2010 United States census

Last updated

Twenty-third census
of the United States

  2000 April 1, 2010 2020  

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
Seal of the U.S. Census Bureau
2010 U.S. census logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Total population308,745,538 (Increase2.svg 9.7%)
Most populous state California (37,253,956)
Least populous state Wyoming (563,826)

The 2010 United States census was the 23rd United States census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. [1] The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. [2] [3] The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, [4] a 9.7% increase from the 2000 United States Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 500,000 people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.



As required by the United States Constitution, the U.S. Census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U.S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U.S. Census is required by law of people living in the United States in Title 13 of the United States Code. [5]

On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska. [6] More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U.S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010. [7] The number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1, 2010. [8] Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."

The 2010 census national mail participation rate was 74%. [9] From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that didn't return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up" (NRFU).

In December 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U.S. president for apportionment, and later in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. [1]

Personally identifiable information will be available in 2082. [10]

Major changes

The Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 census. [11] In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: [11]

  1. How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010?
  2. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010, that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: (checkboxes for: children; relatives; non-relatives; people staying temporarily; none)
  3. Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – [Checkboxes for owned with a mortgage, owned free and clear, rented, occupied without rent.]
  4. What is your telephone number?
  5. What is Person 1's name? (last, first)
  6. What is Person 1's sex? (male, female)
  7. What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth?
  8. Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? (checkboxes for: "No", and several for "Yes" which specify groups of countries)
  9. What is Person 1's race? (checkboxes for 14 including "other". One possibility was "Black, African Am., or Negro")
  10. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? (checkboxes for "No", and several locations for "Yes")

The form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total.

In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. [11] [12]

Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey. [12] The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years. [13]

In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option. When noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples (whether same-sex or opposite-sex) who were not married. [14]

The Census 2010 Language Program was significantly expanded. Language assistance in 49 languages in the 2000 Census was increased to 59 languages in Census 2000. In addition to English, Census questionnaire was available in five non-English languages: Spanish, Chinese (simplified), Korean, Vietnamese, and Russian. [15] [16]


The 2010 census cost $13 billion, approximately $42 per capita; by comparison, the 2010 census per-capita cost for China was about US$1 and for India was US$0.40. [17] Operational costs were $5.4 billion, significantly under the $7 billion budget. [18] In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) noted that the cost of conducting the census has approximately doubled each decade since 1970. [17] In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, and at that time, had estimated the 2010 census cost to be $11 billion. [19]

In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in significantly under budget; of an almost $7 billion operational budget: [18]

Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency also has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be immediately reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U.S. households that did not reply by mail were based on such outside interviews, Groves said. [18]


In 2005, Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract included systems, facilities, and staffing. [20] The final value of that contract was in excess of one billion dollars. [21] Information technology was about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census. [22] The use of high-speed document scanning technology, such as ImageTrac scanners developed by IBML, helped Lockheed Martin complete the project on schedule and under budget. [23]

This was the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability, although they were only used for the address canvassing operation. Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves, President Obama's Census Director appointee, there was much mention of contracting problems but very little criticism of the units themselves. [24] The Census Bureau chose to conduct the primary operation, Non-Response Follow Up (NRFU), without using the handheld computing devices. [25] [26]

Marketing and undercounts

Due to allegations surrounding previous censuses that poor people and non-whites are routinely undercounted, for the 2010 census, the Census Bureau tried to avoid that bias by enlisting tens of thousands of intermediaries, such as churches, charities and firms, to explain to people the importance of being counted. [8]

There was a penalty of $100 for not completing some or all of the 2010 U.S census. Census Bureau director Robert Grove, however, wrote "the Census Bureau has rarely prosecuted failure to respond. While the rationale for the mandatory nature of the census still applies today, our message for the 2010 Census is about the common good benefits of participation". [27] The fine for non-participation is much lower than that for reporting false information. In 2010, that penalty was $500. [28]

