Buffalo, New York

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Buffalo, New York
City of Buffalo
Aerial photo of Buffalo, NY Skyline.jpg
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Flag
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Seal
Nicknames: 
The City of Good Neighbors, The Queen City, The City of No Illusions, The Nickel City, Queen City of the Lakes, City of Light
Erie County New York incorporated and unincorporated areas Buffalo highlighted.svg
Location within Erie County
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Buffalo
Location within the state of New York
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Buffalo
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 42°54′17″N78°50′58″W / 42.90472°N 78.84944°W / 42.90472; -78.84944 Coordinates: 42°54′17″N78°50′58″W / 42.90472°N 78.84944°W / 42.90472; -78.84944
Country Flag of the United States.svg United States
State Flag of New York.svg  New York
County The Flag of Erie County, New York.png Erie
First settled (village)1789
Founded1801
Incorporated (city)1832
Government
   Mayor Byron Brown (D)
   City Council Buffalo Common Council
Area
   City 52.5 sq mi (136.0 km2)
  Land40.6 sq mi (105.2 km2)
  Water11.9 sq mi (30.8 km2)
Elevation
600 ft (183 m)
Population
   City 261,452
  Estimate 
(2017) [1]
258,612
  Density6,436/sq mi (2,568/km2)
   Urban
935,906 (US: 46th)
   Metro
1,134,210 (US: 49th)
   CSA
1,213,668 (US: 44th)
Demonyms Buffalonian
Time zone UTC−05:00 (EST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Code
142XX
Area code(s) 716
FIPS code 36-11000
GNIS feature ID0973345
Website www.city-buffalo.com

Buffalo is the second largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of July 2016, the population was 256,902. The city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city in the state with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

Western New York Region in New York, United States

Western New York is the westernmost region of the state of New York. It includes the cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Niagara Falls, the surrounding suburbs, as well as the outlying rural areas of the Great Lakes lowlands, the Genesee Valley, and the Southern Tier. The historic beginnings of the region can be defined by its original eastern boundary of Preemption Line, created by the December 16, 1786 political settlement between the states of New York and Massachusetts, both of which claimed political dominion over the land. This eastern boundary shifted because of changing county borders in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Contents

The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and later by French settlers. The city grew significantly in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, and its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain, steel and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied heavily on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare, research and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.

Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the United States (except Hawaii)

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

Iroquois Northeast Native American confederacy

The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, and later as the Iroquois Confederacy, and to the English as the Five Nations, comprising the Mohawk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and Seneca. After 1722, they accepted the Tuscarora people from the Southeast into their confederacy and became known as the Six Nations.

Erie Canal Waterway in New York, USA

The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States that is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. Originally, it ran 363 miles (584 km) from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and greatly affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, and the United States.

Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light". The city is also famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams (Buffalo Bills and Buffalo Sabres), and a music and arts scene.

Lake Erie one of the Great Lakes in North America

Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. At its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep.

Niagara River river in Canada and the USA

The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the river's name. According to Iroquoian scholar Bruce Trigger, Niagara is derived from the name given to a branch of the locally residing native Neutral Confederacy, who are described as being called the Niagagarega people on several late-17th-century French maps of the area. According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called Ongniaahra, meaning "point of land cut in two".

Niagara Falls Waterfalls of Ontario,Canada and New York,United States

Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the US state of New York. They form the southern end of the Niagara Gorge.

Etymology

The city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. [2] British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. [3]

Buffalo River (New York) river in New York state, United States

The Buffalo River drains a 447-square-mile (1,160 km2) watershed in New York state, emptying into the eastern end of Lake Erie at the City of Buffalo. The river has three tributaries: Cayuga Creek, Buffalo Creek, and Cazenovia Creek.

John Montresor British soldier

Captain John Montresor was a British military engineer and cartographer in North America.

There are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. [4] [5] [6] While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve (French for "Beautiful River"), [4] [5] it is also possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York. [6] [7] [8]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

American bison species of even-toed ungulates

The American bison or simply bison, also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed North America in vast herds. Their historical range, by 9000 BC, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard as far north as New York and south to Georgia and per some sources down to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750.. They became nearly extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was down to 541 animals by 1889. Recovery efforts expanded in the mid-20th century, with a resurgence to roughly 31,000 animals today, largely restricted to a few national parks and reserves.

History

Prehistory and European exploration

An early map of the village of Buffalo and outer lots in 1854. Inset is Ellicott's 1804 plan. Village of Buffalo.tif
An early map of the village of Buffalo and outer lots in 1854. Inset is Ellicott's 1804 plan.
The village of Buffalo in 1813. Buffalo 1813.jpg
The village of Buffalo in 1813.
Walk-on-the-Water was the first steamboat to sail Lake Erie in 1818 Walk in the Water (steamboat).JPG
Walk-on-the-Water was the first steamboat to sail Lake Erie in 1818

The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. [9]

Paleo-Indians classification term given to the first peoples who entered the American continents

Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given by scholars to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios (παλαιός), meaning "old" or "ancient". The term "Paleo-Indians" applies specifically to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic".

Quaternary glaciation

The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Pleistocene glaciation, is an alternating series of glacial and interglacial periods during the Quaternary period that began 2.58 Ma, and is ongoing. Although geologists describe the entire time period as an "ice age", in popular culture the term "ice age" is usually associated with just the most recent glacial period. Since earth still has ice sheets, geologists consider the Quaternary glaciation to be ongoing, with earth now experiencing an interglacial period.

Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. [9]

During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied simultaneously by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, [10] and the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. [11] For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, [12] utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state. These paths were later paved, and now function as major roads. [13]

Later, during the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals [14] and their peninsular territory, [14] while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c. 1651 [14] [15] [16] –1653. [lower-alpha 1] Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was also destroyed by the Iroquois [17] over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars. [18]

It was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. [19] On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes, eventually disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. [20]

After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. [21] Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. [22] New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, and Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile (1600-meter) wide portion of land. The rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, and two years later to the Holland Land Company. [23] [24]

As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, [25] Iroquois territory was gradually whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784), the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek (1788), and the Treaty of Geneseo (1797). The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles (216,000 acres; 880 km2; 88,000 ha) of reservation territory remained. [26]

Founding, Erie Canal, and railroads

Buffalo harbour from the foot of Porter Avenue, 1871 Lars Gustaf Sellstedt - Buffalo Harbor, 1871.jpg
Buffalo harbour from the foot of Porter Avenue, 1871
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1872 engraving of Buffalo
Early view of Buffalo's harbour Buffalo Harbour from the village (NYPL b13476046-424509).jpg
Early view of Buffalo's harbour

Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, [27] [28] and Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789. [29] The first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. [30] The first resident and landowner [31] of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter who had been present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation. His house was built at present-day Washington and Seneca streets. [32]

On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland. [33] The Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lands west of the Genesee River in 1797. [34] In the fall of 1797, Joseph Ellicott, the architect who helped survey Washington D.C. with brother Andrew, [35] [36] was appointed as the Chief of Survey for the Holland Land Company. [37] Over the next year, he began surveying the tract of land at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. This was completed in 1803, [38] and the new village boundaries extended from the creekside in the south to present-day Chippewa Street in the north and Carolina Street to the west, [39] which is where most settlers remained for the first decade of the 19th century.[ citation needed ] Although the company named the settlement "New Amsterdam," the name did not catch on, reverting to Buffalo within ten years. [40] [39] Buffalo had the first road to Pennsylvania built in 1802 for migrants passing through to the Connecticut Western Reserve in Ohio. [41]

In 1804, Ellicott designed a radial grid plan that would branch out from the village forming bicycle-like spokes, interrupted by diagonals, similar to the system used in the nation's capital. [42] In the middle of the village was the intersection of eight streets, in what would become Niagara Square. Several blocks to the southeast he designed a semicircle fronting Main Street with an elongated park green, formerly his estate. [43] [44] This would be known as Shelton Square, [45] at that time the center of the city (which would be dramatically altered in the mid-20th century), [46] with the intersecting streets bearing the names of Dutch Holland Land Company members, [47] [lower-alpha 2] today Erie, Church and Niagara streets. [43] Lafayette Square also lies one block to the north, which was then bounded by streets bearing Iroquois names. [38]

According to an early resident, in 1806 there were sixteen residences, a schoolhouse and two stores in the village, primarily near Main, Swan and Seneca streets. [48] There were also blacksmith shops, a tavern and a drugstore. [49] The streets were small at 40 feet wide, and the village was still surrounded by woods. [50] The first lot sold by the Holland Land Company was on September 11, 1806, to Zerah Phelps. [51] By 1808, lots would sell from $25 to $50. [52]

In 1804, Buffalo's population was estimated at 400, similar to Batavia, but Erie County's growth was behind Chautauqua, Genesee and Wyoming counties. [53] Neighboring village Black Rock to the northwest (today a Buffalo neighbourhood) was also an important centre. [43] Horatio J. Spafford noted in A Gazetteer of the State of New York that in fact, despite the growth the village of Buffalo had, Black Rock "is deemed a better trading site for a great trading town than that of Buffalo," especially when considering the regional profile of mundane roads extending eastward. [53] Before the east-to-west turnpike[ further explanation needed ] was completed, travelling from Albany to Buffalo would take a week, [54] while even a trip from nearby Williamsville to Batavia could take upwards of three days. [55] [lower-alpha 3]

Sketch of Buffalo, 1880 The city of Buffalo NY 1880.jpg
Sketch of Buffalo, 1880

Although slavery was rare in the state, limited instances of slavery had taken place in Buffalo during the early part of the 19th century. General Peter Buell Porter is said to have had five slaves during his time in Black Rock, and several news ads also advertised slaves for sale. [56]

In 1810, a courthouse was built. By 1811, the population was 500, with many people farming or doing manual labor. [57] The first newspaper to be published was the Buffalo Gazette in October that same year. [52]

Fears of a second British war were stoked in 1812, when on June 27 a small craft carrying salt was captured by two boats on the Niagara River. [58] There were several skirmishes on the water in the following months. [59] On December 18, 1813, Fort Niagara was overrun with ease by 500 British troops and Native American soldiers.[ which? ] Soon after, General Amos Hall [60] ordered two thousand unskilled and drafted troops to march from Batavia to Buffalo, arriving December 26. [61] After the British crossed the Niagara River the night before December 30, [62] Buffalo and the village of Black Rock were burned in a frenzy the next day in the Battle of Buffalo. [63] [64] The battle and subsequent fire was in response to the unprovoked destruction of Niagara-on-the-Lake, then known as "Newark," by American forces. [65] [66] While many residents were warned to leave, [62] those that did not escape were tomahawked and scalped in the ensuing battle. [67] [60] Though only three buildings remained in the village, rebuilding was swift, finishing in 1815. [62] [68]

Until April 2, 1821, the village of Buffalo was part of and the seat of Niagara County, until the legislature passed an act separating the two. [69]

On October 26, 1825, [70] the Erie Canal was completed, formed from part of Buffalo Creek, [71] with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. [72] At the time, the population was about 2,400. [73] By 1826, the 130 sq. mile Buffalo Creek Reservation at the western border of the village was transferred to Buffalo. [26] The Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. [74] The canal area was mature by 1847, with passenger and cargo ship activity leading to congestion in the harbor. [75]

Buffalo City Hall under construction, 1930 Buffalo City Hall 1930.jpg
Buffalo City Hall under construction, 1930
Assassination of William McKinley at the Temple of Music, 1901 McKinleyAssassination.jpg
Assassination of William McKinley at the Temple of Music, 1901

The mid-1800s saw a boom in population, with the city doubling in size from 1845 to 1855. [76] Almost two-thirds of the city's population were foreign-born immigrants in 1855, predominantly a mix of unskilled or educated Irish and Germans Catholics, who began self-segregating in different parts of the city. The Irish immigrants planted their roots along the railroad-heavy Buffalo River and Erie Canal to the southeast, to which there is still a heavy presence today; German immigrants found their way to the East Side, living a more laid-back, residential life. [77] Some immigrants were apprehensive about the change of environment and elected to leave the city for the western region, while others tried to stay behind in the hopes of expanding their native cultures. [78]

Fugitive black slaves began making their way northward to Buffalo in the 1840s, and also settled on the city's East Side. [79] In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, a meeting spot in the Michigan and William Street neighborhood where blacks first settled. [80] It also functioned as an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement.[ better source needed ] Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. [81]

During the 1840s, Buffalo's port continued to develop. Both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo. [82] [ better source needed ] Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor.[ citation needed ] In 1843, the world's first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. [83] "Dart's Elevator" enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, and rail cars. [84] By 1850, the city's population was 81,000. [74]

In 1860, there were a plethora of railway companies and lines crossing through and terminating in Buffalo. Major ones were the Buffalo, Bradford and Pittsburgh Railroad (1859), Buffalo and Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad (1853). [85] During this time, a quarter of all shipping traffic on Lake Erie was controlled by Buffalo citizens, and shipbuilding was a thriving industry for the city. [86]

Later, the Lehigh Valley Railroad would have its line terminate at Buffalo in 1867.

