Stand-up comedy

Last updated
Ahmed Mamow on the stage at Late Night Fredag on Parkteatret Ahmed Mamow Parkteatret (231834).jpg
Ahmed Mamow on the stage at Late Night Fredag on Parkteatret

Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them. The performer is commonly known as a comic, stand-up comic, comedian, comedienne, stand-up comedian, or simply a stand-up. [1] Comedians give the illusion that they are dialoguing, but in actuality, they are monologuing a grouping of humorous stories, jokes and one-liners, typically called a shtick, routine, act, or set. [8] Some stand-up comedians use props, music or magic tricks [9] to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedy is stated to be the "freest form of comedy writing" that is regarded as a fictionalized "extension of" the person performing. [18]

Comedy Genre of dramatic works intended to be humorous

In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work generally intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter, especially in theatre, television, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters. The theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a relatively powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, and is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender very dramatic irony which provokes laughter.

Comedian person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh

A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh. This might take many forms including jokes, satirical observations, amusing situations, acting foolish or employing prop comedy. A comedian who addresses an audience directly is called a stand-up comedian. Other practises include the sitcom, sketch comedy and improv genres.

Dialogue Conversation between two or more people

Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative, philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato, but antecedents are also found in other traditions including Indian literature.

Contents

Overview

Bridget Christie at Parkteatret. The event is part of Crap Comedy festival 2017 and took place on 28. January 2017 in Oslo. Bridget Christie Parkteatret Crap appa Park (181801).jpg
Bridget Christie at Parkteatret. The event is part of Crap Comedy festival 2017 and took place on 28. January 2017 in Oslo.

Stand-up is often compared to jazz, poetry, songwriting, and sword making. [24] Some of the main types of humor in stand-up comedy include observational comedy, blue comedy, dark comedy, clean comedy, and cringe comedy. Alternative stand-up comedy deviates from the traditional, mainstream comedy by breaking either joke structure, performing in an untraditional scene, or breaking an audience's expectations; this includes, but is not limited to, the use of shaggy dog stories and anti-jokes.

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States. It originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms".

Poetry Form of literature

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Sword making, historically, has been the work of specialized smiths or metalworkers called bladesmiths or swordsmiths. Swords have been made of different materials over the centuries, with a variety of tools and techniques. While there are many criteria for evaluating a sword, generally the four key criteria are hardness, strength, flexibility and balance. Early swords were made of copper, which bends easily. Bronze swords were stronger; by varying the amount of tin in the alloy, a smith could make various parts of the sword harder or tougher to suit the demands of combat service. The Roman gladius was an early example of swords forged from blooms of steel.

Stand-up comedy is often performed in corporate events, comedy clubs, bars and pubs, nightclubs, neo-burlesques, colleges and theatres (audiences will give applause breaks more often in theaters [25] ). [26] Outside live performance, stand-up is often distributed commercially via television, DVD, CD and the internet. [1] [27]

A comedy club is a venue—typically a nightclub, bar, casino, or restaurant—where people watch or listen to performances, including stand-up comedians, improvisational comedians, impersonators, impressionists, magicians, ventriloquists, and other comedy acts. The term "comedy club" usually refers to venues that feature stand-up comedy, as distinguished from improvisational theatres, which host improv or sketch comedy, and variety clubs.

Bar establishment serving alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises

A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks. Bars often also sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on their premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" also refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" derives from the metal or wooden bar (barrier) that is often located along the length of the "bar".

Pub drinking establishment

A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer and cider. It is a social drinking establishment and a prominent part of British, Irish, Breton, New Zealand, South African and Australian cultures. In many places, especially in villages, a pub is the focal point of the community. In his 17th-century diary Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England".

It can take an amateur comedian about 10 years to perfect the technique needed to be a professional comedian; [28] [29] [30] this is a constant process of learning through failure. [31] [32] [33]

As the name implies, "stand-up" comedians usually perform their material while standing, though this is not mandatory. Similar acts performed while seated can be referred to as "sit-down comedy".