There was a one hundred dollar fine for not answering part or all of the 2010 U.S. census. The census director Robert Grove wrote in 2010 "the Census Bureau has rarely prosecuted failure to respond. While the rationale for the mandatory nature of the census still applies today, our message for the 2010 Census is about the common good benefits of participation."The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was given a contract to help publicize the importance of the census count and to encourage individuals to fill out their forms. In September 2009, after controversial undercover videos showing four ACORN staffers giving tax advice to a man and a woman posing as a prostitute, the bureau canceled ACORN's contract. [29] Various American celebrities, including Demi Lovato and Eva Longoria, [30] were used in public service announcements targeting younger people to fill out census forms. Wilmer Valderrama and Rosario Dawson have helped spread census awareness among young Hispanics, a historically low participating ethnicity in the U.S. census. [31] Rapper Ludacris also participated in efforts to spread awareness of the 2010 census. [32]

The Census Bureau hired about 635,000 people to find those U.S. residents who had not returned their forms by mail; as of May 28, 2010, 113 census workers had been victims of crime while conducting the census. [3] [ needs update ] As of June 29, there were 436 incidents involving assaults or threats against enumerators, more than double the 181 incidents in 2000; one enumerator, attempting to hand-deliver the census forms to a Hawaii County police officer, was arrested for trespassing – the officer's fellow policemen made the arrest. [2]

Some political conservatives and libertarians questioned the validity of the questions and even encouraged people to refuse to answer questions for privacy and constitutional reasons. [33] Michele Bachmann, a former conservative Republican Representative from Minnesota, stated that she would not fill out her census form other than to indicate the number of people living in her household because "the Constitution doesn't require any information beyond that." [34] Former Republican representative and Libertarian presidential candidate Bob Barr stated that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the mere enumeration (i.e., count) intended by the framers of the U.S. Constitution. [35] According to political commentator Juan Williams, "Census participation rates have been declining since 1970, and if conservatives don't participate, doubts about its accuracy and credibility may become fatal." [33]

As a result, the Census Bureau undertook an unprecedented advertising campaign targeted at encouraging white political conservatives to fill out their forms, in the hope of avoiding an undercount of this group. The 2010 U.S. census was the primary sponsor at NASCAR races in Atlanta, Bristol, and Martinsville, and sponsored the No. 16 Ford Fusion driven by Greg Biffle for part of the season, because of a marketing survey that indicated most NASCAR fans lean politically conservative. [33] It also ran an advertisement during the 2010 Super Bowl, and hired singer Marie Osmond, who is thought to have many conservative fans, to publicize the census. [33]


Allocation of U.S. congressional districts following the 2010 census 2010 census reapportionment.svg
Allocation of U.S. congressional districts following the 2010 census
The 435 seats of the House grouped by state, as apportioned after the 2010 census HouseDelegations2013-23.svg
The 435 seats of the House grouped by state, as apportioned after the 2010 census

The results of the 2010 census determined the number of seats that each state received in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state had in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.

Because of population changes, eighteen states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and ten states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 12 seats being switched. [36]

Gained four seatsGained two seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seats
Texas Florida Arizona
South Carolina
New Jersey
New York


Some objected to the counting of persons who are in the United States illegally. [37] [38] Senators David Vitter (R-LA) and Bob Bennett (R-UT) tried unsuccessfully to add questions on immigration status to the census form. [8]

Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argued that the census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, skewed political clout and resulted in misleading demographic and population data. [39]

The term "Negro" was used in the questionnaire as one of the options for African Americans (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin explained that "many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included." [40] [41] The word was also used in the 2000 census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro". [42] In response to complaints over the word's inclusion on the 2010 census, the Census Bureau announced in 2013 that it would stop using "Negro" going forward, with the 2014 American Community Survey census form being the first without the word. [43]

The 2010 census contained ten questions about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions were to be answered for each individual in the household. Federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form. [44]

