Bloomington, Indiana

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Bloomington, Indiana
City of Bloomington
Bloomington IN Kirkwood.jpg
Kirkwood Avenue looking toward downtown
CityofBloomingtonSeal.png
Monroe County Indiana Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Bloomington Highlighted 1805860.svg
Location of Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana
Coordinates: 39°09′44″N86°31′45″W / 39.16222°N 86.52917°W / 39.16222; -86.52917 Coordinates: 39°09′44″N86°31′45″W / 39.16222°N 86.52917°W / 39.16222; -86.52917
Country United States
State Indiana
County Monroe
Townships Bloomington, Perry, Richland, Van Buren
Government
   Mayor John Hamilton (D)
Area
[1]
   City 23.44 sq mi (60.70 km2)
  Land23.25 sq mi (60.22 km2)
  Water0.18 sq mi (0.48 km2)
Elevation
[2]
771 ft (235 m)
Population
 (2010) [3]
   City 80,405
  Estimate 
(2018) [4]
84,981
  Density3,632.59/sq mi (1,402.57/km2)
   Metro
175,506
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
47401–47408
Area code 812 & 930
FIPS code [2] [5] 18-05860
GNIS ID [2] [5] 431207
Interstate Highways I-69.svg
Major State Roads Indiana 37.svg Indiana 45.svg Indiana 46.svg Indiana 48.svg Indiana 446.svg
Waterways Clear Creek
Jackson Creek
Lake Monroe
Lake Lemon
Airports Monroe County Airport
Website www.bloomington.in.gov

Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the southern region of the U.S. state of Indiana. [6] It is the seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. According to the Monroe County History Center, Bloomington is known as the "Gateway to Scenic Southern Indiana." The city was established in 1818 by a group of settlers from Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, and Virginia who were so impressed with "a haven of blooms" that they called it Bloomington. [7]

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Monroe County, Indiana County in Indiana, USA

Monroe County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana, and determined by the U.S. Census Bureau to include the mean center of U.S. population in 1910. The population was 137,974 at the 2010 census. The county seat is Bloomington.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.

Contents

The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census. [8] The city's population was estimated at 84,067 as of July 2016 by the U.S. Census Bureau. [9]

2010 United States Census 23rd national census of the United States, taken in 2010

The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

United States Census Bureau Bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Bloomington is the home to Indiana University Bloomington. Established in 1820, IU Bloomington has 49,695 [10] students, as of September 2016, and is the original and largest campus of Indiana University. Most of the campus buildings are built of Indiana limestone.

Indiana University Bloomington Public research university located in Bloomington, Indiana, United States (this is about the Bloomington campus, not the system of universities)

Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university.

Bloomington has been designated a Tree City for 32 years, as of 2015. [11] [12] The city was also the location of the Academy Award–winning 1979 movie Breaking Away , featuring a reenactment of Indiana University's annual Little 500 bicycle race. Monroe County's famous limestone quarries are also featured in the movie.

Academy Awards American awards given annually for excellence in cinematic achievements

The Academy Awards, also officially and popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more commonly referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The statuette depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style.

<i>Breaking Away</i> 1979 American film by Peter Yates

Breaking Away is a 1979 American coming of age comedy-drama film produced and directed by Peter Yates and written by Steve Tesich. It follows a group of four male teenagers in Bloomington, Indiana, who have recently graduated from high school. The film stars Dennis Christopher, Dennis Quaid, Daniel Stern, Jackie Earle Haley, Barbara Barrie, Paul Dooley, and Robyn Douglass.

Little 500

The Little 500, is a track cycling race held annually during the third weekend of April at Bill Armstrong Stadium on the campus of Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. It is attended by more than 25,000 fans each April.

History

The area in which Bloomington was situated was previously inhabited by the Delaware, Potawatomi, Miami, and Eel River Miami. [13]

Delaware U.S. state in the United States

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, and east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean. The state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor.

