). "Big Bang, Deflated? Universe May Have Had No Beginning". Live Science . Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  20. Ali, Ahmed Faraq (4 February 2015). "Cosmology from quantum potential". Physics Letters B . 741 (2015): 276–279. arXiv: 1404.3093 . Bibcode:2015PhLB..741..276F. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2014.12.057.
  21. Das, Saurya; Bhaduri, Rajat K (May 21, 2015). "Dark matter and dark energy from a Bose–Einstein condensate". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 32 (10): 105003. arXiv: 1411.0753 . Bibcode:2015CQGra..32j5003D. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/32/10/105003.
  22. 1 2 Burles, Scott; Nollett, Kenneth M.; Turner, Michael S. (May 2001). "Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Predictions for Precision Cosmology". The Astrophysical Journal. 552 (1): L1–L5. arXiv: astro-ph/0010171 . Bibcode:2001ApJ...552L...1B. doi:10.1086/320251.
  23. Burbidge, E. M.; Burbidge, G. R.; Fowler, W. A.; Hoyle, F. (1957). "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars". Reviews of Modern Physics . 29 (4): 547–650. Bibcode:1957RvMP...29..547B. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.29.547.
  24. Frautschi, S. (August 13, 1982). "Entropy in an expanding universe". Science. 217 (4560): 593–599. Bibcode:1982Sci...217..593F. doi:10.1126/science.217.4560.593. PMID   17817517.
  25. Science 20 June 2003: Vol. 300. no. 5627, pp. 1914–1918 Throwing Light on Dark Energy, Robert P. Kirshner. Retrieved December 2006
  26. Frieman, Joshua A.; Turner, Michael S.; Huterer, Dragan (2008). "Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe". Annual Review of Astronomy & Astrophysics. 46 (1): 385–432. arXiv: 0803.0982 . Bibcode:2008ARA&A..46..385F. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.46.060407.145243.
  27. e.g. Liddle, A. (2003). An Introduction to Modern Cosmology. Wiley. ISBN   978-0-470-84835-7. This argues cogently "Energy is always, always, always conserved."
  28. P. Ojeda; H. Rosu (June 2006). "Supersymmetry of FRW barotropic cosmologies". Internat. J. Theoret. Phys. 45 (6): 1191–1196. arXiv: gr-qc/0510004 . Bibcode:2006IJTP...45.1152R. doi:10.1007/s10773-006-9123-2.
  29. Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D.M. (2006). "The large-scale structure of the Universe". Nature. 440 (7088): 1137–1144. arXiv: astro-ph/0604561 . Bibcode:2006Natur.440.1137S. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.255.8877 . doi:10.1038/nature04805. PMID   16641985.
  30. "Cosmic Detectives". The European Space Agency (ESA). 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  31. Guth, Alan H. (January 15, 1981). "Inflationary universe: A possible solution to the horizon and flatness problems". Physical Review D. 23 (2): 347–356. Bibcode:1981PhRvD..23..347G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.23.347.
  32. Pogosian, Levon; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark (2003). "Observational constraints on cosmic string production during brane inflation". Physical Review D. 68 (2): 023506. arXiv: hep-th/0304188 . Bibcode:2003PhRvD..68b3506P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.68.023506.
  33. Canetti, Laurent; et al. (September 2012), "Matter and antimatter in the universe", New Journal of Physics, 14 (9): 095012, arXiv: 1204.4186 , Bibcode:2012NJPh...14i5012C, doi:10.1088/1367-2630/14/9/095012
  34. Pandolfi, Stefania (January 30, 2017). "New source of asymmetry between matter and antimatter". CERN. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  35. Peebles, Phillip James Edwin (April 2014). "Discovery of the hot Big Bang: What happened in 1948". The European Physical Journal H. 39 (2): 205–223. arXiv: 1310.2146 . Bibcode:2014EPJH...39..205P. doi:10.1140/epjh/e2014-50002-y.
  36. 1 2 Boucher, V.; Gérard, J.-M.; Vandergheynst, P.; Wiaux, Y. (November 2004), "Cosmic microwave background constraints on the strong equivalence principle", Physical Review D, 70 (10): 103528, arXiv: astro-ph/0407208 , Bibcode:2004PhRvD..70j3528B, doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.70.103528
  37. Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han (January 2016), "Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status", Reviews of Modern Physics, 88 (1): 015004, arXiv: 1505.01076 , Bibcode:2016RvMP...88a5004C, doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.88.015004
  38. Lucente, Michele; Abada, Asmaa; Arcadi, Giorgio; Domcke, Valerie (March 2018). "Leptogenesis, dark matter and neutrino masses". arXiv: 1803.10826 [hep-ph].