Detroit Mayor Dave Bing held a press conference on March 22, 2011, to announce that the city would challenge its census results. [45] The challenge, being led by the city's planning department, cited an inconsistency as an example showing a downtown census tract which lost only 60 housing units, but 1,400 people, implying that a downtown jail or dormitory was missed in canvassing. [46]

NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg held a conference on March 27, 2011, to announce that the city would also challenge his city's census results, specifically the apparent undercounting in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. [47] Bloomberg said that the numbers for Queens and Brooklyn, the two most populous boroughs, are implausible. [48] According to the census, they grew by only 0.1% and 1.6%, respectively, while the other boroughs grew by between 3% and 5%. He also stated that the census showed improbably high numbers of vacant housing in vital neighborhoods such as Jackson Heights, Queens.

The District of Columbia announced in August 2011 that it would also challenge its census results. The Mayor's Office claimed that the detailed information provided for 549 census blocks is "nonsensical", listing examples of census data that show housing units located in the middle of a street that does not actually exist. However, officials do not believe the city's total population will drastically change as a result of the challenge. [49]

State rankings

The state with the highest percentage rate of growth was Nevada, while the state with the largest population increase was Texas. [50] Michigan, the 8th largest by population, was the only state to lose population (although Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, lost population as well), and the District of Columbia saw its first gain since the 1950s. [51] The resident populations listed below do not include people living overseas. For Congressional apportionment, the sum of a state's resident population and its population of military personnel and federal contractors living overseas (but not other citizens overseas, such as missionaries or expatriate workers) is used. [52]