Potawatomi Native American peoples

The Pottawatomi, also spelled Pottawatomie and Potawatomi, are a Native American people of the Great Plains, upper Mississippi River, and western Great Lakes region. They traditionally speak the Potawatomi language, a member of the Algonquian family. The Potawatomi called themselves Neshnabé, a cognate of the word Anishinaabe. The Potawatomi are part of a long-term alliance, called the Council of Three Fires, with the Ojibwe and Odawa (Ottawa). In the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi were considered the "youngest brother" and were referred to in this context as Bodéwadmi, a name that means "keepers of the fire" and refers to the council fire of three peoples.

Miami people Native American nation originally found in what is now Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio

The Miami are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory that is now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, and western Ohio. By 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the only federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe.

Bloomington was platted in 1818. [14] A post office has been in operation at Bloomington since 1825. [15] Bloomington was incorporated in 1827. [16]

Plat map showing a piece of land, drawn to scale, with details such as nearby properties, boundaries, land size, flood zones, the surrounding neighborhood, easements, and monuments

In the United States, a plat is a map, drawn to scale, showing the divisions of a piece of land. United States General Land Office surveyors drafted township plats of Public Lands Surveys to show the distance and bearing between section corners, sometimes including topographic or vegetation information. City, town or village plats show subdivisions into blocks with streets and alleys. Further refinement often splits blocks into individual lots, usually for the purpose of selling the described lots; this has become known as subdivision.

The current city logo was adopted on January 6, 1986 by the Bloomington Common Council. [17] It was a combination of peony and trout lily, inspired by both quilt patterns used by regional folk artists in 19th century and the shape of Downtown Square. [17]

The Elias Abel House, Blair-Dunning House, Bloomington City Hall, Bloomington West Side Historic District, Cantol Wax Company Building, Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Cochran-Helton-Lindley House, Courthouse Square Historic District, Hinkle-Garton Farmstead, Home Laundry Company, Illinois Central Railroad Freight Depot, Johnson's Creamery, Legg House, Millen House, Millen-Chase-McCalla House, Monroe Carnegie Library, Monroe County Courthouse, Morgan House, J.L. Nichols House and Studio, North Washington Street Historic District, The Old Crescent, Princess Theatre, Prospect Hill Historic District, Second Baptist Church, Seminary Square Park, Steele Dunning Historic District, University Courts Historic District, Vinegar Hill Historic District, Wicks Building, Woolery Stone Company, and Andrew Wylie House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [18] [19]

Geography

According to the 2010 census, Bloomington has a total area of 23.359 square miles (60.50 km2), of which 23.16 square miles (59.98 km2) (or 99.15%) is land and 0.199 square miles (0.52 km2) (or 0.85%) is water. [20] [21]

Climate

Southern Indiana receives an abundance of rain, with a yearly average of nearly 45 inches.

Climate data for Bloomington, Indiana
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)78
(26)
76
(24)
86
(30)
91
(33)
97
(36)
103
(39)
110
(43)
104
(40)
103
(39)
96
(36)
84
(29)
74
(23)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C)38.8
(3.8)
42.3
(5.7)
53.0
(11.7)
65.0
(18.3)
75.1
(23.9)
83.2
(28.4)
87.3
(30.7)
85.9
(29.9)
79.7
(26.5)
68.4
(20.2)
53.9
(12.2)
41.6
(5.3)
64.5
(18.1)
Average low °F (°C)21.2
(−6.0)
23.2
(−4.9)
32.1
(0.1)
42.6
(5.9)
52.5
(11.4)
61.4
(16.3)
65.2
(18.4)
63.4
(17.4)
56.3
(13.5)
44.8
(7.1)
34.7
(1.5)
24.6
(−4.1)
43.5
(6.4)
Record low °F (°C)−21
(−29)
−20
(−29)
−2
(−19)
17
(−8)
29
(−2)
36
(2)
46
(8)
41
(5)
26
(−3)
17
(−8)
−2
(−19)
−20
(−29)
−21
(−29)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.66
(68)
2.71
(69)
3.66
(93)
4.29
(109)
5.12
(130)
4.07
(103)
4.32
(110)
3.99
(101)
3.62
(92)
3.14
(80)
3.95
(100)
3.38
(86)
44.91
(1,141)
Average snowfall inches (cm)5.7
(14)
4.4
(11)
2.1
(5.3)
0.4
(1.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.25)
1.2
(3.0)
4.7
(12)
18.6
(47)
Source #1: Weatherbase [22]
Source #2: Noaa.gov

