Per capita

Last updated

Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head"). The phrase thus means "by heads" or "for each head", i.e., per individual/person. The term is used in a wide variety of social sciences and statistical research contexts, including government statistics, economic indicators, and built environment studies.

An economic indicator is a statistic about an economic activity. Economic indicators allow analysis of economic performance and predictions of future performance. One application of economic indicators is the study of business cycles. Economic indicators include various indices, earnings reports, and economic summaries: for example, the unemployment rate, quits rate, housing starts, consumer price index, consumer leverage ratio, industrial production, bankruptcies, gross domestic product, broadband internet penetration, retail sales, stock market prices, and money supply changes.

It is commonly and usually used in the field of statistics in place of saying "per person" [1] (although per caput is the Latin for "per head" [2] ). It is also used in wills to indicate that each of the named beneficiaries should receive, by devise or bequest, equal shares of the estate. [2] This is in contrast to a per stirpes division, in which each branch (Latin stirps, plural stirpes) of the inheriting family inherits an equal share of the estate.

An academic discipline or academic field, also known as a field of study and branch of knowledge, is a subdivision of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined, and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. It includes scientific disciplines.

Statistics study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with data collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation. In applying statistics to, for example, a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as "all people living in a country" or "every atom composing a crystal". Statistics deals with all aspects of data, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability and statistics.

A bequest is property given by will. Historically, the term bequest was used for personal property given by will and deviser for real property. Today, the two words are used interchangeably.

See also

Related Research Articles

The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of prepositions. It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually used together with the nominative case. For example, "they" in English is nominative; "them" is accusative. The sentence "They like them" shows the nominative case and accusative case working in conjunction using the same base word. The syntactic functions of the accusative consist of designating the immediate object of an action, the intended result, the goal of a motion, and the extent of an action.

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection.

Esperanto is a constructed language. It is designed to have a highly regular grammar, and as such is considered an easy language to learn.

Grammatical case grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence. In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determiners, participles, prepositions, numerals, articles and their modifiers take different inflected forms, depending on their case. As a language evolves, cases can merge, a phenomenon formally called syncretism.

Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case and gender. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are declined, and a given pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. For simple declension paradigms, visit the Wiktionary appendices: first declension, second declension, third declension, fourth declension, fifth declension. Each noun follows one of the five declensions, but some irregular nouns have exceptions.

The vocative case is the case used for a noun that identifies a person being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address by which the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence "I don't know, John," John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed, as opposed to the sentence "I don't know John" in which "John" is the direct object of the verb "know."

Amharic is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia. The language serves as the official working language of Ethiopia, and is also the official or working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system. With 21,811,600 total speakers as of 2007, including around 4,000,000 L2 speakers, Amharic is the second-most commonly spoken Semitic language in the world, after Arabic.

Latin grammar grammar of the Latin language

Latin is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order. Nouns are inflected for number and case; pronouns and adjectives are inflected for number, case, and gender; and verbs are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood. The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs.

German grammar is the set of structural rules of the German language, which in many respects is quite similar to that of the other Germanic languages.

In grammar, an oblique or objective case is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition. A noun or pronoun in the oblique case can generally appear in any role except as subject, for which the nominative case is used. The term objective case is generally preferred by modern English grammarians, where it supplanted Old English's dative and accusative. When the two terms are contrasted, they differ in the ability of a word in the oblique case to function as a possessive attributive; whether English has an oblique rather than an objective case then depends on how "proper" or widespread one considers the dialects where such usage is employed.

Per stirpes is a legal term from Latin. An estate of a decedent is distributed per stirpes if each branch of the family is to receive an equal share of an estate. When the heir in the first generation of a branch predeceased the decedent, the share that would have been given to the heir would be distributed among the heir's issue in equal shares. It may also be known as strict per stirpes or the old English approach, and differs from distribution per capita, as members of the same generation may inherit different amounts.

Romanian grammar is the body of rules that describe the structure of expressions in the Romanian language. Standard Romanian shares largely the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving varieties of Eastern Romance, viz. Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian.

A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values, which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category. Examples of frequently encountered grammatical categories include tense, number and gender.

Caput mortuum is a Latin term whose literal meaning is "dead head" or "worthless remains", used in alchemy and also as the name of a pigment.

Pari passu is a Latin phrase that literally means "with an equal step" or "on equal footing". It is sometimes translated as "ranking equally", "hand-in-hand", "with equal force", or "moving together", and by extension, "fairly", "without partiality".

The grammar of the Polish language is characterized by a high degree of inflection, and has relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO). There are no articles, and there is frequent dropping of subject pronouns. Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.

<i>Illegitimi non carborundum</i>

Illegitimi non carborundum is a mock-Latin aphorism possibly read as "Don't let the bastards grind you down".

In the customs of the kingdom of England, the caput baroniae was the ancient, or chief seat or castle of a nobleman, which was not to be divided among the daughters upon his death, in case there be no son to inherit. Instead, it was to descend entirely to the eldest daughter, caeteris filiabus aliunde satisfactis.

Gothic is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. A set of declined forms of the same word pattern is called a declension. There are five grammatical cases in Gothic with a few traces of an old sixth instrumental case.

Caput lupinum or caput gerat lupinum is a term used in the English legal system and its derivatives. The Latin term literally means "wolf's head" or "wolfish head", and refers to a person considered to be an outlaw, as in, e.g., the phrase caput gerat lupinum. Black's Law Dictionary, 8th edition reads "an outlawed felon considered a pariah – a lone wolf – open to attack by anyone." A person designated a caput lupinum was a criminal whose rights had been waived. As such, he or she could be legally harmed by any citizen.


  1. "Per capita | Define Per capita at". Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  2. 1 2 "Per caput, per capita." at The Economist style gluide. Retrieved 15 July 2017.