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Panorama of downtown Buffalo in 1911, looking west from Shelton Square

Rise of heavy industry, decline, urban renewal

Downtown Buffalo in 1945 Buffalo 1945 NARA 68145063.jpg
Downtown Buffalo in 1945
Workers unload wheat into an elevator along the Buffalo River in 1900 Buffalo Elevators (retouched).jpg
Workers unload wheat into an elevator along the Buffalo River in 1900
Sprawling steel plant at Republic Steel in South Buffalo, 1973 BETHLEHEM STEEL PLANT AT LACKAWANNA ON LAKE ERIE, JUST SOUTH OF BUFFALO - NARA - 549494.jpg
Sprawling steel plant at Republic Steel in South Buffalo, 1973

At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River. The city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. [87] It was also part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow and the Seven Little Buffaloes early in the century. [88] At the same time, an exit of local entrepreneurs and industrial titans brought about a nascent stage that would see the city lose its competitiveness against Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Detroit. [89]

President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6, 1901. [90] McKinley died in the city eight days later [91] and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion. [91] The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially among working-class men. The New Deal relief programs operated full force. The city became a stronghold of labor unions and the Democratic Party. [92]

During World War II, Buffalo saw the return of prosperity and full employment due to its position as a manufacturing center. [93] [94] As one of the most populous cities of the 1950s, Buffalo's economy revolved almost entirely on its manufacturing base. Major companies such as Republic Steel and Lackawanna Steel employed tens of thousands of Buffalonians. Integrated national shipping routes would use the Soo Locks near Lake Superior and a vast network of railroads and yards that crossed the city.

Lobbying by local businesses and interest groups against the St. Lawrence Seaway began in the 1920s, long before its construction in 1957, which cut the city off from valuable trade routes. Its approval was reinforced by legislation shortly before its construction. [95] Shipbuilding in Buffalo, such as that of the American Ship Building Company, shut down in 1962, ending an industry that had been a sector of the city's economy since 1812, and a direct result of reduced waterfront activity. [96] With deindustrialization, and the nationwide trend of suburbanization; the city's economy began to deteriorate. [97] [98] Like much of the Rust Belt, Buffalo, home to more than half a million people in the 1950s, has seen its population decline as heavy industries shut down and people left for the suburbs or other cities. [97] [98] [99]

Recent development

Like other Rust Belt cities such as Pittsburgh and Cleveland, Buffalo has attempted to revitalize its beleaguered economy and crumbling infrastructure. The trend of back offices opening in the area began in the 1980s. [100]

Geography

Buffalo is on Lake Erie's eastern end, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. [101] It is located at the origin of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario. [102] The city is 50 miles (80 km) south-southeast from Toronto. Relative to downtown, the city is generally flat with the exception of area surrounding North and High streets, where a hill of 90 feet gradually develops approaching from the south and north. In the Southtowns are the Boston Hills, while the Appalachian Mountains sit in the Southern Tier below them. To the north and east, the region maintains a flatter profile descending to Lake Ontario. Various types of shale, limestone and lagerstätten are prevalent in the geographic makeup of Buffalo and surrounding areas, which line the waterbeds within and bordering the city. [103]

Although there have not been any recent or significant earthquakes, Buffalo sits atop of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone, which is part of the Great Lakes tectonic zone. [104]

Buffalo has four channels that flow through its boundaries: the Niagara River, Buffalo River and Creek, Scajaquada Creek, and the Black Rock Canal, which is adjacent to the Niagara River. [105]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 52.5 square miles (136 km2), of which 40.6 square miles (105 km2) is land and the rest water. The total area is 22.66% water.

Cityscape

Architecture

Elmwood Village Elmwood Village.jpg
Elmwood Village
2001 image of the Niagara Peninsula, Niagara Falls and Buffalo from NASA's Terra satellite NiagaraRiverNASA.jpg
2001 image of the Niagara Peninsula, Niagara Falls and Buffalo from NASA's Terra satellite

Buffalo's architecture is diverse, with a collection of buildings from the 19th and 20th centuries. [106] Most structures and works are still standing, such as the country's largest intact parks system designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. [107] [108] At the end of the 19th century, the Guaranty Building—constructed by Louis Sullivan—was a prominent example of an early high-rise skyscraper. [109] [110] The 20th century saw works such as the Art Deco-style Buffalo City Hall and Buffalo Central Terminal, Electric Tower, the Richardson Olmsted Complex, and the Rand Building. Urban renewal from the 1950s–1970s gave way to the construction of the Brutalist-style Buffalo City Court Building and One Seneca Tower—formerly the HSBC Center, the city's tallest building. [111]

Neighborhoods

Climate

Buffalo, New York
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Buffalo has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb bordering on Dfa), which is common in the Great Lakes region. [112] [113] Buffalo has snowy winters, but it is rarely the snowiest city in New York state. [114] [115] The Blizzard of 1977 resulted from a combination of high winds and snow previously accumulated on land and on frozen Lake Erie. [116] Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but can cause significant damage during the autumn as with the October 2006 storm. [117] [118] In November 2014, the region had a record-breaking storm, producing over 5 12 feet (66 inches; 170 centimetres) of snow, this storm was named "Snowvember". [119] Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. [113] Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. [113] Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. [113] As a result, temperatures only rise above 90 °F (32.2 °C) three times in the average year, [113] and the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature of 100 °F (37.8 °C) or more. [120] Rainfall is moderate but typically occurs at night. Lake Erie's stabilizing effect continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. [113] August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence. [113] The highest recorded temperature in Buffalo was 99 °F (37 °C) on August 27, 1948 [121] and the lowest recorded temperature was −20 °F (−29 °C), which occurred twice, on February 9, 1934 and February 2, 1961. [122]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1810 1,508
1820 2,09538.9%
1830 8,668313.7%
1840 18,213110.1%
1850 42,261132.0%
1860 81,12992.0%
1870 117,71445.1%
1880 155,13431.8%
1890 255,66464.8%
1900 352,38737.8%
1910 423,71520.2%
1920 506,77519.6%
1930 573,07613.1%
1940 575,9010.5%
1950 580,1320.7%
1960 532,759−8.2%
1970 462,768−13.1%
1980 357,870−22.7%
1990 328,123−8.3%
2000 292,648−10.8%
2010 261,310−10.7%
Est. 2017258,612 [1] −1.0%
Historical Population Figures [126]
U.S. Decennial Census [127]
2013 Estimate [128]
Racial composition2010 [129] 1990 [130] 1970 [130] 1940 [130]
White 50.4%64.7%78.7%96.8%
Black or African American 38.6%30.7%20.4%3.1%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)10.5%4.9%1.6% [131] (X)
Asian 3.2%1.0%0.2%

