Rochester, New York

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Rochester, New York
City of Rochester
RochesterCollage4.jpg
(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood
Flag of Rochester, New York.png
Flag
Seal of Rochester, New York.svg
Seal
Logo of Rochester, New York.svg
Logo
Nickname(s): 
"The Flour City", "The Flower City", "The World's Image Center"
Monroe County New York incorporated and unincorporated areas Rochester highlighted.svg
Location in Monroe County and the State of New York.
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Rochester, New York
Location in the contiguous United States
Coordinates: 43°9′56″N77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139 Coordinates: 43°9′56″N77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139
Country United States
State New York
County Monroe
Founded1788
Incorporated as a villageMarch 21, 1817 (as Rochesterville) [1]
Incorporated as a cityApril 28, 1834
Government
  Type Mayor-Council
   Mayor Lovely Warren (D)
   City Council
Area
[2]
   City 37.14 sq mi (59.77 km2)
  Land35.78 sq mi (57.61 km2)
  Water1.36 sq mi (2.18 km2)  3.6%
Elevation
505 ft (154 m)
Population
 (2010)
   City 210,565
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
Decrease2.svg206,284
  Density5,884.99/sq mi (3,522.91/km2)
   Urban
720,572 (US: 60th)
   Metro
1,082,284 (US: 51st)
Demonym(s) Rochesterian
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
146xx (14604=downtown)
Area code 585
FIPS code 36-63000
GNIS feature ID0962684
Website www.cityofrochester.gov

Rochester ( /ˈrɒɪstər, -ɛs-/ ) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo. The metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles (117 km) east of Buffalo and 87 miles (140 km) west of Syracuse.

Lake Ontario one of the Great Lakes in North America

Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, and Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters". Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River. It is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan.

Western New York Region in New York, United States

Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Niagara Falls, Jamestown and the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, and the Southern Tier. The historic beginnings of the region can be defined by its original eastern boundary of Preemption Line, created by the December 16, 1786 political settlement between the states of New York and Massachusetts, both of which claimed political dominion over the land. This eastern boundary shifted because of changing county borders in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, China, Romania, Taiwan and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, and historically in Jamaica.

Contents

Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns, initially due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, and then as a manufacturing hub. [4] Several of the region's universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products. The Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb, Gleason and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area. [5] Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. [6]

Boomtown community that experiences sudden and rapid population and economic growth

A boomtown is a community that undergoes sudden and rapid population and economic growth, or that is started from scratch. The growth is normally attributed to the nearby discovery of a precious resource such as gold, silver, or oil, although the term can also be applied to communities growing very rapidly for different reasons, such as a proximity to a major metropolitan area, huge construction project, or attractive climate.

Genesee River river in New York and Pennsylvania, United States

The Genesee River is a tributary of Lake Ontario flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York in the United States.

University of Rochester private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States

The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees.

The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U.S. metropolitan areas. [7] In 2010, Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. [8] In 2012, Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate. [9]

In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are neither legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like counties or separate entities such as states; because of this, the precise definition of any given metropolitan area can vary with the source. A typical metropolitan area is centered on a single large city that wields substantial influence over the region. However, some metropolitan areas contain more than one large city with no single municipality holding a substantially dominant position. MSAs are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and used by the Census Bureau and other federal government agencies for statistical purposes.

<i>Forbes</i> American business magazine

Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing topics. Forbes also reports on related subjects such as technology, communications, science, politics, and law. Its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, and The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool". Its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, and its CEO is Mike Federle. In 2014, it was sold to a Hong Kong-based investment group, Integrated Whale Media Investments.

Rochester is a global city with sufficiency status.

A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization is created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.

The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization. It is based in the geography department of Loughborough University in Leicestershire, United Kingdom. GaWC was founded by Peter J. Taylor in 1998, Together with Jon Beaverstock and Richard G. Smith, they create the GaWC's bi-annual categorization of world cities into "Alpha", "Beta" and "Gamma" tiers, based upon their international connectedness.

History

The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. [10] Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown.

The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who historically lived south of Lake Ontario. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League (Haudenosaunee) in New York before the American Revolution.

Treaty of Big Tree was a formal treaty signed in 1797 between the Seneca Nation and the United States in which the Seneca relinquished their rights to nearly all of their traditional homeland in New York State— nearly 3.5 million acres. In the 1788 Phelps and Gorham Purchase the Iroquois had previously sold rights to their land between Seneca Lake and the Genesee River. The Treaty of Big Tree signed away their rights to all their territory west of the Genesee River except ten small tracts of land for $100,000 and other consideration.

Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York. As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.

American Revolution Revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

Iroquois Northeast Native American confederacy

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy in North America. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy, and to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy, as they were also Iroquoian-speaking, and became known as the Six Nations.

The Haldimand Proclamation was a decree that granted land to the Haudenosaunee Six Nations (Iroquois) who had served on the British side during the American Revolution. The decree was issued by the Governor of the Province of Quebec, Frederick Haldimand, on October 25, 1784, three days after the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) was signed between others of the Six Nations and the American government.

Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. [11] On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester (1752–1831), Maj. Charles Carroll, and Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (c. 40 ha) tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville.

By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km2) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened. In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was re-routed south of Rochester. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city.

Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown".

In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney. The revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York who was converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the shop, in the office and on the street. The only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable; the only circus into a soap and candle factory. Grog shops were closed; the Sabbath was honored; the sanctuaries were thronged with happy worshippers; a new impulse was given to every philanthropic enterprise; the fountains of benevolence were opened, and men lived to good." [12]

By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the "Flower City". Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. [13]

In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. [14] Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe, and the Caribbean. The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. [15]

Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester. The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. [16] Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. [17]

At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops. Rochester was also home to significant unrest in labor, race, and antiwar protests.

After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, including inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who launched Bausch & Lomb in 1861. Not only did they create new industries, but Eastman became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music and other local institutions.

In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions. It was the base of enterprises Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch & Co. The carriage maker James Cunningham and Sons founded a pioneer automobile company – Cunningham. [18]

The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920. By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester's population as 97.6% white and 2.3% black. [19] With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2018, the city's population had declined to 206,284, although the metropolitan area was considerably larger. [20]

Geography

Downtown Rochester as seen from the air in August 2007 Rochester aerial aug 17 2007.jpg
Downtown Rochester as seen from the air in August 2007

Rochester is at 43°9′56″N77°36′41″W / 43.16556°N 77.61139°W / 43.16556; -77.61139 (43.165496, −77.611504). [21] The city is about 73 miles (120 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 87 miles (140 km) west of Syracuse. Albany, the state capital, is 226 miles (360 km) to the east; it sits on Lake Ontario's southern shore. The Genesee River bisects the city. Toronto, in Ontario, Canada is northwest 168 miles (270 km) and New York City is about 350 miles (560 km) to the southeast.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96 km2), of which 35.8 square miles (93 km2) is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) is water (3.42%).