Geology

Bloomington is an area of irregular limestone terrain characterized by sinks, ravines, fissures, underground streams, sinking streams, springs and caves. [23] It is situated in the rolling hills of southern Indiana, resting on the intersection of the Norman Uplands and the Mitchell Plain. The relatively varied topography of the city provides a sharp contrast to the flatter terrain more typical of central to northern portions of Indiana.

Water

Griffy Lake, once the central source of drinking water for the city. Griffy Lake - DSCF4382.JPG
Griffy Lake, once the central source of drinking water for the city.

Bloomington is located on a comparatively high ground, the summit of the divide between the basins of the West Fork and East Fork of Indiana's White River. Accordingly, there are no major watercourses within the city, nor is much groundwater available for wells. [23] The largest stream within the city itself is Clear Creek, with its eastern branch known on the Indiana University campus as Jordan River.

Due to the absence of either natural lakes or rivers or groundwater in or near the city, a number of dams have been constructed on nearby creeks over the last 100 years to provide for the water needs of Bloomington and Monroe County. Early 20th-century damming projects occurred at a number of locations southwest of the city, the most notable of them being the Leonard Springs Dam. Due to the limestone formations underlying the reservoirs and the dams, water kept seeping from the reservoirs through naturally developing underground channels. Despite all efforts, the city was never able to fully stop the leakage, and had to resort to pumping leaking water back to the reservoir. [23]

By the 1920s, a more radical solution was needed to deal with the water crisis. A new reservoir, known as Griffy Lake, was constructed in a more geologically suitable area north of the city. [23] (It is now within Bloomington's official city limits.) Later, in the 1950s, two much larger reservoirs, Lake Lemon and Lake Monroe were created in the northeastern and southeastern parts of Monroe County. Monroe Lake was created by the US Army Corps of Engineers for flood control, but has since been used to supply the city and the county with water. The water pumping station at Griffy Lake has been mothballed. [24]

Environment

PCB pollution, associated with Westinghouse's operations, long was a concern in the area. [25] [26] A number of sites, [27] in particular, Bennett's Dump and Lemon Lane Landfill at the northwestern edge of the city and Neal's Landfill in the county, were listed as Superfund sites. Clean-up operations at the Bennett Quarry site, started in 1983, were largely completed by 2000., [28] while cleanups at the other sites were completed in 2012.

Demographics

Location of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area in Indiana Bloomington Metropolitan Area.png
Location of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area in Indiana
Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 1,305
1860 2,41985.4%
1870 1,032−57.3%
1880 2,756167.1%
1890 4,01845.8%
1900 6,46060.8%
1910 8,83836.8%
1920 11,59531.2%
1930 18,22757.2%
1940 20,87014.5%
1950 28,16334.9%
1960 31,35711.3%
1970 43,26238.0%
1980 52,04420.3%
1990 60,63316.5%
2000 69,29114.3%
2010 80,40516.0%
Est. 201884,981 [4] 5.7%
Source: US Census Bureau

Bloomington is the principal city of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Greene, Monroe, and Owen counties [29] and had a combined population of 175,506 at the 2000 census. [30]

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, [3] there were 80,405 people, 31,425 households, and 11,267 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,471.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,340.4/km2). There were 33,239 housing units at an average density of 1,435.2 per square mile (554.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.0% White, 4.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population.

There were 31,425 households of which 16.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 64.1% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76.

The median age in the city was 23.3 years. 11.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 44.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23% were from 25 to 44; 13.3% were from 45 to 64; and 7.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female.

