List of Muslim Nobel laureates

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Distribution of Muslims in Nobel Prizes between 1901-2015: twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims or a total of 1.4% of all Nobel prizes. Distribution of Muslims in Nobel Prizes between 1901-2015.png
Distribution of Muslims in Nobel Prizes between 1901–2015: twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims or a total of 1.4% of all Nobel prizes.

As of 2018, twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims, more than half in the 21st century. Seven of the twelve laureates have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, while three have been for the sciences. The recipient of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, Abdus Salam, was a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community of Pakistan. Aziz Sancar is the second Turkish Nobel laureate and was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry in the field of molecular biology in 2015. [1]

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Nobel Peace Prize One of five Nobel Prizes established by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Contents

Peace

YearimageLaureateCountry and professionRationalecomment
1978 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Anwar al-Sadat (1918–1981) Flag of Egypt.svg Egyptian President He, along with Menachem Begin was awarded 1978 Nobel Peace Prize "for their contribution to the two frame agreements on peace in the Middle East, and on peace between Egypt and Israel, which were signed at Camp David on September 17, 1978". [2] The first Muslim to receive a Nobel Prize. [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
1994 ArafatEconomicForum.jpg Yasser Arafat (1929–2004) Flag of Palestine.svg Palestinian politician The 1994 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin "for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East". [10] [11] The first and only Muslim Palestinian to receive a Nobel Prize. [3] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]
2003 Shirinebadi001.jpg Shirin Ebadi (b. 1947) Flag of Iran.svg Iranian Human Rights Activist The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Ebadi "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children". [17] The first and only Iranian to receive a Nobel Prize. She was also the first Muslim woman to receive such an honor. [3] [18] [19] [20] [21] Note that Doris Lessing born and raised for 5 years in modern day Iran is a fellow laureate.
2005 Mohamed ElBaradei, Davos 1.jpg Mohamed El Baradei (b. 1942) Flag of Egypt.svg Egyptian diplomat The 2005 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded to El Baradei and IAEA "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way". [22] [23] He was the second Egyptian to be awarded Nobel Peace Prize (2005). [3] [24] [25] [26] [27]
2006 Muhammad Yunus - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg Muhammad Yunus (b. 1940) Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladeshi economist and founder of Grameen Bank.The 2006 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded to Yunus and Grameen Bank "for their efforts to create economic and social development from below". [28] The first Bangladeshi and Bengali Muslim Nobel laureate, and overall, the third person from Bengal to win a Nobel prize. [3] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34]
2011 Tawakkol Karman.jpg Tawakel Karman (b. 1979) Flag of Yemen.svg Human rights activist based in Yemen. A prominent leader in the Arab Spring.The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly given to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Karman "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work". [35] The first Arab woman and first and only Yemeni to receive a Nobel Prize. [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]
2014 Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014.jpg Malala Yousafzai (b. 1997) Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistani activist, working for rights to education for children in Pakistan.The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly given to Kailash Satyarthi and Yousafzai, "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education". [41] At the age of 17, Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Prize recipient ever. [42] She is also the second Pakistani and first ethnic Pashtun to be awarded a Nobel Prize. [43]

Literature

YearimageLaureateCountry and professionRationalecomment
1988 Necip Mahfuz.jpg Naguib Mahfouz

(1911–2006)

Flag of Egypt.svg Egyptian author, noted for his contribution to modern Arabic literature The 1988 Nobel Prize in Literature was given to Naguib Mahfouz "who, through works rich in nuance—now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous—has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind". [44] [45] The first Muslim author to receive such a prize. [3] [46] [47]
2006 Pamuk.jpg Orhan Pamuk (b. 1952) Flag of Turkey.svg Turkish author famous for his novels My Name Is Red and Snow The 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded to Orhan Pamuk "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures". [48] [49] The first Turk to receive the Nobel Prize, He describes himself as a Cultural Muslim who associates the historical and cultural identification with the religion while not believing in a personal connection to God. [3] [50] [51] [52]

Sciences

Physics

YearimageLaureateCountry and professionRationalecomment
1979 Abdus Salam 1987.jpg Mohammad Abdus Salam

(1926– 1996)

Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistani physicist The 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Sheldon Lee Glashow, Salam, and Steven Weinberg "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current". [53] He is the first and only Pakistani scientist to be awarded the Nobel Prize. [54] [55] He was a member of the world wide Ahmadiyya Muslim community and as such not considered a Muslim by the government of Pakistan. [56]

Chemistry

YearimageLaureateCountry and professionRationalecomment
1999 Ahmed Zewail.jpg Ahmed Zewail

(1946–2016) [57]

Flag of Egypt.svg Egyptian scientist The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Ahmed Zewail "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy". [58] He is the first Muslim chemist to be awarded the Nobel Prize and the second Muslim scientist. [3] [59] [60] [61] [62]
2015 Aziz Sancar 0060.jpg Aziz Sancar

(b. 1946)

Flag of Turkey.svg Turkish scientist The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Aziz Sancar "for mechanistic studies of DNA repair" [63] He is the first Turkish chemist, and the second Turkish to date to be awarded the Nobel Prize and the third Muslim scientist.[ dubious ] [64] [65]

Further reading

Articles

Mysticism Practice of religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies, together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them. It may also refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths, and to human transformation supported by various practices and experiences.