A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage. Population Change by Percentage - 2010 US Census.png
A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage.
Population and population change in the United States by state
RankStatePopulation as of
2010 census
Population as of
2000 census [53]
1Flag of California.svg  California 37,253,95633,871,6483,382,308 Increase2.svg10.0% Increase2.svg
2Flag of Texas.svg  Texas 25,145,56120,851,8204,293,741 Increase2.svg20.6% Increase2.svg
3Flag of New York.svg  New York 19,378,10218,976,457401,645 Increase2.svg2.1% Increase2.svg
4Flag of Florida.svg  Florida 18,801,31015,982,3782,818,932 Increase2.svg17.6% Increase2.svg
5Flag of Illinois.svg  Illinois 12,830,63212,419,293411,339 Increase2.svg3.3% Increase2.svg
6Flag of Pennsylvania.svg  Pennsylvania 12,702,37912,281,054421,325 Increase2.svg3.4% Increase2.svg
7Flag of Ohio.svg  Ohio 11,536,50411,353,140183,364 Increase2.svg1.6% Increase2.svg
8Flag of Michigan.svg  Michigan 9,883,6409,938,444−54,804 Decrease2.svg−0.6% Decrease2.svg
9Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg  Georgia 9,687,6538,186,4531,501,200 Increase2.svg18.3% Increase2.svg
10Flag of North Carolina.svg  North Carolina 9,535,4838,049,3131,486,170 Increase2.svg18.5% Increase2.svg
11Flag of New Jersey.svg  New Jersey 8,791,8948,414,350377,544 Increase2.svg4.5% Increase2.svg
12Flag of Virginia.svg  Virginia 8,001,0247,078,515922,509 Increase2.svg13.0% Increase2.svg
13Flag of Washington.svg  Washington 6,724,5405,894,121830,419 Increase2.svg14.1% Increase2.svg
14Flag of Massachusetts.svg  Massachusetts 6,547,6296,349,097198,532 Increase2.svg3.1% Increase2.svg
15Flag of Indiana.svg  Indiana 6,483,8026,080,485403,317 Increase2.svg6.6% Increase2.svg
16Flag of Arizona.svg  Arizona 6,392,0175,130,6321,261,385 Increase2.svg24.6% Increase2.svg
17Flag of Tennessee.svg  Tennessee 6,346,1055,689,283656,822 Increase2.svg11.5% Increase2.svg
18Flag of Missouri.svg  Missouri 5,988,9275,595,211393,716 Increase2.svg7.0% Increase2.svg
19Flag of Maryland.svg  Maryland 5,773,5525,296,486477,066 Increase2.svg9.0% Increase2.svg
20Flag of Wisconsin.svg  Wisconsin 5,686,9865,363,675323,311 Increase2.svg6.0% Increase2.svg
21Flag of Minnesota.svg  Minnesota 5,303,9254,919,479384,446 Increase2.svg7.8% Increase2.svg
22Flag of Colorado.svg  Colorado 5,029,1964,301,261727,935 Increase2.svg16.9% Increase2.svg
23Flag of Alabama.svg  Alabama 4,779,7364,447,100332,636 Increase2.svg7.5% Increase2.svg
24Flag of South Carolina.svg  South Carolina 4,625,3644,012,012613,352 Increase2.svg15.3% Increase2.svg
25Flag of Louisiana (2006-2010).svg  Louisiana 4,533,3724,468,97664,396 Increase2.svg1.4% Increase2.svg
26Flag of Kentucky.svg  Kentucky 4,339,3674,041,769297,598 Increase2.svg7.4% Increase2.svg
27Flag of Oregon.svg  Oregon 3,831,0743,421,399409,675 Increase2.svg12.0% Increase2.svg
28Flag of Oklahoma.svg  Oklahoma 3,751,3513,450,654300,697 Increase2.svg8.7% Increase2.svg
29Flag of Connecticut.svg  Connecticut 3,574,0973,405,565168,532 Increase2.svg4.9% Increase2.svg
30Flag of Iowa.svg  Iowa 3,046,3552,926,324120,031 Increase2.svg4.1% Increase2.svg
31Flag of Mississippi (2001-2020).svg  Mississippi 2,967,2972,844,658122,639 Increase2.svg4.3% Increase2.svg
32Flag of Arkansas.svg  Arkansas 2,915,9182,673,400242,518 Increase2.svg9.1% Increase2.svg
33Flag of Kansas.svg  Kansas 2,853,1182,688,418164,700 Increase2.svg6.1% Increase2.svg
34Flag of Utah (1913-1922).png  Utah 2,763,8852,233,169530,716 Increase2.svg23.8% Increase2.svg
35Flag of Nevada.svg  Nevada 2,700,5511,998,257702,294 Increase2.svg35.1% Increase2.svg
36Flag of New Mexico.svg  New Mexico 2,059,1791,819,046240,133 Increase2.svg13.2% Increase2.svg
37Flag of West Virginia.svg  West Virginia 1,852,9941,808,34444,650 Increase2.svg2.5% Increase2.svg
38Flag of Nebraska.svg  Nebraska 1,826,3411,711,263115,078 Increase2.svg6.7% Increase2.svg
39Flag of Idaho.svg  Idaho 1,567,5821,293,953273,629 Increase2.svg21.1% Increase2.svg
40Flag of Hawaii.svg  Hawaii 1,360,3011,211,537148,764 Increase2.svg12.3% Increase2.svg
41Flag of Maine.svg  Maine 1,328,3611,274,92353,438 Increase2.svg4.2% Increase2.svg
42Flag of New Hampshire.svg  New Hampshire 1,316,4701,235,78680,684 Increase2.svg6.5% Increase2.svg
43Flag of Rhode Island.svg  Rhode Island 1,052,5671,048,3194,248 Increase2.svg0.4% Increase2.svg
44Flag of Montana.svg  Montana 989,415902,19587,220 Increase2.svg9.7% Increase2.svg
45Flag of Delaware.svg  Delaware 897,934783,600114,334 Increase2.svg14.6% Increase2.svg
46Flag of South Dakota.svg  South Dakota 814,180754,84459,336 Increase2.svg7.9% Increase2.svg
47Flag of Alaska.svg  Alaska 710,231626,93283,299 Increase2.svg13.3% Increase2.svg
48Flag of North Dakota.svg  North Dakota 672,591642,20030,391 Increase2.svg4.7% Increase2.svg
49Flag of Vermont.svg  Vermont 625,741608,82716,914 Increase2.svg2.8% Increase2.svg
Flag of Washington, D.C.svg  District of Columbia 601,723572,05929,664 Increase2.svg5.2% Increase2.svg
50Flag of Wyoming.svg  Wyoming 563,626493,78269,844 Increase2.svg14.1% Increase2.svg
 Flag of the United States.svg  United States 308,745,538281,421,90627,323,632 Increase2.svg9.7% Increase2.svg

Metropolitan rankings

These are core metropolitan rankings versus combined statistical areas. For full list with current data, go to metropolitan statistics.