  39. Collaboration, Planck; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; et al. (2016). "Planck 2015 Results. XIII. Cosmological Parameters". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 594 (13): A13. arXiv: 1502.01589 . Bibcode:2016A&A...594A..13P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525830.
  40. Carlisle, Camille M. (February 10, 2015). "Planck Upholds Standard Cosmology". Sky & Telescope Media. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  41. 1 2 Overbye, Dennis (March 25, 2014). "Ripples From the Big Bang". The New York Times . Retrieved March 24, 2014.
  42. Lamarre, Jean-Michel (2010). "The Cosmic Microwave Background". In Huber, M. C. E.; Pauluhn, A.; Culhane, J. L.; Timothy, J. G.; Wilhelm, K.; Zehnder, A. Observing Photons in Space. ISSI Scientific Reports Series. 9. pp. 149–162. Bibcode:2010ISSIR...9..149L.
  43. Sievers, J. L.; et al. (2003). "Cosmological Parameters from Cosmic Background Imager Observations and Comparisons with BOOMERANG, DASI, and MAXIMA". The Astrophysical Journal. 591 (2): 599–622. arXiv: astro-ph/0205387 . Bibcode:2003ApJ...591..599S. doi:10.1086/375510.
  44. Hinshaw, G.; et al. (October 2013). "Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 208 (2): 19. arXiv: 1212.5226 . Bibcode:2013ApJS..208...19H. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/19.
  45. Naess, Sigurd; Hasselfield, Matthew; McMahon, Jeff; Niemack, Michael D.; et al. (October 2014). "The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: CMB polarization at 200 < l < 9000". Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. 2014 (10): 007. arXiv: 1405.5524 . Bibcode:2014JCAP...10..007N. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/007.
  46. Baumann, Daniel; et al. (2009). "Probing Inflation with CMB Polarization". CMB Polarization Workshop: Theory and Foregrounds: CMBPol Mission Concept Study. American Institute of Physics Conference Series. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1141. pp. 10–120. arXiv: 0811.3919 . Bibcode:2009AIPC.1141...10B. doi:10.1063/1.3160885.
  47. Scranton, R.; Connolly, A. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Szapudi, I.; Eisenstein, D. J.; et al. (July 2003). "Physical Evidence for Dark Energy". arXiv: astro-ph/0307335 .
  48. Refregier, A. (1999). "Overview of Secondary Anisotropies of the CMB". In de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Tegmark, M. Microwave Foregrounds. Microwave Foregrounds. ASP Conference Series. 181. p. 219. arXiv: astro-ph/9904235 . Bibcode:1999ASPC..181..219R. ISBN   978-1-58381-006-4.
  49. Planck Collaboration (2016). "Planck intermediate results. XXX. The angular power spectrum of polarized dust emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 586 (133): A133. arXiv: 1409.5738 . Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.133P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425034.
  50. Overbye, D. (September 22, 2014). "Study Confirms Criticism of Big Bang Finding". The New York Times . Retrieved 2014-09-22.
  51. Cowen, Ron (January 30, 2015). "Gravitational waves discovery now officially dead". nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.16830.
  52. Heß, Steffen; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Gottlöber, Stefan (November 2013). "Simulating structure formation of the Local Universe". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 435 (3): 2065–2076. arXiv: 1304.6565 . Bibcode:2013MNRAS.435.2065H. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt1428.
  53. Cole, Shaun; Percival, Will J.; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; et al. (2005). "The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: power-spectrum analysis of the final data set and cosmological implications". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 362 (2): 505–534. arXiv: astro-ph/0501174 . Bibcode:2005MNRAS.362..505C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09318.x.
  54. Percival, Will J.; et al. (2007). "The Shape of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 Galaxy Power Spectrum". The Astrophysical Journal. 657 (2): 645–663. arXiv: astro-ph/0608636 . Bibcode:2007ApJ...657..645P. doi:10.1086/510615.
  55. Kuhlen, Michael; Vogelsberger, Mark; Angulo, Raul (November 2012). "Numerical simulations of the dark universe: State of the art and the next decade". Physics of the Dark Universe. 1 (1–2): 50–93. arXiv: 1209.5745 . Bibcode:2012PDU.....1...50K. doi:10.1016/j.dark.2012.10.002.
  56. Weinberg, David H.; Davé, Romeel; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A. (May 2003). "The Lyman-α Forest as a Cosmological Tool". In Holt, S.H.; Reynolds, C. S. AIP Conference Proceedings. The Emergence of Cosmic Structure. AIP Conference Series. 666. pp. 157–169. arXiv: astro-ph/0301186 . Bibcode:2003AIPC..666..157W. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.256.1928 . doi:10.1063/1.1581786.