Like most former industrial cities of the Great Lakes region in the United States, Buffalo is recovering from an economic depression from suburbanization and the loss of its industrial base. The city's population peaked in 1950 when it was the 15th largest city in the United States, and its population has been spreading out to the suburbs every census since then.

At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 50.4% White (45.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 38.6% Black or African-American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 3.9% from some other race and 3.1% from two or more races. 10.5% of the total population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. [132] Since 2003, there has been an ever-growing number of Burmese refugees, mostly of the Karen ethnicity, with an estimated 4,665 now residing in Buffalo. [133]

The median income for a household in the city is $24,536 and the median income for a family is $30,614. Males have a median income of $30,938 versus $23,982 for females. The per capita income for the city is $14,991. 26.6% of the population and 23% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 38.4% of those under the age of 18 and 14% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Economy

Electric Tower, 2010 ElectricTower 2010-11-08.jpg
Electric Tower, 2010
One M&T Plaza, headquarters of M&T Bank M&T Plaza.jpg
One M&T Plaza, headquarters of M&T Bank

Buffalo's economic sectors include industrial, light manufacturing, high technology and services.[ citation needed ] The State of New York, with over 15,000 employees, is the city's largest employer. [134] Other major employers include the United States government, Kaleida Health, M&T Bank (which is headquartered in Buffalo), the University at Buffalo, General Motors, Time Warner Cable and Tops Friendly Markets.[ citation needed ] Buffalo is home to Rich Products, Canadian brewer Labatt, cheese company Sorrento Lactalis, Delaware North Companies [135] and New Era Cap Company. More recently, the Tesla Gigafactory 2 opened in South Buffalo in summer 2017, as a result of the Buffalo Billion program.

The loss of traditional jobs in manufacturing, rapid suburbanization and high labor costs have led to economic decline and made Buffalo one of the poorest U.S. cities with populations of more than 250,000 people. An estimated 28.7–29.9% of Buffalo residents live below the poverty line, behind either only Detroit, [136] or only Detroit and Cleveland. [137] Buffalo's median household income of $27,850 is third-lowest among large cities, behind only Miami and Cleveland; however the metropolitan area's median household income is $57,000. [138] This, in part, has led to the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area having the most affordable housing market in the U.S. The quarterly NAHB/Wells Fargo Housing Opportunity Index (HOI) noted nearly 90% of the new and existing homes sold in the metropolitan area during the second quarter were affordable to families making the area's median income of $57,000.[ citation needed ]As of 2014, the median home price in the city was $95,000. [139]

Buffalo's economy has begun to see significant improvements since the early 2010s. [140] Money from New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo through a program known locally as "Buffalo Billion" has brought new construction, increased economic development, and hundreds of new jobs to the area. [141] As of March 2015, Buffalo's unemployment rate was 5.9%, [142] slightly above the national average of 5.5%. [143] In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis valued the Buffalo area's economy at $54.9 billion. [144]

Crime

Buffalo's crime rate is higher than the national average. In 2015, there were 41 murders, 1,033 robberies, and 1,640 assaults. [145] In 2016, bizjournals.com published an article including an FBI report that ranked Buffalo's violent crime rate as the 15th-worst in the nation. [146]

Culture

Buffalo wings served with celery Buffalo wings.jpg
Buffalo wings served with celery

Cuisine

Buffalo's cuisine encompasses a variety of cultural contributions, including Sicilian, Italian, Irish, Jewish, German, Polish, African-American, Greek and American influences. In 2015, the National Geographic Society ranked Buffalo third on their list of "The World's Top Ten Food Cities." [147] Locally owned restaurants offer Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, Mexican, Sicilian, Italian, Arab, Indian, Myanmar, Caribbean, soul food and French cuisine. [148] [149] Buffalo's local pizzerias differ from the thin-crust New York-style pizzerias and deep-dish Chicago-style pizzerias and is locally known for being a midpoint between the two. [150] The Beef on weck sandwich, kielbasa, sponge candy, pastry hearts, pierogi and haddock fish fries are local favorites, as is a loganberry-flavored beverage that remains relatively obscure outside of Western New York and Southern Ontario. [151] Teressa Bellissimo first prepared the now widespread Chicken Wings at the Anchor Bar in October 1964. [152] An all-vegan restaurant, Root & Bloom Cafe, opened in the Elmwood Village neighborhood in 2018. [153]

Buffalo has several well-known food companies. Non-dairy whipped topping was invented in Buffalo in 1945 by Robert E. Rich, Sr. [154] His company, Rich Products, is one of the city's largest private employers. [155] General Mills was organized in Buffalo and Gold Medal brand flour, Wheaties, Cheerios and other General Mills brand cereals are manufactured here. Archer Daniels Midland operates its largest flour mill in the city. [156] Buffalo is home to one of the world's largest privately held food companies, Delaware North Companies, which operates concessions in sports arenas, stadiums, resorts and many state and federal parks. [157] The Taste of Buffalo and National Buffalo Wing Festival showcase food from the Buffalo area. These are two of the many festivals that occur in Buffalo during the summer.