The top 25 metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America

RankMetropolitan statistical area2010 censusEncompassing combined statistical area
1 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area 19,567,410 New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area
2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 12,828,837 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
3 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area 9,461,105 Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area
4 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area 6,426,214 Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area
5 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area 5,965,343 Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area
6 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area 5,920,416 Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area
7 Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area 5,636,232 Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
8 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area 5,564,635 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area
9 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area 5,286,728 Atlanta–Athens-Clarke County–Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area
10 Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,552,402 Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area
11 San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,335,391 San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area
12 Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,296,250 Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area
13 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,224,851 Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
14 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,192,887
15 Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area 3,439,809 Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area
16 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area 3,348,859 Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area
17 San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 3,095,313
18 St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,787,701 St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area
19 Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,783,243
20 Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,710,489 Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
21 Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,543,482 Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area
22 Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,356,285 Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area
23 Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,226,009 Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area
24 Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,217,012 Charlotte-Concord, NC-SC Combined Statistical Area
25 San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area 2,142,508

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulationLand area
(square miles)
Population density
(per square mile)
1 New York New York 8,175,133302.627,016.3 Northeast
2 Los Angeles California 3,792,621468.78,091.8 West
3 Chicago Illinois 2,695,598227.611,843.6 Midwest
4 Houston Texas 2,099,451599.63,502.8 Southwest
5 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,526,006134.111,379.6 Northeast
6 Phoenix Arizona 1,445,632516.72,797.8 Southwest
7 San Antonio Texas 1,327,407460.92,880.0 Southwest
8 San Diego California 1,307,402325.24,020.3 West
9 Dallas Texas 1,197,816340.53,517.8 Southwest
10 San Jose California 945,942176.55,359.4 West
11 Jacksonville Florida 821,784747.01,100.1 Southeast
12 Indianapolis Indiana 820,445361.42,270.2 Midwest
13 San Francisco California 805,23546.917,169.2 West
14 Austin Texas 790,390297.92,653.2 Southwest
15 Columbus Ohio 787,033217.23,623.5 Midwest
16 Fort Worth Texas 741,206339.82,181.3 Southwest
17 Charlotte North Carolina 731,424297.72,456.9 Southeast
18 Detroit Michigan 713,777138.85,142.5 Midwest
