Bloomington, Indiana

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Bloomington, Indiana
City of Bloomington
Bloomington IN Kirkwood.jpg
Kirkwood Avenue looking toward downtown
CityofBloomingtonSeal.png
Monroe County Indiana Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Bloomington Highlighted 1805860.svg
Location of Bloomington in Monroe County, Indiana
Coordinates: 39°09′44″N86°31′45″W / 39.16222°N 86.52917°W / 39.16222; -86.52917 Coordinates: 39°09′44″N86°31′45″W / 39.16222°N 86.52917°W / 39.16222; -86.52917
CountryUnited States
State Indiana
County Monroe
Townships Bloomington, Perry, Richland, Van Buren
Government
  Type Mayor-council government
   Mayor John Hamilton (D)
Area
[1]
   City 23.42 sq mi (60.66 km2)
  Land23.24 sq mi (60.18 km2)
  Water0.18 sq mi (0.48 km2)
Elevation
[2]
771 ft (235 m)
Population
 (2010) [3]
   City 80,405
  Estimate 
(2019) [4]
85,755
  Density3,690.61/sq mi (1,424.97/km2)
   Metro
175,506
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
47401–47408
Area code 812 & 930
FIPS code [2] [5] 18-05860
GNIS ID [2] [5] 431207
Interstate Highways I-69.svg
Major State Roads Indiana 37.svg Indiana 45.svg Indiana 46.svg Indiana 48.svg Indiana 446.svg
Waterways Clear Creek
Jackson Creek
Lake Monroe
Lake Lemon
Airports Monroe County Airport
Website www.bloomington.in.gov

Bloomington is a city in and the county seat of Monroe County in the central region of the U.S. state of Indiana. [6] It is the seventh-largest city in Indiana and the fourth-largest outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. According to the Monroe County History Center, Bloomington is known as the "Gateway to Scenic Southern Indiana." The city was established in 1818 by a group of settlers from Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, and Virginia who were so impressed with "a haven of blooms" that they called it Bloomington. [7]

Contents

The population was 80,405 at the 2010 census. [8] The city's population was estimated at 85,755 as of July 2019 by the U.S. Census Bureau. [9]

Bloomington is the home to Indiana University Bloomington. Established in 1820, IU Bloomington has 49,695 [10] students, as of September 2016, and is the original and largest campus of Indiana University. Most of the campus buildings are built of Indiana limestone.

Bloomington has been designated a Tree City for 32 years, as of 2015. [11] [12] The city was also the location of the Academy Award–winning 1979 movie Breaking Away , featuring a reenactment of Indiana University's annual Little 500 bicycle race. Monroe County's famous limestone quarries are also featured in the movie.

History

The area in which Bloomington was situated was previously inhabited by the Delaware, Potawatomi, Miami, and Eel River Miami. [13]

Bloomington was platted in 1818. [14] A post office has been in operation at Bloomington since 1825. [15] Bloomington was incorporated in 1827. [16]

The current city logo was adopted on January 6, 1986, by the Bloomington Common Council. [17] It was a combination of peony and trout lily, inspired by both quilt patterns used by regional folk artists in 19th century and the shape of Downtown Square. [17]

The Elias Abel House, Blair-Dunning House, Bloomington City Hall, Bloomington West Side Historic District, Cantol Wax Company Building, Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Cochran-Helton-Lindley House, Courthouse Square Historic District, Hinkle-Garton Farmstead, Home Laundry Company, Illinois Central Railroad Freight Depot, Johnson's Creamery, Legg House, Millen House, Millen-Chase-McCalla House, Monroe Carnegie Library, Monroe County Courthouse, Morgan House, J.L. Nichols House and Studio, North Washington Street Historic District, The Old Crescent, Princess Theatre, Prospect Hill Historic District, Second Baptist Church, Seminary Square Park, Steele Dunning Historic District, University Courts Historic District, Vinegar Hill Historic District, Wicks Building, Woolery Stone Company, and Andrew Wylie House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [18] [19]

Geography

According to the 2010 census, Bloomington has a total area of 23.359 square miles (60.50 km2), of which 23.16 square miles (59.98 km2) (or 99.15%) is land and 0.199 square miles (0.52 km2) (or 0.85%) is water. [20] [21]

Climate

Southern Indiana receives an abundance of rain, with a yearly average of nearly 50 inches.