Rochester
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
High Falls in 2009 Highfallsrochester.jpg
High Falls in 2009
The Genesee River in 2013 GeneseeMist.jpg
The Genesee River in 2013

Rochester's geography was formed by the ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch. The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass. This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt. Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb's Hill. Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a "kame delta". A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called "kame moraine".

The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario (one of the five freshwater Great Lakes), the Genesee River with its waterfalls and gorges, Irondequoit Bay, Sodus Bay, Braddock Bay, Mendon Ponds, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes.

Rochester has 537 miles (864 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses. The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York. Other water sources include Canadice Lake and Lake Ontario. The 30-year annual average snowfall is just above 100 in (2.5 m). [22] The monthly daily average ranges from 24.7 °F (−4.1 °C) in January to 70.8 °F (21.6 °C) in July. The high amount of snow Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city's proximity to Lake Ontario (see lake effect).

Climate

Rochester lies in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb) [23] and has four distinct seasons, with cold and snowy winters; temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) on 4.2 nights annually. Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, and summer sees generally comfortable temperatures that usually stay in the range of 80 to 85 °F (27 to 29 °C) accompanied by moderate to high humidity; the city averages only 6.9 days annually of highs more than 90 °F (32 °C). Precipitation is plentiful year round.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1820 1,502
1830 9,207513.0%
1840 20,191119.3%
1850 36,40380.3%
1860 48,20432.4%
1870 62,38629.4%
1880 89,36643.2%
1890 133,85649.8%
1900 162,60821.5%
1910 218,14934.2%
1920 295,75035.6%
1930 328,13210.9%
1940 324,975−1.0%
1950 332,4882.3%
1960 318,611−4.2%
1970 296,233−7.0%
1980 241,741−18.4%
1990 231,636−4.2%
2000 219,773−5.1%
2010 210,565−4.2%
Est. 2018206,284 [3] −2.0%
Historical Population Figures [28]
U.S. Decennial Census [29]
2012 Estimate [30]
Racial composition2010 [31] 1990 [19] 1970 [19] 1940 [19]
White 43.7%61.1%82.4%97.6%
—Non-Hispanic37.6%58.3%80.2% [32] n/a
Black or African American 41.7%31.5%16.8%2.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)16.4%8.7%2.8% [32] (X)
Asian 3.1%1.8%0.2%

According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 43.7% White or White American, 41.7% Black, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6.6% from some other race and 4.4% from two or more races. 16.4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans. [33] Non-Hispanic Whites were 37.6% of the population in 2010, [31] compared to 80.2% in 1970. [19]

Over the course of the past 50 years Rochester has become a major center for immigration, particularly for arrivals from Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Subsaharan Africa and the Caribbean. Rochester has the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans of any major city in the United States, [30] one of the four largest Turkish American communities, [34] one of the largest Jamaican American communities in any major U.S city [35] and a large concentration of Polish Americans along with nearby Buffalo, New York.[ citation needed ] In addition, Rochester is ranked number 9 in the nation for the largest Italian population in the United States. [36]

In 1997, Rochester was reported to have the largest per-capita deaf population in the United States. [37] This is attributed to the fact Rochester is home to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf.

There were 88,999 households of which 30.0% had children under 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 23.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47.0% were non-families. Of all households, 37.1% were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone 65 or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.19.

The city population was 28.1% under 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 31. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.

The median income for a city household was $27,123, and the median family income was $31,257. Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,588. About 23.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.5% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over.

Religion

By the 1920s and 1930s, Rochester's population was roughly half Protestant and half Catholic, although a significant Jewish population also was present. [38] In 1938, there were 214 religious congregations, two thirds of which had been founded after 1880. [38] At that time, the city added, on average, 2.6 new congregations per year, many founded by immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. [38] During peak immigration from 1900–1920 dozens of churches were established, including four Roman Catholic churches with Italian clergy, three Roman Catholic churches with Slavic clergy, Polish Baptist church, 15 Jewish synagogues, and four small Italian Protestant mission churches: Baptist, Evangelical, Methodist, and Presbyterian. [38] Additionally, there are several Buddhist temples in the city: one Cambodian, two Lao, and one Vietnamese.

Crime

In 2012, Rochester had 2,061 reported violent crimes, compared to a national average rate of 553.5 violent crimes in cities with populations larger than 100,000. [39] That same year, Rochester had 827 personal crime incidents and 11,054 property crime incidents.

In 2018, Rochester reported 28 murders (13.9 per 100,000 residents). [40] In 2012 there were 95 sexual assaults, 816 robberies, 1,104 aggravated assault, 2,978 burglaries, 7,694 larceny thefts, 111 forcible rape, 622 auto thefts and 152 arson. [41] [42]

Economy

Kodak is headquartered in Rochester. Kodak Eastman II.jpg
Kodak is headquartered in Rochester.
Downtown Rochester and the central business district after dark. RocNight Rochester at Night, October 1st 2016 (30057484825).jpg
Downtown Rochester and the central business district after dark.
Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester, the largest employer in the six-county metropolitan area. Rush Rhees Library (8695462255).jpg
Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester, the largest employer in the six-county metropolitan area.

Rochester is home to a number of Fortune 1000 and international businesses, including Eastman Kodak, as well as several national and regional companies, such as Carestream Health. Xerox was founded in Rochester in 1906 as The Haloid Company, [43] and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now in Norwalk, Connecticut. Bausch & Lomb moved to Bridgewater, New Jersey in 2014. [44] The Gannett newspaper company and Western Union were founded in Rochester by Frank Gannett and Hiram Sibley respectively but have since moved to other cities. The median single-family house price was $135,000 in the second quarter of 2015 in greater Rochester, an increase of 5.4% from a year earlier, according to the National Association of Realtors. [45]

High technology

Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York State, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester and Finger Lakes areas. Since the 2000s, as established companies in Rochester downsized, Rochester and Monroe County's economy has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the seed capital necessary for business foundation. The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University. [46]

Other organizations such as High Tech Rochester provide local startups with mentorship, office space, and other resources. [47] Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta have imaging programs. [48] In 2006, the University of Rochester became the Rochester area's largest employer, surpassing the Eastman Kodak Company. [49]

Food and beverage

A white hot Garbage Plate from Nick Tahou Hots. Nick Tahou's Garbage Plate.JPG
A white hot Garbage Plate from Nick Tahou Hots.

One food product Rochester calls its own is the "white hot", a variant of the hot dog or smoked bratwurst made by the local Zweigle's company and other companies. [50] [51] Another local specialty is the "Garbage Plate", a trademark of Nick Tahou Hots that traditionally includes macaroni salad, home fries, and two hot dogs or cheeseburgers topped with mustard, onions, and their famous meat hot sauce. Many area restaurants feature copies or variations with the word "plate" commonly used as a general term. Rochester was home to French's Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street. [52]

The Ragú brand of pasta sauce used to be produced in Rochester. Some of the original facility still exists and produces products for other labels (including Newman's Own) as Private Label Foods.

