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As of 2018, Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 853 men, 51 women (Marie Curie won it twice), and 24 unique organizations.
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Marie Skłodowska Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, and the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. She was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.
The distribution of female Nobel Laureates is as follows:
Elinor Claire "Lin" Ostrom was an American political economist whose work was associated with the New Institutional Economics and the resurgence of political economy. In 2009, she was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for her "analysis of economic governance, especially the commons", which she shared with Oliver E. Williamson. To date, she remains the only woman to win the Nobel Prize in Economics.
The first woman to win a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 with her husband, Pierre Curie, and Henri Becquerel.Curie is also the only woman to have won multiple Nobel Prizes; in 1911, she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Curie's daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935, making the two the only mother-daughter pair to have won Nobel Prizes.
Pierre Curie was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. In 1903, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his wife, Marie Skłodowska-Curie, and Henri Becquerel, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel".
Antoine Henri Becquerel was a French engineer, physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. The SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel (Bq), is named after him.
Irène Joliot-Curie was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. Jointly with her husband, Joliot-Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1935 for their discovery of artificial radioactivity. This made the Curies the family with the most Nobel laureates to date. Both children of the Joliot-Curies, Hélène and Pierre, are also esteemed scientists.
The most Nobel Prizes awarded to women in a single year was in 2009, when five women became laureates in four categories.
The most recent women to be awarded a Nobel Prize were Donna Strickland in Physics, Frances Arnold in Chemistry, and Nadia Murad for Peace (2018).
Donna Theo Strickland is a Canadian optical physicist and pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification. She is a professor at the University of Waterloo.
Frances Hamilton Arnold is an American chemical engineer and Nobel Laureate. She is the Linus Pauling Professor of Chemical Engineering, Bioengineering and Biochemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In 2018, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering the use of directed evolution to engineer enzymes.
Nadia Murad Basee Taha is an Iraqi Yazidi human rights activist who lives in Germany. In 2014 she was kidnapped from her hometown Kocho and held by the Islamic State for three months.
|1903|| Marie Skłodowska Curie |
(shared with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel)
|Poland and France||Physics||"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"|
|1905||Bertha von Suttner||Austria–Hungary||Peace||Honorary President of Permanent International Peace Bureau, Bern, Switzerland; Author of Lay Down Your Arms.|
|1909||Selma Lagerlöf||Sweden||Literature||"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"|
|1911||Marie Skłodowska Curie||Poland and France||Chemistry||"for her discovery of radium and polonium"|
|1926||Grazia Deledda||Italy||Literature||"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"|
|1928||Sigrid Undset||Norway||Literature||"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"|
|1931|| Jane Addams |
(shared with Nicholas Murray Butler)
|United States||Peace||Sociologist; International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.|
|1935|| Irène Joliot-Curie |
(shared with Frédéric Joliot-Curie)
|France||Chemistry||"for their synthesis of new radioactive elements"|
|1938||Pearl S. Buck||United States||Literature||"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"|
|1945||Gabriela Mistral||Chile||Literature||"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"|
|1946|| Emily Greene Balch |
(shared with John Raleigh Mott)
|United States||Peace||Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.|
|1947|| Gerty Theresa Cori |
(shared with Carl Ferdinand Cori and Bernardo Houssay)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"|
|1963|| Maria Goeppert-Mayer |
(shared with J. Hans D. Jensen and Eugene Wigner)
|United States||Physics||"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"|
|1964||Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin||United Kingdom||Chemistry||"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"|
|1966|| Nelly Sachs |
(shared with Samuel Agnon)
|Sweden and Germany||Literature||"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"|
|1976||Betty Williams||United Kingdom||Peace||Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)|
|1977|| Rosalyn Sussman Yalow |
(shared with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"|
|1979||Mother Teresa|| India and|
|Peace||Leader of Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta.|
|1982|| Alva Myrdal |
(shared with Alfonso García Robles)
|Sweden||Peace||Former Cabinet Minister; Diplomat; Writer.|
|1983||Barbara McClintock||United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"|
|1986|| Rita Levi-Montalcini |
(shared with Stanley Cohen)
| Italy and |
|Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of growth factors"|
|1988|| Gertrude B. Elion |
(shared with James W. Black and George H. Hitchings)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"|
|1991||Nadine Gordimer||South Africa||Literature||"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"|
|Aung San Suu Kyi||Burma||Peace||"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"|
|1992||Rigoberta Menchú||Guatemala||Peace||"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"|
|1993||Toni Morrison||United States||Literature||"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"|
|1995|| Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard |
(shared with Edward B. Lewis and Eric F. Wieschaus)
|Germany||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"|
|1996||Wisława Szymborska||Poland||Literature||"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"|
|1997|| Jody Williams |
(shared with the International Campaign to Ban Landmines)
|United States||Peace||"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"|
|2003||Shirin Ebadi||Iran||Peace||"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"|
|2004||Elfriede Jelinek||Austria||Literature||"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"|
|Wangari Maathai||Kenya||Peace||"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"|
| Linda B. Buck |
(shared with Richard Axel)
|United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"|
|2007||Doris Lessing||United Kingdom||Literature||"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"|
|2008|| Françoise Barré-Sinoussi |
(shared with Harald zur Hausen and Luc Montagnier)
|France||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discovery of HIV, human immunodeficiency virus"|
|2009|| Elizabeth Blackburn |
(shared with Jack W. Szostak)
|Australia and United States||Physiology or Medicine||"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"|
| Carol W. Greider |
(shared with Jack W. Szostak)
| Ada E. Yonath |
(shared with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz)
|Israel||Chemistry||"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"|
|Herta Müller||Germany and Romania||Literature||"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"|
| Elinor Ostrom |
(shared with Oliver E. Williamson)
|United States||Economics||"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"|
|2011||Ellen Johnson Sirleaf||Liberia||Peace||"For their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"|
|2013||Alice Munro||Canada||Literature||"master of the contemporary short story"|
|2014|| May-Britt Moser |
(shared with Edvard Moser and John O'Keefe)
|Norway||Physiology or Medicine||"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"|
| Malala Yousafzai |
(shared with Kailash Satyarthi)
|Pakistan and India||Peace||"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education".|
|2015|| Tu Youyou |
(shared with William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura)
|China||Physiology or Medicine||"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"|
|Svetlana Alexievich||Belarus||Literature||"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time"|
|2018|| Donna Strickland |
(shared with Gérard Mourou and Arthur Ashkin)
|Canada||Physics||"for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"|
| Frances Arnold |
(shared with Gregory Winter and George Smith)
|United States||Chemistry||"for the directed evolution of enzymes"|
| Nadia Murad |
(shared with Denis Mukwege)
|Iraq||Peace||"for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict"|
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.
The Nobel Foundation is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite.
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