Rural economics

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Rural economics is the study of rural economies, including:

An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents. Understood in its broadest sense, 'The economy is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of resources'. Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two parties agree to the value or price of the transacted good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain.


Farm area of land for farming, or, for aquaculture, lake, river or sea, including various structures

A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production. The name is used for specialised units such as arable farms, vegetable farms, fruit farms, dairy, pig and poultry farms, and land used for the production of natural fibres, biofuel and other commodities. It includes ranches, feedlots, orchards, plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural buildings as well as the land. In modern times the term has been extended so as to include such industrial operations as wind farms and fish farms, both of which can operate on land or sea.

Rural development improving quality of life in rural areas

Rural development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas, often relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas.

Land use total of arrangements, activities, and inputs that people undertake in a certain land cover type

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods. It also has been defined as "the total of arrangements, activities, and inputs that people undertake in a certain land cover type."

See also

Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber. Agricultural economics began as a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage, it focused on maximizing the crop yield while maintaining a good soil ecosystem. Throughout the 20th century the discipline expanded and the current scope of the discipline is much broader. Agricultural economics today includes a variety of applied areas, having considerable overlap with conventional economics. Agricultural economists have made substantial contributions to research in economics, econometrics, development economics, and environmental economics. Agricultural economics influences food policy, agricultural policy, and environmental policy.

Agroecology The study of ecological processes in agriculture

Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to "a science, a movement, [or] a practice". Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems. The field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional, intensive or extensive. However, it has much more in common with organic and integrated farming.

Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. The concept, however, has been in existence in the West for centuries. "Modernization, "westernization", and especially "industrialization" are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Economic development has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues. Economic development is very often confused with industrial development, even in some academic sources.


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       • Jean O. Lanjouwb and Peter Lanjouw (2001). "The Rural Non-farm Sector: Issues and Evidence from Developing Countries," Agricultural Economics, 26(1), pp. 1-23. Abstract.
       • Thomas Reardon et al. (2008). "Effects of Non-Farm Employment on Rural Income Inequality in Developing Countries: An Investment Perspective," Journal of Agricultural Economics,51(2), pp. 266-288. Abstract. [ dead link ]
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       • Alain de Janvry, Rinku Murgai, and Elisabeth Sadoulet (2002). "Rural Development and Rural Policy," in Handbook of Agricultural Economics, v. 2A (scrollable preview), ch. 31. Abstract.
       • Bruce L. Gardner (2005). "Causes of Rural Economic Development," Agricultural Economics, 32(s1), pp. 21-41. Abstract.
       • Kiminori Matsuyama (2008). "Structural change," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • Steven C. Deller et al. (2001). "The Role of Amenities and Quality of Life in Rural Economic Growth," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(2), pp. 352-365 Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine (close Pages tab).
  3. • Anthony J. Venables (2008). "New economic geography." The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition.Abstract.
       • France Ivry (1994). Agricultural Household Modelling and Family Economics. Elsevier. Abstract.
  4. • Alain de Janvry and Elisabeth Sadoulet (2008). "access to land and development," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • JunJie Wu (2008). "Land Use Changes: Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts," Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, 23(4), pp. 6-10 (press +).
  5. Stephen Sheppard (1999). "Hedonic Analysis of Housing Markets," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, v. 3, ch. 41, pp. 1595-1635. Abstract.
  6. • James Roumasset (2008). "population and agricultural growth," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • David McGranahan (1999).Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change. Agricultural Economic Report No. (AER781) 32 pp, Description and chapter links. Archived 2009-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
  7. • Michael R. Carter (2008), "agricultural finance," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition.Abstract.
       • Karla Hoff and Joseph E. Stiglitz (1993). "Imperfect Information and Rural Credit Markets: Puzzles and Policy Perspectives," in Karla Hoff, Avishay Braverman, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, ed., Economics of Rural Organization: Theory, Practice and Policy, ch. 2, pp. 33-52 (press +).
       • Rodrigo A. Chaves and Claudio Gonzalez-Vega (1996). "The Design of Successful Rural Financial Intermediaries: Evidence from Indonesia," World Development, 24(1), pp. 65-78. Abstract.
  8. • John W. Mellor (2008). "agriculture and economic development," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • Christopher B. Barrett and Emelly Mutambatsere (2008). "agricultural markets in developing countries," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition. Abstract.
       • Karla Hoff, Avishay Braverman, and Joseph E. Stiglitz, ed. (1993). Economics of Rural Organization: Theory, Practice and Policy. Oxford University Press for the World Bank.
       • William A. Galston and Karen Baehler (1995). Rural Development in the United States: Connecting Theory, Practice, and Possibilities. Wash., D.C.: Island Press. Description and TOC link.
       • Alan Okagaki, Kris Palmer, and Neil S. Mayer (1998). Strengthening Rural Economics. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Housing & Urban Development. Description Archived 2009-05-09 at the Wayback Machine and PDF (press +).
  9. • JunJie Wu, Paul W. Barkley, and Bruce A. Weber, ed. (2008). Frontiers in Resource and Rural Economics. Resources for the Future. ISBN   978-1-933115-65-8.Description. Archived 2008-10-31 at the Wayback Machine
      JEL classification codes#Urban, rural, and regional economics JEL: R Subcategories
       • Alain de Janvry and Elisabeth Sadoulet (2007). "Toward a Territorial Approach to Rural Development," Journal of Agricultural and Development, 4(1), pp. 66-98.

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Thomas Nixon Carver American economist

Thomas Nixon Carver was an American economics professor.