Other local franchises include: Bill Gray's (a hamburger/hot dog joint that lays claim to having "The World's Greatest Cheeseburger"), DiBella's, Tom Wahl's, American Specialty Manufacturing producers of Boss Sauce, Salvatore's Old Fashioned Pizzeria, Mark's Pizzeria, Pontillo's Pizzeria, Perri's Pizzeria, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Abbott's Frozen Custard. Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, which originated in Syracuse, also operates its second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad station on the Genesee River.

Breweries

Major shopping centers

Former shopping centers

  • Midtown Plaza Closed as of July 29, 2008 after years of slow deterioration. The site now has mixed-use residential and commercial buildings. One lot referred to as parcel 5 remains undeveloped with proposals for theaters. [53]
  • Reynolds Arcade (remains in use as office building)
The Metropolitan, an iconic part of Rochester's skyline ChaseTowerNight.jpg
The Metropolitan, an iconic part of Rochester's skyline

Tallest buildings

As of June 2016, the top ten tallest buildings in the city are: [54]

Building nameHeight
ftm
Xerox Tower 443135
Legacy Tower 401122
The Metropolitan 392119
Kodak Tower 360110
First Federal Plaza 30994
Five Star Bank Plaza 28487
Hyatt Regency Hotel 27183
Times Square Building 26079
Tower 280 25177
St. Michael's Church 24675

Companies

Kodak Tower in High Falls, just north of Center City. Kodak Building in Rochester, NY (6809756211).jpg
Kodak Tower in High Falls, just north of Center City.

Numerous companies have corporate headquarters in Rochester.

Locally founded corporations that moved their headquarters to other states include Bausch & Lomb, Champion, French's, Gannett, Schlegel, Western Union, and Xerox. Humor website eBaum's World was also started in Rochester. Companies that moved their headquarters from Rochester to the suburbs include Wegmans (Gates, New York) and Paychex (Penfield, New York). [56] [57]

Government

Rochester is governed by a mayor serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of 4 district members and 5 at-large members. [58] Mayor Lovely A. Warren was first elected mayor in November 2013 defeating incumbent Thomas Richards in both a Democratic primary and General Election. Warren took office in January 2014 becoming both the youngest and first female mayor in Rochester history. The city's police department is the Rochester Police Department, headed by Chief of Police Michael L. Ciminelli.

Neighborhood Service Centers

Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester had been handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team, or NET. Rather than utilizing a centralized code-enforcement office, ten sectors in Rochester were assigned a total of six NET offices by the city government. However, there had been complaints about the lack of consistency in the manner and severity of enforcement between NET offices. On July 16, 2008, the city announced two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network. [59] Following the restructuring, the remaining offices were renamed Neighborhood Service Centers, or NSCs. There is now one office per city quadrant which resolve quality of life issues, work with neighborhood groups, and pave the way for appropriate housing and economic development. [60] Most code enforcement processes were consolidated into the Bureau of Inspection and Compliance within the Department of Neighborhood and Business Development located centrally in City Hall.

Representation at other levels of government

Representation at the federal level

The city is covered by New York's 25th congressional district currently represented by Democrat Joe Morelle of Irondequoit, Monroe County in Congress. From 1987 until 2018 the city was represented by longtime Democrat Louise M. Slaughter of Fairport, Monroe County in Congress.

Representation at the state level

New York State Senate

After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, the city was split between three state senate districts:

DistrictArea of the citySenatorPartyFirst took officeResidence
55Northeastern [61] Rich Funke Republican2015 Fairport, Monroe County
56Northwestern [62] Joseph E. Robach Republican2003 Greece, Monroe County
61Southern [63] Michael H. Ranzenhofer Republican2009 Amherst, Erie County
New York State Assembly

After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between three state assembly districts:

DistrictAreas of the cityAssemblypersonPartyFirst took officeResidence
136Northwest portion and easternmost tip [64] Jamie Romeo Democratic2019 Irondequoit, Monroe County
137Center and west [65] David F. Gantt Democratic1983Rochester, Monroe County
138A question-mark-shaped region sandwiched between districts 136 and 137 [66] Harry B. Bronson Democratic2011Rochester, Monroe County
Courts

Rochester is part of

Representation at the county level

Rochester is represented by districts 7, 16, and 21–29 in the Monroe County legislature. [67]

Fire department

The city of Rochester is protected by approximately 500 professional firefighters in the Rochester Fire Department (RFD). The RFD is the third-largest fire department in the state of New York. It operates from 16 fire stations throughout the city, under the command of 2 Battalion Chiefs and a Deputy Chief per shift. The RFD operates 13 engines, six trucks, one heavy rescue, two hazardous material units, and a salvage unit (Rochester Protectives), as well as many other special and support units. There are 87 line division members working each shift, including chief officers & fire investigation (not including staff divisions such as Fire Safety, the Training Academy and Supply Depot). The RFD responds to around 40,000 emergency calls annually. Approximately 90% of RFD personnel are certified NY State EMTs and approximately 50% of the calls each year are for EMS. The RFD also operates its own apparatus repair division at the Public Safety Training Facility. The Chief of Department is Willie Jackson. [68] [69] [70] [71]

Cityscape

Principal suburbs

Suburbs of the city include: Brighton, Brockport, Chili, Churchville, East Rochester, Fairport, Gates, Greece, Hamlin, Henrietta, Hilton, Honeoye Falls, Irondequoit, Macedon, Mendon, Ogden, Parma, Penfield, Pittsford, Riga, Rush, Scottsville, Spencerport, Victor, Walworth, Webster, and Wheatland.

Neighborhoods

Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward, 14621 Community, Beechwood, Browncroft, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place, High Falls District, Highland Park, Maplewood (10th Ward), Marketview Heights, Mt. Read, North Winton Village, Neighborhood of the Arts (NOTA), Lyell-Otis, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg, Susan B. Anthony, University-Atlantic, Upper Monroe, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations. There are also living spaces in Downtown Rochester.

Browncroft

The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery. The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops. The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks. The Browncroft Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. [72]

14621 community

Extending across much of the north-central cityscape of Rochester, now including parts of the old Hudson Avenue and North Clinton neighborhoods, is the 14621 community. Today this neighborhood is predominantly Black and Hispanic, this community was at the center of the 1964 riots. [73] The riots did produce some benefits in the long run: the north-central area has been the site of ongoing urban renewal projects since the late 1960s, and, as noted by JULY '64 filmmakers Carvin Eison and Chris Christopher, inspired the development of such important Black organizations such as The Urban League of Rochester as well as Rochester's first anti-poverty organization (Action for a Better Community), and black community activist organization Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today (F.I.G.H.T.) founded by Rev. Franklin Florence and Deleon McEwen, the latter was its first president. The establishment of this program came through the assistance of Saul Alinsky. The neighborhood is still considered the most dangerous part of Rochester and is blighted by crime, drugs and gang activity. [74]

Lyell-Otis

Historically, an Italian-American neighborhood, this area of the City of Rochester is now home to citizens from across the globe. [75] [76] There have recently been efforts to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood, as the area has opportunity for redevelopment and renewal. [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82]

The Lyell-Otis neighborhood is in the City of Rochester, NY in the Northwest Quadrant. Bordering the suburbs of Gates and Greece, the Lyell-Otis boundaries are: The Erie Canal (the City Line) on the West, Lyell Avenue on the South, Driving Park Boulevard on the North, and the old subway bed (long since filled-in, which previously was where the Erie Canal flowed!) on the East - almost to Dewey Avenue, but not quite.