19 El Paso Texas 649,121255.22,543.6 Southwest
20 Memphis Tennessee 646,889315.12,053.0 Southeast
21 Baltimore Maryland 620,96180.97,675.7 Northeast
22 Boston Massachusetts 617,59448.312,786.6 Northeast
23 Seattle Washington 608,66083.97,254.6 West
24 Washington District of Columbia 601,72361.09,864.3 Northeast
25 Nashville Tennessee 601,222475.11,265.5 Southeast
26 Denver Colorado 600,158153.03,922.6 West
27 Louisville Kentucky 597,337385.091,551.2 Southeast
28 Milwaukee Wisconsin 594,83396.16,189.7 Midwest
29 Portland Oregon 583,776134.34,346.8 West
30 Las Vegas Nevada 583,756135.84,298.6 West
31 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 579,999606.4956.5 Southwest
32 Albuquerque New Mexico 545,852187.72,908.1 Southwest
33 Tucson Arizona 520,116226.72,294.3 Southwest
34 Fresno California 494,665112.04,416.7 West
35 Sacramento California 466,48897.94,764.9 West
36 Long Beach California 462,25750.39,190.0 West
37 Kansas City Missouri 459,787315.01,459.6 Midwest
38 Mesa Arizona 439,041136.53,216.4 Southwest
39 Virginia Beach Virginia 437,994249.01,759.0 Southeast
40 Atlanta Georgia 420,003133.23,153.2 Southeast
41 Colorado Springs Colorado 416,427194.52,141.0 West
42 Omaha Nebraska 408,958127.13,217.6 Midwest
43 Raleigh North Carolina 403,892142.92,826.4 Southeast
44 Miami Florida 399,45735.911,126.9 Southeast
45 Cleveland Ohio 396,81577.75,107.0 Midwest
46 San Juan Puerto Rico 395,32647.98,253.1 Territories
47 Tulsa Oklahoma 391,906196.81,991.4 Southwest
48 Oakland California 390,72455.87,002.2 West
49 Minneapolis Minnesota 382,57854.07,084.8 Midwest
50 Wichita Kansas 382,368159.32,400.3 Midwest
51 Arlington Texas 365,43895.93,810.6 Southwest
52 Bakersfield California 347,483142.22,443.6 West
53 New Orleans Louisiana 343,829169.42,029.7 Southeast
54 Honolulu Hawaii 337,25660.55,574.5 West
55 Anaheim California 336,26549.86,752.3 West
56 Tampa Florida 335,709113.42,960.4 Southeast
57 Aurora Colorado 325,078154.72,101.3 West
58 Santa Ana California 324,52827.311,887.5 West
59 Saint Louis Missouri 319,29461.95,158.2 Midwest
60 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 305,70455.45,518.1 Northeast
61 Corpus Christi Texas 305,215160.61,900.5 Southwest
62 Riverside California 303,87181.13,746.9 West
63 Cincinnati Ohio 296,94377.93,811.8 Midwest
64 Lexington Kentucky 295,803283.61,043.0 Southeast
65 Anchorage Alaska 291,8261,704.7171.2 West
66 Stockton California 291,70761.74,727.8 West
67 Toledo Ohio 287,20880.73,559.0 Midwest
68 Saint Paul Minnesota 285,06852.05,482.1 Midwest
69 Newark New Jersey 277,14024.211,452.1 Northeast
70 Greensboro North Carolina 269,666126.52,131.7 Southeast
71 Buffalo New York 261,31040.46,468.1 Northeast
72 Plano Texas 259,84171.63,629.1 Southwest
73 Lincoln Nebraska 258,37989.12,899.9 Midwest
74 Henderson Nevada 257,729107.72,393.0 West
75 Fort Wayne Indiana 253,691110.62,293.8 Midwest
76 Jersey City New Jersey 247,59714.816,729.5 Northeast
77 Saint Petersburg Florida 244,76961.73,967.1 Southeast
78 Chula Vista California 243,91649.64,917.7 West
79 Norfolk Virginia 242,80354.14,488.0 Southeast
80 Orlando Florida 238,300102.42,327.1 Southeast
81 Chandler Arizona 236,12364.43,666.5 Southwest
82 Laredo Texas 236,09188.92,655.7 Southwest
83 Madison Wisconsin 233,20976.83,036.6 Midwest
84 Winston-Salem North Carolina 229,617132.41,734.3 Southeast
85 Lubbock Texas 229,573122.41,875.6 Southwest
86 Baton Rouge Louisiana 229,49376.92,984.3 Southeast
87 Durham North Carolina 228,330107.42,126.0 Southeast
88 Garland Texas 226,87657.13,973.3 Southwest
89 Glendale Arizona 226,72160.03,778.7 Southwest
90 Reno Nevada 225,221103.02,186.6 West
91 Hialeah Florida 224,66921.510,449.7 Southeast
92 Chesapeake Virginia 222,209340.8652.0 Southeast
93 Scottsdale Arizona 217,385183.91,182.1 Southwest
94 North Las Vegas Nevada 216,961101.32,141.8 West
95 Irving Texas 216,29067.03,228.2 Southwest
96 Fremont California 214,08977.52,762.4 West
97 Irvine California 212,37566.13,212.9 West
98 Birmingham Alabama 212,237146.11,452.7 Southeast
99 Rochester New York 210,56535.85,881.7 Northeast
100 San Bernardino California 209,92459.23,546.0 West