Fine and performing arts

The Albright-Knox Art Gallery Albright-Knox Art Gallery 2.jpg
The Albright–Knox Art Gallery

Buffalo is home to over 50 private and public art galleries, [158] most notably the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, home to a collection of modern and contemporary art, and the Burchfield-Penney Art Center. [159] In 2012, AmericanStyle ranked Buffalo twenty-fifth in its list of top mid-sized cities for art. [160] It is also home to many independent media and literary arts organizations like Squeaky Wheel Film and Media Arts Center. The Buffalo area's largest theater is Shea's Performing Arts Center, designed to accommodate 4,000 people with interiors by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Built in 1926, the theater presents Broadway musicals and concerts. [161] The theater community in the Buffalo Theater District includes over 20 professional companies. [162] [163] [164]

The Allentown Art Festival showcases local and national artists every summer, in Buffalo's Allentown district. Buffalo is also home to the Freedom Wall, which is situated at the corner of Michigan Avenue and East Ferry Street. The Freedom Wall was commissioned by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery Public Art Initiative, with support from the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. [165]

Music

Kleinhans Music Hall is home to the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra. Kleinhans buffalo.jpg
Kleinhans Music Hall is home to the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra.

The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, which performs at Kleinhans Music Hall, is one of the city's most prominent performing arts institutions. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the musical leadership of Lukas Foss and Michael Tilson Thomas, the Philharmonic collaborated with Grateful Dead and toured with the Boston Pops Orchestra. [166]

Buffalo has the roots of many jazz and classical musicians, and it is also the founding city for several mainstream bands and musicians, including Rick James, Billy Sheehan, The Quakes, and The Goo Goo Dolls. Vincent Gallo, a Buffalo-born filmmaker and musician, played in several local bands.[ citation needed ] Jazz fusion band Spyro Gyra and jazz saxophonists Grover Washington Jr. also got their starts in Buffalo.[ citation needed ] Pianist and composer Leonard Pennario was born in Buffalo in 1924 and made his debut concert at Carnegie Hall in 1943.[ citation needed ] Buffalo's "Colored Musicians Club", an extension of what was long ago a separate musicians' union local, is thriving today and maintains a significant jazz history within its walls. Well-known indie artist Ani DiFranco hails from Buffalo. [167]

Tourism

Although the region's primary tourism destination is Niagara Falls to the north, Buffalo's tourism relies on historical attractions and outdoor recreation. The city's points of interest include the Edward M. Cotter fireboat, considered the world's oldest active fireboat [168] and is a United States National Historic Landmark, Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens, the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, [169] Buffalo Museum of Science, [170] the Buffalo Zoo—the third oldest in the United States— [171] Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, the Anchor Bar and Darwin D. Martin House.

The site of the former Erie Canal Harbor, Canalside has become a popular destination for tourists and residents since 2007 when Buffalo and the New York Power Authority began to redevelop the former site of the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium into historically accurate canals.

Buffalo is one of the largest Polish-American centres in the United States. As a result, many aspects of Polish culture have found a home in the city from food to festivals. One of the best examples is the yearly celebration of Easter Monday, known to many Eastern Europeans as Dyngus Day. [172]

Sports

A cameraman shoots a game at New Era Field. RWS2015.jpg
A cameraman shoots a game at New Era Field.

Buffalo and the surrounding region is home to two major leagues professional sports teams. The NHL's Buffalo Sabres play in the city of Buffalo, while the NFL's Buffalo Bills play in suburban Orchard Park, New York, where they have been since 1973.

The Bills, established in 1959, played in War Memorial Stadium until 1973, when Rich Stadium, now New Era Field, opened. The team competes in the AFC East division. Since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970, the Bills have won the AFC conference championship four consecutive times (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993), resulting in four lost Super Bowls (Super Bowl XXV, Super Bowl XXVI, Super Bowl XXVII and Super Bowl XXVIII); they were the only NFL team without a playoff appearance in the 21st century from 2011 until 2017, having missed the playoffs each season since 2000.

KeyBank Center, located in Downtown Buffalo, has been home of the Sabres since 1996. HSBC Arena Sabres.jpg
KeyBank Center, located in Downtown Buffalo, has been home of the Sabres since 1996.

The Sabres, established in 1970, played in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996, when Marine Midland Arena, now KeyBank Center opened. The team is within the Atlantic Division of the NHL. The team has won one Presidents' Trophy (2006-2007) and three conference championships (1974-1975, 1979-1980 and 1998-1999). However, like the Bills, the Sabres don't have a league championship, having lost the 1975 Stanley Cup to the Philadelphia Flyers and the 1999 Stanley Cup to the Dallas Stars. Since 2014, both the Bills and Sabres have been owned by Terrence Pegula, a key investor in Buffalo's revitalization efforts.

The Buffalo Braves played at the National Basketball Association from 1970 to 1978, with their home games held at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium. The team struggled financially, so it was relocated to California and became the San Diego Clippers.

Buffalo is also home to several minor sports teams, including the Buffalo Bisons (baseball; an affiliate of the MLB's Toronto Blue Jays since 2014), FC Buffalo (soccer) as well as a professional women's team, the Buffalo Beauts (hockey). The Buffalo Bandits indoor lacrosse team was established in 1992 and played their home games in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996 when they followed the Sabres to Marine Midland Arena. They have won eight division championships and four league championships (1991-1992, 1992-1993, 1995-1996 and 2007-2008). The Buffalo Bulls are a Division I college team representing the State University of New York at Buffalo (which no longer is in the city proper); the only Division I college sports program within city limits is the Canisius Golden Griffins.

SportLeagueClubFoundedVenueTitlesChampionship years
Football NFL Buffalo Bills 1960 New Era Field [173] 2 1964*, 1965*
Hockey NHL Buffalo Sabres 1970 KeyBank Center 0
Baseball IL Buffalo Bisons 1979† Sahlen Field 3 1997, 1998, 2004
Lacrosse NLL Buffalo Bandits 1992 KeyBank Center 4 1992, 1993, 1996, 2008
Soccer NPSL FC Buffalo 2009 All-High Stadium 0
Hockey NWHL Buffalo Beauts 2015 HarborCenter 12017

* American Football League (AFL) championships were earned prior to the NFL merging with the AFL in 1970.
† Date refers to current incarnation; Buffalo Bisons previously operated from the 1870s until 1970 and the current Bisons count this team as part of their history.