19th Ward

The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester. [83] Now known by its slogan "Urban by Choice", in the early 19th century the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel Isaac Castle. By the early 1820s, however, the area was overshadowed by developments in the north that would become downtown Rochester. Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee river, the area was home to skilled boatsmen who assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as "The Rapids". In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew. By 1930 it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development. Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches. In the 1960s, property values fell as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight accelerated by school busing, blockbusting, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use, and neglected property further diminishing property values. [84]

To respond to these issues, the 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965, and is now known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity.[ vague ] The "Brooks Landing" development along the Genesee River at the former "rapids" is bringing new economic development to the community, including an 88-room hotel, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) office building, 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of new retail, two restaurants, and Boulder Coffee shop. [85] Residential development is also increasing with completion of a 170-bed University of Rochester student housing tower at Brooks Landing in 2014, and 29 new market-rate homes nearby.

Located in the 19th Ward are the Arvine Heights Historic District, Chili–West Historic District, Inglewood and Thurston Historic District, and Sibley–Elmdorf Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [86] [87] [88]

Charlotte

Genesee River and the historic Aqueduct Downtown RocNightAqueduct.jpg
Genesee River and the historic Aqueduct Downtown

Charlotte (shar-LOT) is a lake front community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario. It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians. A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to-Toronto ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005. The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been revamped. It now houses the restaurant California Rollin', a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian along with offices for the marina created around it. In summer 2016 a proposed redevelopment project for the Port of Rochester was put on hold due to the developers failing to meet financial obligations as set by the city. [89]

Corn Hill

The Corn Hill neighborhood near downtown is one of the nation's best-preserved Victorian neighborhoods and a center for art. It is also home to Corn Hill Landing, a shopping and housing strip on the Genesee River. The annual Corn Hill Art Festival, a two-day event held on the weekend after the 4th of July, is one of the city's most popular gatherings for the display of art. Corn Hill is one of Rochester's smaller neighborhoods. The neighborhood name came about because (allegedly) in the early settlement days, those traveling the fast-flowing Genesee River could see a large-sized rolling hill covered with corn which had been planted by the immigrating Scots and English. By the late 1800s and well into the 1920s, Cornhill was home to some of the wealthiest families. Situated on the southern edge of downtown, the neighborhood allowed for a short carriage ride or walk to the banks and businesses of New York's third-largest city.

Upper Monroe

Less than one and one-half miles from downtown, Upper Monroe encompasses 17 streets with 1,400 households and approximately 3,300 residents. Cobbs Hill Park, a sandy glacial hill with a remnant oak grove and a flattened peak with the city's reservoir, forms the southeastern boundary of this neighborhood. Highland Park, renowned for its annual Lilac Festival, also is within walking distance. [90] The Upper Monroe Neighborhood Association (UMNA) is a not-for-profit advocacy group representing the residents and property owners of the Upper Monroe neighborhood. Its goals are to ascertain the needs and concerns of the neighborhood and take positive action to address those needs and concerns. [91] The neighborhood is also home to a number of small, local businesses including: Hardpact, Huey's Hair Company, Monty's Krown, Jeremiah's Tavern, and Park Ave. Pets. [92]

East End

The East End is a residential neighborhood in Downtown Rochester but also the main nightlife district. The Eastman Theatre, the Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman School of Music are in the East End, along with the Little Theatre, an independent film theatre, and many clubs, bars and high-end restaurants.

Maplewood

Maplewood is a northwest neighborhood south of Eastman Business Park and between the Genesee River and Dewey Avenue. Much of the area's charm comes from the use of parkways as well as parks and greenspace bordering the river. These features are the result of plans designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Maplewood Rose Garden is the second-largest rose test garden in the United States. The Maplewood Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. [72]

North Winton Village

The North Winton Neighborhood is made up of spacious and quiet residential streets, small essential businesses and professional services and an 82-acre (33 ha) wilderness. Its neighborhood boundaries extend north to Colebourne Road/Merchants Road, south to Blossom Road, east to North Winton Road and west to Culver Road. There are two neighborhood associations within North Winton Village. The North Winton Village Neighborhood Association, joins businesses and residents together. Its major goals include "neighborhood preservation, beautification, pride in home ownership and patronization of neighborhood businesses". Its motto: "Live, Shop and Beautify North Winton Village".

In 2011, residents in an area bounded by Culver Road, East Main Street, Garson Avenue and Jersey Street joined together to create The North East Main Neighbors United (NEMNU). Today, NEMNU's mission is to maintain, improve, and enhance the quality of life in the neighborhood by addressing safety issues, providing social activities, communicating with residents and local government, promoting beautification projects, linking needs with resource opportunities, and developing cooperative efforts with businesses and neighborhood groups. The Pocket Neighborhood is a microneighborhood enclosed within the larger North Winton Village neighborhood. It is composed of six streets: Kansas Street, Akron Street, Newcroft Park, Woodstock Road, Mayfield Street, a portion of East Main Street, and Atlantic Avenue. The Pocket has its own neighborhood association and events, including maintenance of Linear Park.

Park Avenue and the Neighborhood of the Arts

Lining the streets of Park Avenue are cafes, shops, pubs, and restaurants. In a broader view, the total area surrounding University Avenue—known as the Neighborhood of the Arts—is one of the most culture- and art-rich sections of the city. Located here are the Village Gate, Memorial Art Gallery, School of The Arts, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester Public Market, ARTWalk, George Eastman House, and high-end residential streets such as Granger Place, East Boulevard, Douglas Road, Westminster Road, and Berkeley Street.

Plymouth-Exchange

Also known by the acronym PLEX, the Plymouth-Exchange neighborhood provides affordable housing for lower income families. Also home to many University of Rochester students, both grad and undergrad, it has a richly knit community and an active neighborhood association.

South Wedge

The South Wedge neighborhood dates back to 1827, prior to the incorporation of Rochester as a city. [93] The area is bordered by Byron Street in the north, South Clinton Avenue and Interstate 490 on its east, Highland Park on its south, and The Genesee River on the west. Construction of the Erie Canal (the old canal bed which went by the neighborhood is now used by Interstate 490) brought workers to the area, who set up camps for the months it took to complete this section of the canal. [94] This is one of the neighborhoods in Rochester undergoing the process of gentrification, partially due to a recent increase in homeownership in the area. [95] [96] The Linden-South Historic District in South Wedge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. [97]

Susan B. Anthony Neighborhood

This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District. [98] It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings. The center of the residential area is Susan B. Anthony Square, a 0.84-acre (3,400 m2) park shown on city maps from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers. Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B. Anthony House, which was the suffragist's residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage factory built in 1848 on Canal Street. James Cunningham Son & Co. sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined. The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham's headquarters for more than 100 years.

