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"Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with another dog." -- Adam Smith Adam Smith The Muir portrait.jpg
“Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with another dog.” ― Adam Smith

An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.


The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, statistics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics.


Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, who obtained his Ph.D. in economics from New York University, testifies before the U.S. House Committee on Financial Services Mvc-017x.jpg
Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan, who obtained his Ph.D. in economics from New York University, testifies before the U.S. House Committee on Financial Services
In 2014, head of the Federal reserve Janet Yellen, speaks with IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde Chair Yellen and IMF Managing Director Lagarde 140702 (cropped).jpg
In 2014, head of the Federal reserve Janet Yellen, speaks with IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde

Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may also " data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, and consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, mathematics, computer programming [and] they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin." [1]

In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a legally required educational requirement or license for economists. In academia, most economists have a Ph.D. degree in Economics.[ citation needed ] In the U.S. Government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. [2]

A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is often considered to be an economist. [3] In addition to government and academia, economists are also employed in banking, finance, accountancy, commerce, marketing, business administration, lobbying and non- or not-for profit organizations. [4]

Politicians often consult economists before enacting economic policy. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics.

By country

Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and labour market conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to communicate and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the university or college. Whilst only a few[ quantify ] economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists,[ citation needed ] many find it a base for entry into a career in finance – including accounting, insurance, tax and banking, or management; [ citation needed ] see Financial analyst #Qualification. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, and in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in government and politics. Small numbers[ quantify ][ citation needed ] go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, research, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas.


In Brazil, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil. [5]

United States

Economist salaries by educational attainment. Economists salary.png
Economist salaries by educational attainment.

According to the United States Department of Labor, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of roughly $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually. [7] Nearly 135 colleges and universities [8] [ verification needed ] grant around 900 new Ph.D.s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes. As of January 2013, showed Ph.D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph.D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000; Ph.D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000; economics full professors, $89,000 to $137,000; economics associate professors, $59,000 to $156,000, and economics assistant professors, $72,000 to $100,000. [6]

United Kingdom

The largest single professional grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service, who work in 30 government departments and agencies.[ citation needed ]

Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the United Kingdom (ranging from Newcastle University to the London School of Economics), shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional, national and international organisations, across many sectors.[ citation needed ] This figure compares very favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment.[ citation needed ]

Notable economists

Some current well-known economists include:

See also

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Myron Scholes Canadian economist

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Michael Spence American economist

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Clive Granger British Economist

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W. Arthur Lewis Saint Lucian economist

Sir William Arthur Lewis was an economist and the James Madison Professor of Political Economy at Princeton University. Lewis was well known for his contributions in the field of economic development. In 1979 he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He had dual Saint Lucian and British citizenships.

Omicron Delta Epsilon

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Edmund Phelps American economist

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Lars Peter Hansen American economist

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Bengt Holmström Finnish economist and Nobel laureate (born 1949)

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Peter Diamond Nobel prize in economics winner

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Barcelona Graduate School of Economics

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Bagicha Singh Minhas (1929) is an Indian economist.

Abhijit Banerjee American economist

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Heller-Hurwicz Economics Institute

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  1. Economist
  2. "Economist Series, 0110: U.S. Office of Personnel Management".
  3. "Economists : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Retrieved 2017-02-02.
  4. "Economics Jobs and Economist Jobs -".
  5. "Guia do mercado de trabalho do economista CORECON" . Retrieved 2018-01-14.
  6. 1 2 "Pay Scale, US income of Economists" . Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  7. US Bureau of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook Archived April 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  8. "Subscription Application".


Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg The dictionary definition of economist at Wiktionary