Parks and recreation

View of Canalside and Buffalo Naval Park Canalside Naval.jpg
View of Canalside and Buffalo Naval Park
Hoyt Lake at Delaware Park Delaware Park lake.jpg
Hoyt Lake at Delaware Park

The Buffalo parks system has over 20 parks with several parks accessible from any part of the city. The Olmsted Park and Parkway System is the hallmark of Buffalo's many green spaces. Three-fourths of city parkland is part of the system, which comprises six major parks, eight connecting parkways, nine circles and seven smaller spaces. Constructed in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux, the system was integrated into the city and marks the first attempt in America to lay out a coordinated system of public parks and parkways. The Olmsted-designed portions of the Buffalo park system are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are maintained by the Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy (BOPC), a non-profit, for public benefit corporation which serves as the city's parks department. It is the first non-governmental organization of its kind to serve in such a capacity in the United States. [174]

Situated at the confluence of Lake Erie and the Buffalo and Niagara rivers, Buffalo is a waterfront city. The city's rise to economic power came through its waterways in the form of transshipment, manufacturing, and an endless source of energy. Buffalo's waterfront remains, though to a lesser degree, a hub of commerce, trade and industry. Beginning in 2009, a significant portion of Buffalo's waterfront began to be transformed into a focal point for social and recreational activity. To this end, Buffalo Harbor State Park, nicknamed "Outer Harbor," was opened in 2014. [175] Buffalo's intent was to stress its architectural and historical heritage to create a tourism destination, and early data indicates they were successful. [176]

Law and government

Robert H. Jackson United States Courthouse Buffalo federal court.jpg
Robert H. Jackson United States Courthouse

At the municipal level, the City of Buffalo has a mayor and a council of nine councilmembers. Buffalo also serves as the seat of Erie County with some of the 11 members of county legislature representing at least a portion of Buffalo. At the state level, there are three states assemblymembers and two state senators representing parts of the city proper. At the federal level, Buffalo is the heart of New York's 26th congressional district in the House of Representatives, represented by Democrat Brian Higgins.

Buffalo City Hall, with McKinley Monument in the foreground McKinley Monument, Buffalo, NY - IMG 3702.JPG
Buffalo City Hall, with McKinley Monument in the foreground

In a trend common to northern "Rust Belt" regions, the Democratic Party has dominated Buffalo's political life for the last half-century. The last time anyone other than a Democrat held the position of Mayor in Buffalo was Chester A. Kowal in 1965. In 1977, Democratic Mayor James D. Griffin was elected as the nominee of two minor parties, the Conservative Party and the Right to Life Party, after he lost the Democratic primary for Mayor to then Deputy State Assembly Speaker Arthur Eve. Griffin switched political allegiances several times during his 16 years as Mayor, generally hewing to socially conservative platforms.

Griffin's successor, Democrat Anthony M. Masiello (elected in 1993) continued to campaign on social conservatism, often crossing party lines in his endorsements and alliances. However, in 2005, Democrat Byron Brown was elected the city's first African-American mayor in a landslide (64%–27%) over Republican Kevin Helfer, who ran on a conservative platform. In 2013, the Conservative Party endorsed Brown for a third term because of his pledge to cut taxes.[ citation needed ] This change in local politics was preceded by a fiscal crisis in 2003 when years of economic decline, a diminishing tax-base and civic mismanagement left the city deep in debt and on the edge of bankruptcy. At New York State Comptroller Alan Hevesi's urging, the state took over the management of Buffalo's finances, appointing the Buffalo Fiscal Stability Authority, a New York State public-benefit corporation. Mayor Tony Masiello began conversations about merging the city with the larger Erie County government the following year, but they came to nought.

The offices of the Buffalo District, US Army Corps of Engineers are next to the Black Rock Lock in the Erie Canal's Black Rock channel. In addition to maintaining and operating the lock, the District plans, designs, constructs and maintains water resources projects from Toledo, Ohio to Massena, New York. These include the flood-control dam at Mount Morris, New York, oversight of the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario), review and permitting of wetlands construction, and remedial action for hazardous waste sites. Buffalo is also the home of a major office of the National Weather Service (NOAA), which serves all of western and much of central New York State. Buffalo is home to one of the 56 national FBI field offices. The field office covers all of Western New York and parts of the Southern Tier and Central New York. The field office operates several task forces in conjunction with local agencies to help combat issues such as gang violence, terrorism threats and health care fraud. [177] Buffalo is also the location of the chief judge, United States Attorney and administrative offices for the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.

Education

Overlooking the University at Buffalo's South Campus from Abbott Hall UBsouth campus wide shot.jpg
Overlooking the University at Buffalo's South Campus from Abbott Hall

Buffalo Public Schools serve most of the city of Buffalo. The city has 78 public schools, including a growing number of charter schools. As of 2006, the total enrollment was 41,089 students with a student-teacher ratio of 13.5 to 1. The graduation rate is up to 52% in 2008, up from 45% in 2007, and 50% in 2006. [178] More than 27% of teachers have a master's degree or higher and the median amount of experience in the field is 15 years. The metropolitan area has 292 schools with 172,854 students. [179]

Buffalo's magnet school system attracts students with special interests, such as science, bilingual studies, and Native American studies. Specialized facilities include the Buffalo Elementary School of Technology; the Dr Martin Luther King Jr., Multicultural Institute; the International School; the Dr. Charles R. Drew Science Magnet; BUILD Academy; Leonardo da Vinci High School; PS 32 Bennett Park Montessori; the Buffalo Academy for Visual and Performing Arts, BAVPA; the Riverside Institute of Technology; Lafayette High School/Buffalo Academy of Finance; Hutchinson Central Technical High School; Burgard Vocational High School; South Park High School; and the Emerson School of Hospitality.

Rockwell Hall, Buffalo State College Rockwell hall.JPG
Rockwell Hall, Buffalo State College

The city is home to 47 private schools and the metropolitan region has 150 institutions. Most private schools, such as Bishop Timon – St. Jude High School, Canisius High School, Mount Mercy Academy, and Nardin Academy have a Catholic affiliation. In addition, there are two Islamic schools, Darul Uloom Al-Madania and Universal School of Buffalo. There are also nonsectarian options including The Buffalo Seminary (the only private, nonsectarian, all-girls school in Western New York state), [180] Nichols School and numerous Charter Schools.

Private school tuition is approximately 40% less than Buffalo Public School's per student spending. Private schools graduate nearly 100% of students, public schools only approximately 30%.

Complementing its standard function, the Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division provides education and services to adults throughout the community. [181] In addition, the Career and Technical Education Department offers more than 20 academic programs, and is attended by about 6,000 students each year. [182]

The State University of New York (SUNY) operates three institutions within the city of Buffalo. The State University of New York at Buffalo is known as "Buffalo" or "UB" and is the largest public university in New York. [183] The University at Buffalo is the only university in Buffalo and is a nationally ranked tier 1 research university. [184] Buffalo State College and Erie Community College are a college and a community college, respectively. Additionally, the private institutions Canisius College and D'Youville College are within the city.