Swillburg

This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S. Clinton Avenue on the west, Field St on the south, and Interstate 490 on the east. [99] The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th-century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine. The area has one of the highest rates of homeownership in the city.[ citation needed ]

The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street.

Marketview Heights

Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the weekends.

Homestead Heights

Homestead Heights is in northeast Rochester. It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit. The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial. Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border. The neighborhood is approximately 2–214 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay.

Education

The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District which encompasses all public primary and secondary education. The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member Board of Education. There are also parochial and private primary and secondary schools within the city. Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York State, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years. However, the high school graduation rate for African American males is lower in Rochester than in any city in the United States (9%). [100] Charter schools in the city include Rochester Academy Charter School.

Colleges and universities

Nazareth College NazarethCollegeAutumn.jpg
Nazareth College

Rochester and the surrounding region host a high concentration of colleges and universities which drive much of the economic growth in the five county area. The University of Rochester is the only large research institution primarily within the city limits, although Monroe Community College and SUNY Brockport operate campuses downtown. The Highland Park neighborhood is home to Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School (part of whose facility is leased by Ithaca College's Department of Physical Therapy) and an office maintained by the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations.

University of Rochester

The University of Rochester is the metropolitan area's oldest and most prominent institution of higher learning, and one of the country's top research centers. U of R was ranked as the 32nd-best university in the nation by U.S. News & World Report for 2014 [101] and was deemed "one of the new Ivies" by Newsweek. [102] The nursing school has received many awards and honors [103] and the Simon School of Business is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories. [104]

The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music, which was ranked the number one music school in America. It was founded and endowed by George Eastman in his years as a philanthropist. [105] He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak.

Former colleges

Four institutions began operations in the city and later moved to Rochester's inner-ring suburbs:

Rochester was host of the Barleywood Female University, a short-lived women's college from 1852 to 1853. The Lutheran seminary that became Wagner College was established in the city in 1883 and remained for some 35 years before moving to Staten Island. [109]

Secondary education

The Rochester City School District operates 13 public secondary schools, each serving grades 7–12. In addition, there is one charter secondary school.

Charter schools

Rochester charter schools are free public schools for children in grades K-12. There are no tests or entrance fees and charter schools accept students who need extra help in school, have IEPs and are English language learners. Through the website GoodSchoolsRoc.org, parents and caregivers can learn more about academic and extracurricular offerings. Families can apply to all of the 12* schools in 19 locations through GoodSchoolsRoc .

SchoolGrades Served

2019-2020

Address & WebsitePhone Number
Academy of Health Sciences 5 (will expand to Grade 8)1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613585-207-0590
Discovery Charter School K-6133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615585-342-4032
Eugenio Maria de Hostos
   Zimbrich CampusK-527 Zimbrich St., Rochester, NY 14621585-544-6170
  Joseph Campus6-81069 Joseph Ave., Rochester, NY 14621585-697-7115
   Kodak Tower Campus9-125th Floor – Building 10

343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650

Exploration Elementary Charter School for Science & Technology K-3 (will expand to Grade 5) 1001 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613585-498-4700
Genesee Community Charter School K-6657 East Ave., Rochester, NY 14607585-697-1960
Renaissance Academy Charter School of the Arts K-6299 Kirk Rd., Rochester, NY 14612585-225-4200
Rochester Academy
   Elementary SchoolK-2 (will expand to Grade 5)125 Kings Highway S., Rochester 14617

(Bishop Kearny location)

585-235-0135
   Middle School6-8841 Genesee St., Rochester, NY 14611585- 235-4141
   High School9-121757 Latta Rd Greece, NY 14612585-467-9201
Rochester Prep 585-235-0008
   Elementary SchoolK-4899 Jay St., Rochester, NY 14611585-235-0008
   Elementary School West CampusK-485 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621585-368-5100
   Elementary School 3K-3 (will expand to Grade 4)85 St. Jacob St., Rochester, NY 14621585-368-5100
   Middle School Brooks Campus5-8630 Brooks Ave., Rochester, NY 14619585-436-8629
   Middle School West Campus5-8432 Chili Ave., Rochester, NY 14611585-368-5090
   High School9-12305 Andrews St., Rochester, NY 14604585-368-5111
University Preparatory Charter School for Young Men 7-121290 Lake Ave., Rochester, NY 14613585-672-1280
Urban Choice Charter School K-8545 Humboldt St., Rochester, NY 14610585-288-5702
Vertus High School 9-1221 Humboldt St. Rochester, NY 14609585-747-8911
Young Women’s College Prep 7-12133 Hoover Dr., Rochester, NY 14615585-254-0320

* For the 2019-20 academic school year, families will need to contact Genesee Community Charter School directly to apply. Private schools

Former schools

John Marshall High School

Culture and recreation

The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions. These include the Garth Fagan Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, the Rochester City Ballet, George Eastman Museum International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Contemporary Art Center, Rochester Museum & Science Center, the Rochester Broadway Theater League, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium, Hochstein School of Music & Dance, the Auditorium Theater, and numerous arts organizations. Geva Theatre Center is the city's largest professional theater.

Murphy's Law, a large, iconic bar and club at the corner of East & Alexander in the East End Murphyslaw.jpg
Murphy's Law, a large, iconic bar and club at the corner of East & Alexander in the East End

The East End Theater is on East Main Street in the theater district. The Rochester Association of Performing Arts is a non-profit organization that provides educational theater classes to the community.

Nightlife

Rochester's East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city's nightlife. It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is crowded with nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants. The Eastman School of Music, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also within the neighborhood. The Eastman Theatre now plays host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events.

The Little Theatre in the East End LittleTheatreRochesterNewYork.JPG
The Little Theatre in the East End
Monroe Avenue bars at night Monroenight.jpg
Monroe Avenue bars at night

There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city. Southeast is the heart of Rochester's thriving arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shops). Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas, like the Village Gate, which give space to trendy bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night. Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is packed with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges. All of these neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students and Rochester's large LGBT community.

The South Wedge district, directly below downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many trendy cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester several blocks away from the heart of the neighborhoods. The "Wedge" is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits, its numerous nightspots keeping the streets busy with college students and young professionals (many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing, thriving nightlife and proximity to many of the region's major hospitals, parks and colleges)

Park lands

Rochester's parks include Highland, Cobb's Hill, Durand Eastman, Genesee Valley, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. [110] The city's Victorian-era Mt. Hope Cemetery includes the final resting places of Susan B. Anthony, Frederick Douglass, George B. Selden, and many others. Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre and neighboring Riverside Cemetery.