Climate data for Bloomington, Indiana (Indiana University Bloomington) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1895–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)78
(26)
76
(24)
86
(30)
91
(33)
97
(36)
104
(40)
110
(43)
104
(40)
103
(39)
96
(36)
84
(29)
74
(23)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C)37.0
(2.8)
41.8
(5.4)
52.4
(11.3)
64.4
(18.0)
73.8
(23.2)
81.9
(27.7)
85.1
(29.5)
84.5
(29.2)
78.5
(25.8)
66.3
(19.1)
52.7
(11.5)
41.2
(5.1)
63.3
(17.4)
Daily mean °F (°C)28.8
(−1.8)
32.5
(0.3)
42.1
(5.6)
53.4
(11.9)
63.3
(17.4)
71.8
(22.1)
75.0
(23.9)
74.0
(23.3)
67.1
(19.5)
55.3
(12.9)
43.4
(6.3)
33.5
(0.8)
53.3
(11.8)
Average low °F (°C)20.6
(−6.3)
23.3
(−4.8)
31.7
(−0.2)
42.3
(5.7)
52.7
(11.5)
61.7
(16.5)
64.9
(18.3)
63.5
(17.5)
55.8
(13.2)
44.4
(6.9)
34.1
(1.2)
25.8
(−3.4)
43.4
(6.3)
Record low °F (°C)−21
(−29)
−20
(−29)
−2
(−19)
17
(−8)
21
(−6)
36
(2)
46
(8)
41
(5)
26
(−3)
17
(−8)
−2
(−19)
−20
(−29)
−21
(−29)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.78
(96)
2.95
(75)
3.66
(93)
5.21
(132)
5.36
(136)
5.41
(137)
4.58
(116)
3.38
(86)
3.81
(97)
3.82
(97)
3.93
(100)
3.49
(89)
49.38
(1,254)
Average snowfall inches (cm)7.1
(18)
4.2
(11)
1.3
(3.3)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.2
(0.51)
4.5
(11)
17.5
(44)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.69.610.712.413.211.29.87.87.58.89.311.2123.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)4.73.41.00.10.00.00.00.00.00.10.32.712.3
Source: NOAA [22] [23]

Geology

Bloomington is an area of irregular limestone terrain characterized by sinks, ravines, fissures, underground streams, sinking streams, springs and caves. [24] It is in the rolling hills of southern Indiana, resting on the intersection of the Norman Uplands and the Mitchell Plain. The city's relatively varied topography is a sharp contrast to the flatter terrain more typical of central to northern portions of Indiana.

Water

Griffy Lake, once the central source of drinking water for the city. Griffy Lake - DSCF4382.JPG
Griffy Lake, once the central source of drinking water for the city.

Bloomington is on comparatively high ground, the summit of the divide between the basins of the West Fork and East Fork of Indiana's White River. Accordingly, there are no major watercourses within the city, nor is much groundwater available for wells. [24] The largest stream within the city is Clear Creek, with its eastern branch known on the Indiana University campus as Jordan River.

Due to the absence of either natural lakes or rivers or groundwater in or near the city, a number of dams have been constructed on nearby creeks over the last 100 years to provide for the water needs of Bloomington and Monroe County. Early 20th-century damming projects occurred at locations southwest of the city, the most notable being the Leonard Springs Dam. Due to the limestone formations underlying the reservoirs and the dams, water kept seeping from the reservoirs through naturally developing underground channels. Despite all efforts, the city was never able to fully stop the leakage, and had to resort to pumping leaking water back to the reservoir. [24]

By the 1920s, a more radical solution was needed to deal with the water crisis. A new reservoir, known as Griffy Lake, was constructed in a more geologically suitable area north of the city. [24] (It is now within Bloomington's official city limits.) Later, in the 1950s, two much larger reservoirs, Lake Lemon and Lake Monroe were created in the northeastern and southeastern parts of Monroe County. Monroe Lake was created by the US Army Corps of Engineers for flood control, but has since been used to supply the city and the county with water. The water pumping station at Griffy Lake has been mothballed. [25]

Presently, the city is supplied with drinking water from Lake Monroe, via the Monroe Water Treatment Plant on S Shields Ridge Rd. Originally opened in 1967, it was expanded in 2014, and now is capable of producing 30 million gallons of water per day. [26] The sewer water from the northern part of the city is treated at the Blucher Poole Wastewater Treatment Plant (constructed 1968), and discharged into the Bean Blossom Creek. [27] The sewer water from the southern half of the city goes to Dillman Road Wastewater Treatment Plant (constructed 1982), and is then discharged into the Clear Creek. [25] [28] [29]

Environment

PCB pollution, associated with Westinghouse's operations, long was a concern in the area. [30] [31] A number of sites, [32] in particular, Bennett's Dump and Lemon Lane Landfill at the northwestern edge of the city and Neal's Landfill in the county, were listed as Superfund sites. Clean-up operations at the Bennett Quarry site, started in 1983, were largely completed by 2000., [33] while cleanups at the other sites were completed in 2012.