Infrastructure

Healthcare

Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus as seen from the Erie Basin Marina observation tower Medical Campus.jpg
Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus as seen from the Erie Basin Marina observation tower

The city is home to two private healthcare systems, which combined operate eight hospitals and countless clinics in the greater metropolitan area, as well as three public hospitals operated by Erie County and the State of New York. Oishei Children's Hospital [185] opened in November 2017 and is the only long-standing children's hospital in New York. Buffalo General Medical Center and the Gates Vascular Institute have earned top rankings in the US for their cutting-edge research and treatment into the stroke and neurological care. Erie County Medical Center has been accredited as a Level One Trauma Center and serves as the trauma and burn care center for Western New York, much of the Southern Tier, and portions of Northwestern Pennsylvania and Ontario, Canada. Over the years, Roswell Park has also become recognized as one of the United States' leading cancer treatment and research centers, and it recruits physicians and researchers from across the world to come live and work in the Buffalo area.

Transportation

Buffalo Niagara International Airport Deford airport small.jpg
Buffalo Niagara International Airport
The 1955 Yellow Book planned the three major highways that would serve the Buffalo area: Interstate 190, Interstate 290, and Interstate 90. Buffalo, New York 1955 Yellow Book.jpg
The 1955 Yellow Book planned the three major highways that would serve the Buffalo area: Interstate 190, Interstate 290, and Interstate 90.
Buffalo Metro Rail in downtown Buffalo 20150827 61 NFTA Light Rail at Fountain Plaza (21990211710).jpg
Buffalo Metro Rail in downtown Buffalo

The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) operates Buffalo Niagara International Airport, reconstructed in 1997 and located in the suburb of Cheektowaga.[ citation needed ] The airport serves Western New York and much of the Finger Lakes and Southern Tier Regions. The Buffalo Metro Rail, also operated by the NFTA, is a 6.4 miles (10.3 km) long,[ citation needed ] single line light rail system that extends from Erie Canal Harbor in downtown Buffalo to the University Heights district (specifically, the South Campus of University at Buffalo) in the city's northeastern part.[ citation needed ] The line's downtown section runs above ground and is free of charge to passengers.[ citation needed ] North of Fountain Plaza Station, at the northern end of downtown, the line moves underground until it reaches its northern terminus at University Heights. Passengers pay a fare to ride this section of the rail.[ citation needed ] Two train stations, Buffalo-Depew and Buffalo-Exchange Street, serve the city and are operated by Amtrak. Historically, the city was a major stop on through routes between Chicago and New York City through the lower Ontario peninsula. [186]

The Buffalo Outer Harbor in 1992. Northwest of the city is the Niagara River. Buffalo New York aerial view.jpg
The Buffalo Outer Harbor in 1992. Northwest of the city is the Niagara River.

Buffalo is at the Lake Erie's eastern end and serves as a playground for many personal yachts, sailboats, power boats and watercraft.[ citation needed ] The city's extensive breakwall system protects its inner and outer harbors, which are maintained at commercial navigation depths for Great Lakes freighters.[ citation needed ] A Lake Erie tributary that flows through south Buffalo is the Buffalo River and Buffalo Creek. [187]

Eight New York State highways, one three-digit Interstate Highway and one U.S. Highway traverse the city of Buffalo. New York State Route 5, commonly referred to as Main Street within the city[ citation needed ], enters through Lackawanna as a limited-access highway and intersects with Interstate 190, a north-south highway connecting Interstate 90 in the southeastern suburb of Cheektowaga with Niagara Falls. NY 354 (Clinton Street) and NY 130 (Broadway) are east to west highways connecting south and downtown Buffalo to the eastern suburbs of West Seneca and Depew. NY 265 (Delaware Avenue) and NY 266 (Niagara Street and River Road) both start in downtown Buffalo and end in the city of Tonawanda. One of three U.S. highways in Erie County, the other two being U.S. 20 (Transit Road) and U.S. 219 (Southern Expressway), U.S. 62 (Bailey Avenue) is a north to south trunk road that enters the city through Lackawanna and exits at the Amherst town border at a junction with NY 5. Within the city, the route passes by light industrial developments and high-density areas of the city. Bailey Avenue has major intersections with Interstate 190 and the Kensington Expressway.

Three major expressways serve Buffalo. The Scajaquada Expressway (NY 198) is primarily a limited access highway connecting Interstate 190 near Unity Island to New York State Route 33, which starts at the edge of downtown and the city's East Side, continues through heavily populated areas of the city, intersects with Interstate 90 in Cheektowaga and ends at the airport. The Peace Bridge is a major international crossing near the city's Black Rock district that connects Buffalo with Fort Erie and Toronto via the Queen Elizabeth Way. [188]

The city of Buffalo has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30 percent of Buffalo households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 28.2 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Buffalo averaged 1.03 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. [189]

Utilities

Buffalo's water system is operated by Veolia Water. [190] To reduce large-scale ice blockage in the Niagara River, with resultant flooding, ice damage to docks and other waterfront structures, and blockage of the water intakes for the hydro-electric power plants at Niagara Falls, the New York Power Authority and Ontario Power Generation have jointly operated the Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom since 1964.[ citation needed ] The boom is installed on December 16, or when the water temperature reaches 4 °C (39 °F), whichever happens first.[ citation needed ] The boom is opened on April 1 unless there is more than 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) of ice remaining in Eastern Lake Erie.[ citation needed ] When in place, the boom stretches 2,680 metres (8,790 ft) from the outer breakwall at Buffalo Harbor almost to the Canadian shore near the ruins of the pier at Erie Beach in Fort Erie.[ citation needed ] The boom was originally made of wooden timbers, but these have been replaced by steel pontoons. [191]

Media

A WIVB-TV truck during St. Patrick's Day WIVBTVTruckStPatDay.jpg
A WIVB-TV truck during St. Patrick's Day

Buffalo's major newspaper is The Buffalo News . Established in 1880 as the Buffalo Evening News, the newspaper has 181,540 in daily circulation and 266,123 on Sundays.[ citation needed ] With the radio stations WBEN (later WBEN-AM), WBEN-FM, and television station WBEN-TV, Buffalo's first and for several years only television station, the Buffalo Evening News dominated the local media market until 1977, when the newspaper and the stations were separated. The stations showed their affiliation with the newspaper in their call sign: WBEN. Other newspapers in the Buffalo area include Artvoice,The Public, [192] and Buffalo Business First.