Abdolkarim Soroush iranian philosopher

Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش Persian pronunciation: [æbdolkæriːm soruːʃ]; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh, is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University He is arguably the most influential figure in the religious intellectual movement of Iran. Soroush is currently a visiting scholar at the University of Maryland in College Park, MD. He was also affiliated with other prestigious institutions, including Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia, the Leiden-based International Institute as a visiting professor for the Study of Islam in the Modern World and the Wissenschaftskolleg in Berlin. He was named by TIME as one of the world’s 100 most influential people in 2005, and by Prospect magazine as one of the most influential intellectuals in the world in 2008. Soroush's ideas, founded on Relativism, prompted both supporters and critics to compare his role in reforming Islam to that of Martin Luther in reforming Christianity.

University of Lethbridge university in Canada

The University of Lethbridge is a publicly funded comprehensive academic and research university, founded in the liberal education tradition, located in Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, with a second campus in the city of Calgary, Alberta. The main building, University Hall, sits among the coulees on the west side of the Oldman River.

Books

Nuclear energy policy any policy towards usage of nuclear fuels for energy generation

Nuclear energy policy is a national and international policy concerning some or all aspects of nuclear energy and the nuclear fuel cycle, such as uranium mining, ore concentration, conversion, enrichment for nuclear fuel, generating electricity by nuclear power, storing and reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, and disposal of radioactive waste.

Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad.

Orientalism imitation or depiction of aspects of Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures

Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes.

Biography

Abdus Salam theoretical physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics recipient

Mohammad Abdus Salam, was a Pakistani theoretical physicist. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for his contribution to the electroweak unification theory. He was the first Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize in science and the second from an Islamic country to receive any Nobel Prize.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.

Autobiography

<i>Banker to the Poor</i> book by Muhammad Yunus

Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty is an autobiography of 2006 Nobel Peace Prize Winner and Grameen Bank founder Muhammad Yunus. This book shares the details of Yunus' early life, moving into his college years, and into his years as a professor at Chittagong University. While a professor at Chittagong University, Yunus began to take notice of the extreme poverty of the villagers around him. In 1976, Yunus incorporated the help of Maimuna Begum to collect data of people in Jobra who were living in poverty. Most of these impoverished people would take a loan from moneylenders to buy some raw material, using that raw material to create some product, and then selling back the good to the moneylender to repay the loan, earning a very meager profit. One woman interviewed made no more than two cents per day creating bamboo stools using this system. The list Begum brought back to Yunus named 42 women who were living on credit of 856 taka.

Muhammad Yunus Bangladeshi banker, economist and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Muhammad Yunus is a Bangladeshi social entrepreneur, banker, economist, and civil society leader who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for founding the Grameen Bank and pioneering the concepts of microcredit and microfinance. These loans are given to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans. In 2006, Yunus and the Grameen Bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their efforts through microcredit to create economic and social development from below". The Norwegian Nobel Committee said that "lasting peace cannot be achieved unless large population groups find ways in which to break out of poverty" and that "across cultures and civilizations, Yunus and Grameen Bank have shown that even the poorest of the poor can work to bring about their own development". Yunus has received several other national and international honours. He received the United States Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2010.

See also

Related Research Articles

Anwar Sadat Egyptian president and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970.

Ahmed Zewail Egyptian scientist, known as the "father of femtochemistry", and Nobel Prize in Chemistry recipient

Ahmed Hassan Zewail was an Egyptian-American scientist, known as the "father of femtochemistry". He was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry and became the first Egyptian to win a Nobel Prize in a scientific field. He was the Linus Pauling Chair Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Physics, and the director of the Physical Biology Center for Ultrafast Science and Technology at the California Institute of Technology.

Mohamed ElBaradei Egyptian law scholar and diplomat, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013.

Shirin Ebadi Iranian lawyer, human rights activist, and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Shirin Ebadi is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran. On 10 October 2003, Ebadi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant and pioneering efforts for democracy and human rights, especially women's, children's, and refugee rights. She was the first Iranian and the first Muslim woman to receive the prize, and thousands greeted her at the airport when she returned from Paris after receiving the news that she had won the prize. The response to the Award in Iran was mixed—enthusiastic supporters greeted her at the airport upon her return, the conservative media underplayed it, and then-Iranian President Mohammad Khatami criticized it as political.

Orhan Pamuk Turkish novelist and screenwriter

Ferit Orhan Pamuk is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. One of Turkey's most prominent novelists, his work has sold over thirteen million books in sixty-three languages, making him the country's best-selling writer.

Ole Danbolt Mjøs Norwegian politician

Ole Danbolt Mjøs was a Norwegian physician and politician for the Christian Democratic Party. A professor and former rector at the University of Tromsø, he was known worldwide as the leader of the Norwegian Nobel Committee from 2003 to 2008.