Demographics

Location of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area in Indiana Bloomington Metropolitan Area.png
Location of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area in Indiana
Historical population
CensusPop.
1850 1,305
1860 2,41985.4%
1870 1,032−57.3%
1880 2,756167.1%
1890 4,01845.8%
1900 6,46060.8%
1910 8,83836.8%
1920 11,59531.2%
1930 18,22757.2%
1940 20,87014.5%
1950 28,16334.9%
1960 31,35711.3%
1970 43,26238.0%
1980 52,04420.3%
1990 60,63316.5%
2000 69,29114.3%
2010 80,40516.0%
2019 (est.)85,755 [4] 6.7%
Source: US Census Bureau

Bloomington is the principal city of the Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Greene, Monroe, and Owen counties [34] and had a combined population of 192,714 at the 2010 census. [35]

2010 census

As of the 2010 census, [3] there were 80,405 people, 31,425 households, and 11,267 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,471.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,340.4/km2). There were 33,239 housing units at an average density of 1,435.2 per square mile (554.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.0% White, 4.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population.

There were 31,425 households, of which 16.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.3% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 64.1% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76.

The median age in the city was 23.3 years. 11.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 44.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23% were from 25 to 44; 13.3% were from 45 to 64; and 7.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 50.3% male and 49.7% female.

2000 census

As of the census [35] of 2000, there were 69,291 people, 26,468 households, and 10,454 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,511.1 people per square mile (1,356.0/km2). There were 28,400 housing units at an average density of 1,439.1 per square mile (555.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.03% White, 4.24% African American, 0.29% Native American, 5.26% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.49% of the population. 22.9% were of German, 10.2% Irish, 9.1% English and 8.4% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.3% spoke English, 2.9% Spanish, 1.3% Korean, 1.1% German and 1.0% Chinese or Mandarin as their first language.

There were 26,468 households, out of which 17.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.2% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.5% were non-families. 39.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.76.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 12.7% under the age of 18, 42.3% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 12.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,377, and the median income for a family was $50,054. Males had a median income of $32,470 compared to $26,100 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,481. About 10.3% of families and 29.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The Bloomington and Monroe County region is home to major employers representing a diverse collection of fields, including education, the life sciences, advanced manufacturing and technology. [36]

Bloomington is a regional economic center anchored by Indiana University and home to a diverse business community involved in pharmaceuticals, medical devices, technology, health care, and the arts. Bloomington's concentration of employment in the life sciences is six times greater than the U.S. average, and employment in the technology sector has grown by over 80 percent in recent years. [37] Companies based in Bloomington include Cook Group, Author Solutions, OneWorld Enterprises, BloomingFoods and Singota Solutions.

Bloomington has been recognized by Inc. Magazine as one of "America's Best Cities for Doing Business" and as one of Entrepreneur Magazine's Top 50 "Hottest Small Cities for Entrepreneurs." Additionally, Forbes Magazine ranked Bloomington No. 3 in its "Best Places for Business Careers" feature.

Education

Post-secondary education

Elementary schools

Middle schools

High schools

Others

Media

Newspapers

Magazines

Television

Bloomington also receives stations from Indianapolis and is part of the Indianapolis market.

A five-channel public-access television station is housed in the Monroe County Public Library. The station, known as Community Access Television Services or CATS, was established in 1973 and serves as a "dedicated constitutional forum." [39] In April 1995, Rox , a program produced at CATS (then Bloomington Community Access Television, or BCAT), became the first TV series distributed via the web, with an episode titled "Global Village Idiots." [40]

Radio stations

Transportation

Airports

Bicycling

Bloomington is a gold-rated bicycle-friendly community by the League of American Bicyclists. [41] There are several significant bike trails in and around the city, most notably the B-line trail which runs north to south for almost four miles through the core of Downtown Bloomington and south through Switchyard Park. An east to west version is in the works along the 7th street corridor. [42]

Bloomington and Indiana University briefly ran a dockless bikeshare program called Pace, launched in June 2018. [43] The program was cancelled after less than a year. [44]

Highways

Bloomington, for many years was one of the largest cities without an interstate or freeway. However, interstate access finally occurred in December 2015 when the Interstate 69 expansion between Evansville and Indianapolis was completed to Bloomington.

The upgrading of SR 37 from a 4 Lane Highway to Interstate standards for the next section of I-69 between Bloomington and Martinsville was originally scheduled for completion in August 2016. As of November 2018, the construction was substantially complete. The last section between Martinsville and Indianapolis is scheduled for completion in 2024.

State Road 45 (SR 45) and State Road 46 (SR 46) run through Bloomington together on a four-lane highway known as the "bypass".

State Road 48 (SR 48) starts as a four-lane highway on the city's west side before narrowing to two-lanes at Oard Rd outside the city limits.

Public transportation

Local bus service is provided by Bloomington Transit.

Bus service to Indianapolis is provided by regional bus lines. In addition, Campus Commute provides shuttle service between IU Bloomington and IUPUI/downtown Indianapolis, but only Monday-Friday.

Notable people

Note: This list does not include students attending Indiana University except for locals. Please see List of Indiana University (Bloomington) people for famous alumni.

Points of interest

The fictional character Kathryn Janeway from the American science fiction television series Star Trek: Voyager was born and raised in 2300s Bloomington. [45] [46]

Sister cities

Bloomington has the following sister cities: [47]

See also

Related Research Articles

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