Throughout its history, Rochester has acquired several nicknames; it has been known as "the World's Image Center", [111] "the Flour City", "the Flower City". As a legacy of its time as "The Flower City", Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive.

Festivals

Rochester hosts a number of cultural festivals every year, including:

Media

The Federal Building FederalBuildingRochesterNewYorkFrontView.JPG
The Federal Building

The Democrat and Chronicle is Rochester's main daily newspaper. There are other numerous publications, and magazines that cater to many of the city's different people groups or special interests such as Insider magazine, City Newspaper Rochester Business Journal, and the Minority Reporter. Former publications serving the city include the Rochester Post Express [119] and Rochester Evening Journal. [120] Rochester is also served by several local television and radio stations, with WROC-TV as the oldest television station serving the Rochester metro area.

Points of interest

Circle at Bausch & Lomb headquarters with the Xerox Tower in the background. Bausch & Lomb Place west entrance.jpg
Circle at Bausch & Lomb headquarters with the Xerox Tower in the background.
Rochester's historic City Hall Rochester City Hall.JPG
Rochester's historic City Hall
Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School Colgate 8751.jpg
Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School
Geva Theatre Center downtown Rochester - Geva Theatre - Rear Angle.jpg
Geva Theatre Center downtown

Sports

Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith's Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 "best golf city" in America by Golf Magazine in 2007, [122] and the fifth-best "sports town" in the country by Scarborough Research in September 2008.

Professional sports

Rochester has several professional sports teams: [123]

Frontier Field, including the Rochester skyline. Frontier Field 2.jpg
Frontier Field, including the Rochester skyline.
Marina Auto Stadium PAETEC Park overview.JPG
Marina Auto Stadium
ClubSportBegan playLeagueVenueTitles
Rochester Red Wings Baseball 1899 IL Frontier Field 20
Rochester Americans Ice hockey 1956 AHL Blue Cross Arena 6
Rochester Rhinos Soccer 1996 USL TBA5
Rochester RazorSharks Basketball 2005 TBL Blue Cross Arena 8
Rochester Knighthawks Indoor lacrosse 2019 NLL Blue Cross Arena 0

In addition, there are numerous other amateur and club sports such as rowing and rugby. Rochester and its surrounding area also has a rich golf history and has hosted numerous professional tournaments on its local golf courses. [124] The city also boasts other facilities such as 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts.

College sports

Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U.S. which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports. Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III level. The only exceptions are the RIT men's and women's ice hockey teams, which compete at the Division I level. RIT's other sports, as well as the Institute as a whole, are classified as being part of Division III. The men's team made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010 and the women's team won the Division III national championship in 2012, just before switching over to Division I.

As of the 2014–2015 academic year, the only college in the Rochester area not officially classified at the Division III level is Roberts Wesleyan College, which completed its transition from membership in the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA); Roberts Wesleyan was granted full membership in NCAA Division II beginning with the 2014–15 year. [125]

Transportation

Maritime transport

Packet boats on the Genesee River RochesterCanal RochesterNY.jpg
Packet boats on the Genesee River

There is marine freight service at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence Seaway.

A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry Spirit of Ontario I built in Australia, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto across Lake Ontario. Canadian American Transportation Systems (CATS) was the company in charge of the Fast Ferry operations. The Spirit of Ontario I had a delayed arrival on April 29, 2004 as a result of hitting a pier in New York City on April 5, 2004 and was finally officially christened on June 16, 2004 at the Port of Rochester. The Fast Ferry was bought by the City of Rochester in an attempt to save the project. The Fast Ferry operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42.5 million. The project was initially well received by inhabitants of Rochester.

Considerable effort was spent by inhabitants of Rochester to build up the waterfront to embrace the idea as well as to capitalize on potential tourism which was estimated to be an additional 75,000 tourists per month. In the first three months of operation the fast ferry had carried about 140,000 people between Rochester and Toronto. A second Fast Ferry was proposed by CATS on August 27, 2004 which would have cost an additional $100 Million. There were a number of problems concerning the ship's engine, the lack of mutual building up of waterfronts in Toronto and the inability of the city to put pressure on the company responsible for the production of the Fast Ferry. This resulted in the failure of the project. It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik, a German company, for $30 million.

Air transport

Aerial View of the Greater Rochester International Airport Greater Rochester International Airport May 2007 Aerial View.jpg
Aerial View of the Greater Rochester International Airport

Rochester is served by the Greater Rochester International Airport (GRIA). Daily scheduled air service is provided by American, Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, and United.

In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights. [126] This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester's ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999. [127] [128]

FedEx founder Fred Smith has stated in numerous articles that Xerox's development of the copier, and its need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that led him to pioneer the overnight delivery business in 1971.[ citation needed ] Because Xerox manufactured its copiers in Rochester,[ citation needed ] the city was one of the original 25 cities FedEx served on its first night of operations on April 17, 1973. [129]

Rails and mass transit

Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station New Rochester station - October 2017.jpg
Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station

Rail service to Rochester is provided by the Louise M. Slaughter Rochester Station, served by Amtrak's Empire Service between New York City and Niagara Falls, the Maple Leaf between New York City and Toronto, and the Lake Shore Limited between New York City/Boston and Chicago. Prior to 1966, Rochester had a smaller version of New York City's "Grand Central Terminal". It was among Claude Fayette Bragdon's best works in Rochester, New York. The current station is modeled after Bragdon's work and named in honor of former longtime congresswomen Louise Slaughter.

Rochester used to be a major stop on several railroad lines. It was served by the New York Central Railroad which served Chicago and Buffalo to the west and Albany and New York City to the east and southeast. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway (absorbed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad) served Buffalo and Pittsburgh until 1955. A rail route to Salamanca in southern New York State afforded connections in Salamanca to southwestern and southeastern New York State. [130] The last long-distance train in a southern direction was the Northern Express/Southern Express that went to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania via Canandaigua, Elmira and Williamsport; service ended in 1971. [131] Also serving Rochester was the Erie Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad.

Amtrak (passenger) and freight lines provide rail service to Rochester. Rochester has intercity and transcontinental bus service via Greyhound and Trailways.

Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary. RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System). All RTS routes are based out of the RTS Transit Center on Mortimer Street.

The Broad Street Aqueduct was used as a subway tunnel Aqueduct under Broad St.jpg
The Broad Street Aqueduct was used as a subway tunnel

From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail underground transit system called the Rochester Subway. It was the smallest city in the world to have one. The subway which was operated by the Rochester Transit Corporation was shut down in 1956. The eastern half of the subway past Court Street became the Eastern Expressway with the western end of the open cut being filled in 1976. The tunnel was last used for freight service by Gannett Company to bring paper to the printing presses for the Democrat and Chronicle in 1997. Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnel. One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system.