Government College University (Lahore) public university

The Government College University is a public university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Sanaa University University in Yemen

Sana'a University was established in 1970 as the first and the primary university in the Yemen Arab Republic, now the Republic of Yemen. It is located in Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, and is currently organized with 17 faculties. Previously the university was located at 15°20′53.16″N44°11′26.83″E, and was built on the grounds of the old Jewish cemetery.

PeaceJam organization

The PeaceJam Foundation is an international organization whose mission statement is "to create young leaders committed to positive change in themselves, their communities, and the world through the inspiration of Nobel Peace Laureates who pass on the spirit, skills, and wisdom they embody." The PeaceJam program was launched in February 1996 by co-founders Dawn Engle and Ivan Suvanjieff to provide the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates with a programmatic vehicle to use in working together to teach youth the art of peace. This foundation supports young people working for change through peaceful acts, giving them a platform by which they can be heard.

Erdağ Göknar is a Turkish-American scholar, literary translator and poet. He is Associate Professor of Turkish and Middle Eastern Studies at Duke University and Director of the Duke University Middle East Studies Center.

The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Shirin Ebadi for "her efforts for democracy and human rights, especially the rights of women and children, in Iran and the Muslim world in general".

Tawakkol Karman Yemeni journalist, politician, human rights activist, and Nobel Peace Prize recipient

Tawakkol Abdel-Salam Karman is a Yemeni journalist, politician, and human rights activist. She leads the group "Women Journalists Without Chains," which she co-founded in 2005. She became the international public face of the 2011 Yemeni uprising that is part of the Arab Spring uprisings. In 2011, she was reportedly called the "Iron Woman" and "Mother of the Revolution" by some Yemenis. She is a co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first Yemeni, the first Arab woman, and the second Muslim woman to win a Nobel Prize and the second youngest Nobel Peace Laureate to date.

Dawn Engle Co-Founder and Executive Director of the PeaceJam Foundation, and Film Director

Dawn Engle is the co-founder and former executive director of the non-profit organization, the PeaceJam Foundation. The PeaceJam program was launched in February 1996 by co-founders Dawn Engle and Ivan Suvanjieff to provide the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates with a programmatic vehicle to use in working together to teach youth the art of peace. To date, 14 Nobel Peace Laureates, including the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Rigoberta Menchú Tum, President Oscar Arias, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Mairead Corrigan Maguire, Betty Williams, President José Ramos-Horta, Tawakkol Karman, Sir Joseph Rotblat (Emeritus), Leymah Gbowee, Jody Williams, Kailash Satyarthi, and Shirin Ebadi, serve as members of the PeaceJam Foundation. To date, over one million young people from 40 countries around the world have participated in the year long, award-winning PeaceJam curricular program. Engle and her husband Ivan Suvanjieff have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize seventeen times, and they were leading contenders for the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize. Engle is the co-director of multiple documentaries, including PEACEJAM, and co-author of the book, PeaceJam: A Billion Simple Acts of Peace that was published by Penguin in 2008. She has also directed the award-winning documentary films, Children of the Light,Rivers of Hope, Daughter of the Maya, and Without A Shot Fired which are the first four films in PeaceJam's Nobel Legacy Film Series.

2011 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded to three female political activists. Two African and one Asian female were awarded for their persistence in obtaining equal rights for women.

House of Abdus Salam, Jhang

The House of Abdus Salam is a Pakistani national monument. It housed Pakistani Professor Abdus Salam, a theoretical physicist who became the first Muslim and Pakistani to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979.

2014 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2014 Nobel Peace Prize was shared, in two equal parts, between Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education". Satyarthi is from India, the seventh person from his country to win a Nobel Prize and the second to win the Peace Prize after Mother Teresa, while Yousafzai is a Muslim from Pakistan, the second Nobel Prize winner from her country after Abdus Salam, the forty-seventh woman to win the Nobel Prize, and at the age of 17 years, the youngest winner of a Nobel Prize in any field.

References

The year of receiving Nobel Prize is given after each Nobel Laureate in this article. For verification of candidacy of above listed Nobel Laureates, please go to nobelprize.org, [77] and search the corresponding year of reception of Nobel Prize in the respective field.

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Karman joins Shirin Ebadi, who won the Nobel Peace prize in 2003 for her work to bring equal rights to women in Iran, as the second Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace prize.
“As a Muslim woman, I am well aware of the difficult and severe conditions of your work and struggle,” said Ebadi in her letter today to Karman. Karman receives frequent death threats, and was thrown in jail last January. “I admire your tremendous work and courage. This victory will certainly inspire and reassure the million of Muslim women who suffer from discrimination and who fight for equality of rights between men and women—and also sends a message to countries going through the Arab Spring that true democracy will only be achieved if women also receive equal rights.”
It is not Islam or poverty that succours terrorism, but the failure to be heard
How closely have the changes and developments detailed in Mahfouz’s descriptions of ordinary Egyptian lives paralleled what the world has witnessed as ageneral growing “Islamization” of the Muslim world? In my research, I have found that other Muslim writers, such as Leila Ahmed (Egypt), Mohsin Hamid (Pakistan/India), and Orhan Pamuk (Turkey) have also observed and commented on the Islamization of the culture.