Locations of 50 most populous cities

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Census</span> Acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating population information about the members of a given population. This term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include censuses of agriculture, traditional culture, business, supplies, and traffic censuses. The United Nations (UN) defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every ten years. UN recommendations also cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, classifications and other useful information to co-ordinate international practices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demographics of the United States</span>

The United States had an official estimated resident population of 334,914,895 on July 1, 2023, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. This figure includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia but excludes the population of five unincorporated U.S. territories as well as several minor island possessions. The United States is the third most populous country in the world, and the most populous in the Americas and the Western Hemisphere. The Census Bureau showed a population increase of 0.4% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2022, below the world average annual rate of 0.9%. The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2022 is 1.665 children per woman, which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1.

In the United States census, the U.S. Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget define a set of self-identified categories of race and ethnicity chosen by residents, with which they most closely identify. Residents can indicate their origins alongside their race, and are asked specifically whether they are of Hispanic or Latino origin in a separate question.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2000 United States census</span> 22nd United States national census

The 2000 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2 percent over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 census. This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States census</span> Decennial census mandated by the US Constitution

The United States census is a census that is legally mandated by the Constitution of the United States. It takes place every ten years. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790 under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. There have been 23 federal censuses since that time. The census includes territories of the United States. The United States Census Bureau is responsible for conducting the census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">American Community Survey</span> Demographic survey in the United States

The American Community Survey (ACS) is an annual demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census, including ancestry, US citizenship status, educational attainment, income, language proficiency, migration, disability, employment, and housing characteristics. These data are used by many public-sector, private-sector, and not-for-profit stakeholders to allocate funding, track shifting demographics, plan for emergencies, and learn about local communities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1990 United States census</span> 21st United States national census

The 1990 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1980 United States census</span> 20th United States national census

The 1980 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4% over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 census. It was the first census in which a state—California—recorded a population of 20 million people, as well as the first in which all states recorded populations of over 400,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Canadian census</span> Censuses in Canada

The 2006 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people. The previous census was the 2001 census and the following census was in 2011 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1880 United States census</span> 10th US national census

The 1880 United States census, conducted by the Census Office during June 1880, was the tenth United States census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city—New York City—recorded a population of over one million, and the first census in which the 20 most populated cities all recorded over 100,000 residents.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1870 United States census</span> Ninth US census

The 1870 United States census was the ninth United States census. It was conducted by the Census Office from June 1, 1870, to August 23, 1871. The 1870 census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African American population, only five years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The total population was 38,925,598 with a resident population of 38,558,371 individuals, a 22.6% increase from 1860.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1930 United States census</span> 15th US national census

The 1930 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1940 United States census</span> 16th US national census

The 1940 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.6 percent over the 1930 population of 122,775,046 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1950 United States census</span> 17th US national census

The 1950 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 158,804,396, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1960 United States census</span> 18th United States national census

The 1960 United States census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 19 percent over the 151,325,798 persons enumerated during the 1950 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 200,000. This census's data determined the electoral votes for the 1964 and 1968 presidential elections. This was also the last census in which New York was the most populous state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2020 United States census</span> 24th US national census

The 2020 United States census was the 24th decennial United States census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 census, this was the first U.S. census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the paper response form used for previous censuses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Race and ethnicity in censuses</span>

Many countries and national censuses currently enumerate or have previously enumerated their populations by race, ethnicity, nationality, or a combination of these characteristics. Different countries have different classifications and census options for race and ethnicity/nationality which are not comparable with data from other countries. In addition, many of the race and ethnicity concepts that appear on national censuses worldwide have their origins in Europe or in the views of Europeans, rather than in the views of the locals of these countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Population and housing censuses by country</span>

This is a list of national population and housing censuses.


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