2000 census

As of the census [30] of 2000, there were 69,291 people, 26,468 households, and 10,454 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,511.1 people per square mile (1,356.0/km²). There were 28,400 housing units at an average density of 1,439.1 per square mile (555.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.03% White, 4.24% African American, 0.29% Native American, 5.26% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.49% of the population. 22.9% were of German, 10.2% Irish, 9.1% English and 8.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.3% spoke English, 2.9% Spanish, 1.3% Korean, 1.1% German and 1.0% Chinese or Mandarin as their first language.

There were 26,468 households out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.5% were non-families. 39.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76.

In the city, the population was spread out with 12.7% under the age of 18, 42.3% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 12.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,377, and the median income for a family was $50,054. Males had a median income of $32,470 compared to $26,100 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,481. About 10.3% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The Bloomington and Monroe County region is home to major employers representing a diverse collection of fields, including education, the life sciences, advanced manufacturing and technology. [31]

Bloomington is a regional economic center anchored by Indiana University and home to a diverse business community involved in pharmaceuticals, medical devices, technology, health care, and the arts. Bloomington's concentration of employment in the life sciences is six times greater than the U.S. average, and employment in the technology sector has grown by over 80 percent in recent years. [32] Companies based in Bloomington include Cook Group, Author Solutions, OneWorld Enterprises, BloomingFoods and Singota Solutions.

Bloomington has been recognized by Inc. Magazine as one of "America’s Best Cities for Doing Business" and as one of Entrepreneur Magazine's Top 50 "Hottest Small Cities for Entrepreneurs." Additionally, Forbes Magazine ranked Bloomington No. 3 in its "Best Places for Business Careers" feature.

Major employers

#Employer# of Employees [33]
1 Indiana University Bloomington (State of Indiana Government)10,000
2 Cook Group 4,200
3 Indiana University Health-Bloomington (State of Indiana Government)2,733
4 Monroe County Community School Corporation (Monroe County Community Government)2,174
5 Kroger 878
6 Catalent 835
7 Monroe County Government 738
8City of Bloomington Government707
9 Baxter BioPharma Solutions 610
10 Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana 532

Education

Post-secondary education

Elementary schools

Middle schools

High schools

Others

Media

Newspapers

Magazines

Television

Bloomington also receives stations from Indianapolis; it is part of the Indianapolis market.

A five-channel public-access television station is housed in the Monroe County Public Library. The station, known as Community Access Television Services or CATS, was established in 1973 and serves as a "dedicated constitutional forum." [35] In April 1995, Rox, a program produced at CATS (then Bloomington Community Access Television), became the first TV series distributed via the web, with an episode titled "Global Village Idiots." [36]

Radio stations

Transportation

Airports

Bicycling

Bloomington is a gold-rated bicycle-friendly community by the League of American Bicyclists. [37]

Bloomington and Indiana University currently run a dockless bikeshare program called Pace, launched in June 2018. [38]

Highways

Bloomington, for many years was one of the largest cities without an interstate or freeway. However, interstate access finally occurred in December 2015 when the Interstate 69 expansion between Evansville and Indianapolis was completed to Bloomington.

The upgrading of SR 37 from a 4 Lane Highway to Interstate standards for the next section of I-69 between Bloomington and Martinsville was originally scheduled for completion in August 2016. As of November 2018, the construction was substantially complete. The last section between Martinsville and Indianapolis is scheduled for completion in 2024.

State Road 45 (SR 45) and State Road 46 (SR 46) run through Bloomington together on a four-lane highway known as the "bypass".

State Road 48 (SR 48) starts as a four-lane highway on the city's west side before narrowing to two-lanes at Oard Rd outside the city limits.

Public Transportation

Local bus service is provided by Bloomington Transit.

Bus service to Indianapolis is provided by regional bus lines. In addition, Campus Commute provides shuttle service between IU Bloomington and IUPUI/downtown Indianapolis, but only Monday-Friday.

Notable people

Note: This list does not include students attending Indiana University. Please see List of Indiana University (Bloomington) people for famous alumni.

Points of interest

See also

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  17. 1 2 To Approve and Adopt a New Logo for the City of Bloomington , Bloomington Common Comm. Res. 86-02. (Ind. 1986).
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