  57. Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng; Briggs, Frank H. (October 2006). "Cosmology at low frequencies: The 21 cm transition and the high-redshift Universe". Physics Reports. 433 (4–6): 181–301. arXiv: astro-ph/0608032 . Bibcode:2006PhR...433..181F. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.256.8319 . doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2006.08.002.
  58. Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Heavens, Alan (2008). "Cosmology with weak lensing surveys". Physics Reports. 462 (3): 67–121. arXiv: astro-ph/0612667 . Bibcode:2008PhR...462...67M. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.337.3760 . doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2008.02.003.
  59. Klasen, M.; Pohl, M.; Sigl, G. (November 2015). "Indirect and direct search for dark matter". Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics. 85: 1–32. arXiv: 1507.03800 . Bibcode:2015PrPNP..85....1K. doi:10.1016/j.ppnp.2015.07.001.
  60. Perlmutter, Saul; Turner, Michael S.; White, Martin (1999). "Constraining Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae and Large-Scale Structure". Physical Review Letters. 83 (4): 670–673. arXiv: astro-ph/9901052 . Bibcode:1999PhRvL..83..670P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.670.
  61. Adler, Ronald J.; Casey, Brendan; Jacob, Ovid C. (July 1995). "Vacuum catastrophe: An elementary exposition of the cosmological constant problem". American Journal of Physics. 63 (7): 620–626. Bibcode:1995AmJPh..63..620A. doi:10.1119/1.17850.
  62. Siegfried, Tom (August 11, 2006). "A 'Landscape' Too Far?". Science. 313 (5788): 750–753. doi:10.1126/science.313.5788.750. PMID   16902104.
  63. Sahni, Varun (2002). "The cosmological constant problem and quintessence". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 19 (13): 3435–3448. arXiv: astro-ph/0202076 . Bibcode:2002CQGra..19.3435S. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/19/13/304.
  64. Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D. (2006). "Introduction to Modified Gravity and Gravitational Alternative for Dark Energy". International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics. 04 (1): 115–146. arXiv: hep-th/0601213 . Bibcode:2006hep.th....1213N. doi:10.1142/S0219887807001928.
  65. Fernández-Jambrina, L. (September 2014). "Grand rip and grand bang/crunch cosmological singularities". Physical Review D. 90 (6): 064014. arXiv: 1408.6997 . Bibcode:2014PhRvD..90f4014F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.064014.
  66. Colpi, Monica; Sesana, Alberto (2017). "Gravitational Wave Sources in the Era of Multi-Band Gravitational Wave Astronomy". In Gerard, Augar; Eric, Plagnol. An Overview of Gravitational Waves: Theory, Sources and Detection. An Overview of Gravitational Waves: Theory. pp. 43–140. arXiv: 1610.05309 . Bibcode:2017ogw..book...43C. doi:10.1142/9789813141766_0002. ISBN   978-981-314-176-6.
  67. Castelvecchi, Davide; Witze, Witze (February 11, 2016). "Einstein's gravitational waves found at last". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19361 . Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  68. B. P. Abbott (LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration) et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv: 1602.03837 . Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID   26918975.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  69. "Gravitational waves detected 100 years after Einstein's prediction". www.nsf.gov. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  70. Overbye, Dennis (June 15, 2016). "Scientists Hear a Second Chirp From Colliding Black Holes". The New York Times . Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  71. "The Newest Search for Gravitational Waves has Begun". LIGO Caltech. LIGO. 18 September 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  72. Kovetz, Ely D. (2017). "Probing Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter with Gravitational Waves". Physical Review Letters. 119 (13): 131301. arXiv: 1705.09182 . Bibcode:2017PhRvL.119m1301K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.131301. PMID   29341709.
  73. Takeda, M.; et al. (August 10, 1998). "Extension of the Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectrum beyond the Predicted Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min Cutoff". Physical Review Letters. 81 (6): 1163–1166. arXiv: astro-ph/9807193 . Bibcode:1998PhRvL..81.1163T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.1163.
  74. Turyshev, Slava G. (2008). "Experimental Tests of General Relativity". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 58 (1): 207–248. arXiv: 0806.1731 . Bibcode:2008ARNPS..58..207T. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.58.020807.111839.
  75. Uzan, Jean-Philippe (March 2011). "Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology". Living Reviews in Relativity. 14 (1): 2. arXiv: 1009.5514 . Bibcode:2011LRR....14....2U. doi:10.12942/lrr-2011-2. PMC   5256069 . PMID   28179829.
  76. Chaisson, Eric (1987-01-01). "The life ERA: cosmic selection and conscious evolution". Faculty Publications. Bibcode:1987lecs.book.....C.

Further reading

Textbooks

From groups

From individuals