The former canal and subway tunnel have become a frequent source of debate. Homeless people use the tunnels for shelter. The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely. The plan to fill the tunnels in completely generated criticism as the cost of filling would not generate nor leverage economic development. The western end of the tunnel was filled in to the former Baltimore and Ohio Railroad turnout in 2010 as part of a redevelopment of the above street and the eastern end of the tunnel is undergoing redevelopment. The Broad Street aqueduct and most famous part of the tunnel is on the National Register of Historic Places being added in 1976.

Major highways and roads

Main Street looking east Rochester - Main Street looking east.jpg
Main Street looking east

Three exits off the New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) serve Rochester. Rochester has an extensive system of limited-access highways (called 'expressways' or just 'highways', never 'freeways') which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway. During the Thruway's construction, a disagreement between the governor of New York and mayor of Rochester resulted in a bypass of downtown Rochester, leaving the city struggling for growth.[ citation needed ]

Rochester's expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east. The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate an anticipated year-2000 metro population of 5 million,[ citation needed ] whereas the present-day population is just over one million.

The Outer Loop circles just outside the city limits while the former Inner Loop once circled around the immediate downtown area within the city (the easternmost third was closed in 2015). From the west are Lake Ontario State Parkway, NY-531 and I-490; Interstate 390 feeds from the south; and NY-104, NY-441, and I-490 approach from the east.

In 2016, the City of Rochester launched the Pace Car Program. "Pace Car drivers sign a pledge to drive within the speed limit, drive courteously, yield to pedestrians and be mindful of bicyclists and others on the street." [132]

Later expressway proposals

In the early 1970s, the Genesee Expressway Task Force, City leaders, and NYSDOT studied the feasibility of connecting the outer and inner Loops with a new southern expressway. The proposed route extended north from the I-390 and I-590 interchange in Brighton, cutting through Rochester's Swillburg neighborhood. In 1972, consultants Berger Lehman Associates recommended a new 'Busway', an expressway with dedicated bus lanes, similar to Bus Rapid Transit. [133] The expressway extension was never built.

Three Interstate Highways run through the City of Rochester:

I-390.svg Interstate 390 (Genesee Expressway)

I-490.svg Interstate 490 (Western/Eastern Expressway)

I-590.svg Interstate 590

New York State Route Expressways:

NY-104.svg New York State Route 104 (Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)

NY-390.svg New York State Route 390

NY-590.svg New York State Route 590

Rochester Inner Loop.svg Inner Loop

New York State Parkways:

Lake Ontario State Parkway.svg Lake Ontario State Parkway

Notable people

See List of people from Rochester, New York

Notable individuals who were born in and/or lived in Rochester include Kodak founder George Eastman, American social reformer and women's rights activist Susan B. Anthony, African-American social reformer and abolitionist Frederick Douglass, Olympic soccer player Abby Wambach, opera singer Renée Fleming, jazz singer Cab Calloway, composer Howard Hanson, mandopop singer Wang Leehom, actress Kristen Wiig, Olympic swimmer Ryan Lochte, NHL ice hockey player Ryan Callahan, YouTube personality Jenna Marbles, UFC Light Heavyweight Champion Jon Jones, and former NFL draft picks Kevin McMahan and Chandler Jones.[ citation needed ]

Sister cities

Rochester has twelve sister cities, [134] as designated by Sister Cities International. They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006): [135]

See also

Notes

  1. Official records for Rochester kept January 1871 to September 1940 at downtown and at Greater Rochester Int'l since October 1940. For more information, see Threadex

Related Research Articles

Monroe County, New York County in the United States

Monroe County is a county in the western portion of the state of New York, in the United States. The county is along Lake Ontario's southern shore. As of 2018, Monroe County's population was 742,474, a decrease since the 2010 census. Its county seat is the city of Rochester. The county is named after James Monroe, the fifth President of the United States. Monroe County is part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area. The current County Executive is Cheryl Dinolfo.

Irondequoit, New York Town in New York, United States

Irondequoit is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the coterminous town-CDP had a total population of 51,692. Irondequoit is a major suburb of the city of Rochester, lying just north and east of the city limits. The name is of Native American origin.

History of Rochester, New York

This article documents the history of Rochester, New York, in western New York State. Settlement began in the late 18th century, and the city flourished with the opening of the Erie Canal. It became a major manufacturing center, and attracted many Italians, Germans, Irish and other immigrants, as well as a dominant group of Yankees of New England origin. The Yankees made Rochester the center of multiple reform movements, such as abolitionism and women's rights. It was famous as the center of the American photography industry, with headquarters of Eastman Kodak. In the 1970s it became fashionable to call the industrial cities along the Great Lakes 'rustbelt cities' following the move away from steel, chemical and other hard goods manufacturing. Rochester, with the presence of Ritter-Pfaulder, Bausch and Lomb, Eastman Kodak, Xerox, Gannett and other major industries, defied the trend for many decades following WWII.

Interstate 490 (I-490) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway that serves the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. It acts as a northerly alternate route to the New York State Thruway (I-90), leaving it at exit 47 in the town of Le Roy and rejoining the highway at exit 45 in the town of Victor 37.40 miles (60.19 km) to the east. I-490 connects with I-390 and New York State Route 390 (NY 390) on the western side of Rochester and I-590 and NY 590 on the east side of the city at an interchange known as the Can of Worms. The highway comprises the southernmost portion of the Inner Loop, a beltway around the interior of Rochester. Outside of the city, I-490 serves several suburban villages, such as Churchville and Pittsford.

New York State Route 390 highway in New York

New York State Route 390 (NY 390) is a north–south state highway located along the western edge of the city of Rochester, New York, in the United States. The route, a limited-access northward continuation of Interstate 390 (I-390), extends for 8.00 miles (12.87 km) from I-490 in Gates to the Lake Ontario State Parkway in Greece, less than 1 mile (1.6 km) from the Lake Ontario shoreline. Between I-490 and NY 104, NY 390 makes up the north–south segment of the northwest quadrant of the Rochester Outer Loop, a series of expressways encircling Rochester. At NY 104, the Outer Loop departs NY 390 and follows NY 104 east into the city.

New York State Route 590 highway in New York

New York State Route 590 (NY 590) is a 4.98-mile (8.01 km) north–south state highway located in the eastern suburbs of Rochester, New York, in the United States. The route is a limited-access northward extension of Interstate 590 (I-590) that begins at the Can of Worms, an interchange between I-490, I-590, and NY 590 on the boundary between the town of Brighton and the city of Rochester, and ends at a roundabout with Titus Avenue in the town of Irondequoit. NY 590 is known as the Sea Breeze Expressway, a name derived from the small community of Sea Breeze located near the highway's former northern terminus at Culver Road near the southern shore of Lake Ontario.

New York State Route 104 highway in New York

New York State Route 104 (NY 104) is a 182.41-mile (293.56 km) long east–west state highway in Upstate New York in the United States. It spans six counties and enters the vicinity of four cities—Niagara Falls, Lockport, Rochester, and Oswego—as it follows a routing largely parallel to the southern shoreline of Lake Ontario, along a ridge of the old shoreline of Glacial Lake Iroquois. The western terminus of NY 104 is an intersection with NY 384 in Niagara Falls, Niagara County, while its eastern terminus is a junction with NY 13 in the town of Williamstown, Oswego County. The portion of NY 104 between Rochester and the village of Webster east of the city is a limited-access highway known as the Keeler Street Expressway west of NY 590 and the Irondequoit–Wayne County Expressway east of NY 590; from Williamson to Oswego, NY 104 is a super two highway.