According to Nielsen Media Research, the Buffalo television market is the 52nd largest in the United States as of 2013. [193]

Movies shot with significant footage of Buffalo include: Hide in Plain Sight (1980), [194] Tuck Everlasting (1981), [194] Best Friends (1982), [194] The Natural (1984), [194] Vamping (1984), [194] Canadian Bacon (1995), [194] Buffalo '66 (1998), [194] Manna from Heaven (2002), [194] Bruce Almighty (2003), [195] The Savages (2007), [194] Henry's Crime (2011), [194] Sharknado 2: The Second One (2014), [195] Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of The Shadows (2016), [196] Marshall (2016), [195] Accidental Switch (2016), and The American Side (2017). [197] Although additional movies, such as Promised Land (2012), have used Buffalo as a setting, filming often takes place in other locations such as Pittsburgh or Canada. High production costs are blamed for filmmakers shooting all or most of their Buffalo-based scenes elsewhere. [198]

Notable people

Sister cities

Buffalo has a number of sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI): [199] [200]

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Josephy, p. 189, [with the Neutrals]... " broken in 1651, with mopping up continuing for several years."
  2. Formerly known as Stadtnitski, Vollenhoven and Schimmelpennick Avenues, removed after backlash by village residents.
  3. When travelling with an ox and wagon team.
  4. Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  5. Official records for Buffalo kept January 1871 to June 1943 at downtown and at Buffalo Niagara Int'l since July 1943. For more information, see Threadex

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Niagara County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 216,469. The county seat is Lockport. The county name is from the Iroquois word Onguiaahra; meaning the strait or thunder of waters.

Fort Erie, Ontario Town in Ontario, Canada

Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. It is directly across the river from Buffalo, New York and is the site of Old Fort Erie which played a prominent role in the War of 1812.

Dunkirk, New York City in New York, United States

Dunkirk is a city in Chautauqua County, New York, in the United States. It was settled around 1805 and officially incorporated in 1880. The population was 12,563 as of the 2010 census, with an estimated population of 12,328 in 2013. Dunkirk is bordered on the north by Lake Erie. It shares a border with the village of Fredonia to the south, and with the town of Dunkirk to the east and west. Dunkirk is the westernmost city in the state of New York.

Hamburg, New York Town in New York, United States

Hamburg is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 56,936. It is named after the city of Hamburg, in Germany. The town is on the western border of the county and is south of Buffalo. Hamburg is one of the Southtowns in Erie County. The villages of Hamburg and Blasdell are in the town.

Lewiston (town), New York Town in New York, United States

Lewiston is a town in Niagara County, New York United States. The population was 16,262 at the 2010 census. The town and its contained village are named after Morgan Lewis, a governor of New York.

Mohawk River river in New York state, United States

The Mohawk River is a 149-mile-long (240 km) river in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest tributary of the Hudson River. The Mohawk flows into the Hudson in Cohoes, New York, a few miles north of the city of Albany. The river is named for the Mohawk Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy. It is a major waterway in north-central New York.

Upstate New York region of the U.S. state of New York north of the core of the New York metropolitan area

Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area. The Upstate region includes most of the state of New York, excluding New York City, the Lower Hudson Valley, and Long Island, although the precise boundary is debated. Major cities in Upstate New York include Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, and Syracuse.

Interstate 190 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway that connects I-90 in Buffalo, New York with the Canada-U.S. border near Niagara Falls. The freeway bisects downtown Buffalo before crossing Grand Island and travelling around the outskirts of Niagara Falls before crossing the Niagara River on the Queenston-Lewiston Bridge into Ontario. On the Canada side of the Canada–US border, the freeway continues as Highway 405, a short spur that connects with the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), which in turn provides a freeway connection to Toronto, Canada's largest city. The 28.34-mile-long (45.61 km) route also provides access to the QEW at the Peace Bridge between Buffalo and Fort Erie, Ontario.

Big Six Mile Creek Marina

Big Six Mile Creek Marina is a 21-acre (0.085 km2) state park and marina located on the upper Niagara River on Grand Island in Erie County, New York.

New York State Route 265 highway in New York

New York State Route 265 (NY 265) is a 19.75-mile (31.78 km) long state highway located in the western part of New York in the United States. NY 265 is a north–south route that roughly parallels the western parts of the Niagara River in Erie County and Niagara County. For much of its southern course, it is more frequently referred to by its longtime name, Military Road, which dates back to 1801 as a road to connect the city of New Amsterdam and Fort Niagara near Lake Ontario.

New York State Route 384 highway in New York

New York State Route 384 (NY 384) is a state highway in Western New York in the United States. It is a north–south route extending from the city of Buffalo, Erie County to the city of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, and is one of several routes directly connecting the two cities. The southern terminus of the route is at NY 5 in downtown Buffalo. NY 384's northern terminus is at the Rainbow Bridge in downtown Niagara Falls. Through its entire course in Erie County, it is known as Delaware Avenue for the street it follows in the city. In Niagara County, NY 384 follows the Niagara River and is named River Road and Buffalo Avenue.

History of Buffalo, New York

Buffalo is the county seat of Erie County, and the second most populous city in the U.S. state of New York, after New York City. Originating around 1789 as a small trading community inhabited by the Neutral Nation near the mouth of Buffalo Creek, the city, then a town, grew quickly after the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, with the city at its western terminus. Its position at the eastern end of Lake Erie strengthened the economy, based on grain milling and steel production along the southern shores and in nearby Lackawanna.

Eighteen Mile Creek (Erie County) river in the United States of America

Eighteen Mile Creek is a tributary of Lake Erie located in southern Erie County, New York, United States. The creek is the second largest tributary of Lake Erie in New York State.

Southtowns

The Southtowns is a region of Western New York, United States, that lies within the snowbelt or ski country and includes the southern suburbs of Buffalo, New York. This is the common name for the southern part of Erie County, New York which served as the home of United States President Millard Fillmore. The region has numerous historic landmarks, especially in Springville and East Aurora.

Transportation in Buffalo, New York

Transportation in Buffalo, New York is dominated by automobile use, but other modes of transportation exist in the city.

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Bibliography

Further reading