New York State Route 47 highway in New York

New York State Route 47 (NY 47) was a 19.34-mile (31.12 km) long state highway around Rochester in New York, in the United States. It formed a semicircle through the inner suburbs of Rochester, following expressways west and east of the city and surface streets south of Rochester. The western terminus of the route was at an interchange with NY 104 west of the city limits in Greece. The eastern terminus was at an intersection with Culver Road in Irondequoit mere yards from Lake Ontario. In between its western and eastern extents, NY 47 met Interstate 490 (I-490) twice. The limited-access highway portions of the route were known as the Rochester Outer Loop in contrast to the Inner Loop around downtown Rochester.

Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority

The Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA) is a New York State public-benefit corporation which provides transportation services in the eight-county area in and around Rochester, New York. Currently, RGRTA oversees the daily operation of eleven subsidiaries under the parent company of the RGRTA, including paratransit services.

New York State Route 33 highway in New York

New York State Route 33 (NY 33) is an east–west state highway in western New York in the United States. The route extends for just under 70 miles (113 km) from NY 5 in Buffalo in the west to NY 31 in Rochester in the east. It is, in fact, the only state highway that directly connects both cities, although it is rarely used today for that purpose. The westernmost 10 miles (16 km) of NY 33 in Buffalo and the neighboring town of Cheektowaga have been upgraded into the Kensington Expressway. This section of NY 33 is one of several expressways leading out of downtown and serves as a main route to the Buffalo Niagara International Airport.

Inner Loop (Rochester) highway in Rochester, New York

The Inner Loop is a "C"-shaped freeway in downtown Rochester, New York, in the United States. Only the portions north of Interstate 490 (I-490) are signed as the "Inner Loop". The official western terminus of the Inner Loop is at I-490 exit 13 in the shadow of Frontier Field west of downtown, while the eastern terminus is at I-490 exits 15 and 16 directly south of downtown on the east bank of the Genesee River. This section of the loop is designated New York State Route 940T (NY 940T), an unsigned reference route, by the New York State Department of Transportation. Although the NY 940T designation is not signed, the road is signed with orange trapezoidal route markers containing the words "Inner Loop" in white.

New York State Route 15 highway in New York

New York State Route 15 (NY 15) is a north–south state highway located in western New York in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is officially at Interstate 390 (I-390) exit 3 south of the village of Wayland, although some signage indicating that NY 15 continues south to the northern terminus of U.S. Route 15 (US 15) in Painted Post still exists. The northern terminus of NY 15 is at an intersection with NY 31 in downtown Rochester. Outside of Monroe County, NY 15 is a rural two-lane highway. In the Rochester suburbs of Henrietta and Brighton, however, NY 15 is a major commercial strip, and the section in Rochester is a two-to-four lane street that serves commercial and residential areas.

New York State Route 33A highway in New York

New York State Route 33A (NY 33A) is an east–west state highway mostly located in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The route is just over 17 miles (27 km) long and serves as an alternate route of NY 33 between the town of Bergen in Genesee County and the city of Rochester in Monroe County. While NY 33 heads to Rochester by way of Churchville and northern Gates, NY 33A dips south to pass through Chili and southern Gates. NY 33A was assigned as part of the 1930 renumbering of state highways in New York, but only from Riga to Rochester. It was extended westward to its current terminus in Bergen c. 1932.

New York State Route 383 highway in New York

New York State Route 383 (NY 383) is an 18.70-mile (30.09 km) north–south state highway in Monroe County, New York, in the United States. The southern terminus of the route is at an intersection with NY 36 in the hamlet of Mumford within the town of Wheatland. Its northern terminus is at a junction with NY 31 in the city of Rochester. The route follows the Genesee River and its tributaries for its entire length and passes through the village of Scottsville.

Ridge Road (Western New York)

Ridge Road is a 121.5-mile (195.5 km) east–west road that traverses four counties in Upstate New York in the United States. The road begins adjacent to the Niagara River at an intersection with Water Street in Lewiston, Niagara County, and passes through several towns, villages, and the city of Rochester before arriving at its eastern terminus at a junction with New York State Route 370 (NY 370) southwest of Red Creek, Wayne County. It is named for the rise atop which the road was built, a mound of sand and gravel that was formed when it was the shoreline of ancient Glacial Lake Iroquois. The ridge is often confused with the nearby Niagara Escarpment, which is much taller, geologic in origin, and lies a few miles to the south.

Irondequoit Bay

Irondequoit Bay is a large body of water located in northeastern Monroe County, New York. The bay, roughly 0.5 miles (0.80 km) wide and 4 miles (6.4 km) in length, is fed by Irondequoit Creek to the south and flows into Lake Ontario at its northern end. On average, the surface of Irondequoit Bay rests at 245 feet (75 m) above sea level and is 80 feet (24 m) deep at its deepest point a short distance north of the Irondequoit Bay Bridge carrying the six-lane New York State Route 104 over the bay.

Durand Eastman Park park in New York, United States of America, United States of America

Durand Eastman Park is a 977-acre (3.95 km2) park located partly in Rochester, and partly in Irondequoit, New York. It is administered by the Monroe County Parks Department under agreements with the City of Rochester and the Town of Irondequoit.

New York State Route 35 (1927 – early 1940s) former highway in New York

New York State Route 35 (NY 35) was a state highway in the Finger Lakes region of New York, in the United States. The western terminus of the route was at an intersection with NY 36 in the hamlet of Mumford within the town of Wheatland. Its eastern terminus was at a junction with U.S. Route 104 (US 104) in the hamlet of Ontario Center within the town of Ontario. NY 35 followed a mostly northeast–southwest routing across the counties of Monroe and Wayne and passed through downtown Rochester.

Downtown Rochester Neighborhood in Rochester, New York, United States

Downtown Rochester is the economic center of Rochester, New York, and the largest in Upstate New York, employing more than 50,000 people, and housing more than 6,000.

The Rochester Railway Company operated a streetcar transit system throughout the city of Rochester from 1890 until its acquisition by Rochester Transit Corp. in 1938. Formed by a group of Pittsburgh investors, the Rochester Railway Company purchased the Rochester City & Brighton Railroad in 1890, followed by a lease of the Rochester Electric Railway in 1894. The Rochester and Suburban Railway was leased in 1905, extending the system's reach to Irondequoit and Sea Breeze. Rochester Railways was acquired by the Mohawk Valley Company, a subsidiary of the New York Central Railroad set up to take control of electric railways in its territory. In 1909 the holdings of the Mohawk Valley Company were consolidated as the New York State Railways.

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Further reading