"Comedians are more likely to exhibit psychotic[-like] traits" than the average person; most comedians display "magical thinking" and are "introverted[ly]" "anhedoni[c]". [34]

Anhedonia is a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure. While earlier definitions of anhedonia emphasized the inability to experience pleasure, anhedonia is used by researchers to refer to reduced motivation, reduced anticipatory pleasure (wanting), reduced consummatory pleasure (liking), and deficits in reinforcement learning. In the DSM-5, anhedonia is a component of depressive disorders, substance related disorders, psychotic disorders, and personality disorders, where it is defined by either a reduced ability to experience pleasure, or a diminished interest in engaging in pleasurable activities. While the ICD-10 does not explicitly mention anhedonia, the depressive symptom analogous to anhedonia as described in the DSM-V is a loss of interest or pleasure.

Stand-up comedy show

Tiffany Haddish, comedian, tells jokes to audience members during a performance October 21, 2013, at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey. Tiffany Haddish at Incirlik.jpg
Tiffany Haddish, comedian, tells jokes to audience members during a performance October 21, 2013, at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey.

In stand-up comedy, the feedback of the audience is instant and crucial for the comedian's act, even from the moment they enter the venue. [35] Audiences expect a stand-up comedian to provide a constant stream of laughs, calculated at four to six laughs per minute, [40] and a performer is always under pressure to deliver, especially the first two minutes. [45]

Basic format

A stand-up comedy show is rarely one comedian. It is usually a multi-person, showcase format, often with a traditional opener, feature performer, and headliner. [46] A traditional format typically features an opening act known as a host, compère (UK), [47] master of ceremonies (MC/emcee), or simply "opener" who, for 10–12 minutes, [48] usually warms up the crowd, interacts with audience members, makes announcements, and then introduces the other performers; [49] this is followed by a "middle"/"feature" act that lasts 15–20 minutes but is expected to have "30 minutes of solid material"; the feature act is followed by the headliner, who performs for "an hour." [50] The second definition of an opener is applied when the opening act of a traveling comedian may perform a 25-minute set (the opener doubles as a feature). [51] The "showcase" format consists of several acts who perform for roughly equal lengths of time, typical in smaller clubs such as the Comedy Cellar, or Jongleurs, or at large events where the billing of several names allows for a larger venue than the individual comedians could draw. A showcase format may still feature an MC.

Open mic

Many smaller venues hold open mic events, where anyone can take the stage and perform for the audience. This offers an opportunity for amateur performers to hone their craft and perhaps to break into the profession, or for established professionals to work on their material. [52] Industry scouts will sometimes go to watch open mics. [53] Breaking into the business requires "10 minute[s]" of "A" material. Roadhouses (remote clubs) start booking people for "20 minutes of 'A' material". [50] "A" material means getting a big laugh at least "75% of the time". [54]

Bringer shows

"Bringer shows" are open mics that require amateur performers to bring a specified number of paying guests to receive stage time. Some view this as exploitation, while others disagree. [55] [56] The guests usually have to pay a cover charge and there is often a minimum number of drinks that must be ordered. These shows usually have a "showcase" format. Different comedy clubs have different requirements for their bringer shows. Gotham Comedy Club in New York City, for example, usually has ten-person bringers, while Broadway Comedy Club in New York City usually has six-person bringers. [57] [58] In the '90s, the New York Comedy Club had pre-shows that were bringer shows; they also had audition scams with an "accelerated pre-show program." [59]

Guest set

This is an unpaid, five-to-ten-minute time slot (during the emcee's time slot of a professional show) that is essentially an audition to get booked for paid gigs. [60]

The comedian's set

Stand-up joke

In stand-up comedy, a "canned" joke [61] [62] is made of a "premise...point of view" and "twist" ending. [63] [64] A joke contains the least amount of information necessary to be conveyed, understood, and laughed at; [65] [66] the setup contains the information needed by the audience in order to understand the punchline. [67] [68] [69] Most of stand-up comedy's jokes are the juxtaposition of two incongruous things. [75] According to the founding editor of The Onion, there are eleven types of jokes. [76] Stand-up comedians will normally deliver their jokes in the form of a typical joke structure, using comedic timing to deliver the setup and then the punch line. [77] Stand-ups will normally frame their stories as having happened "recently." [78] The comedian's delivery of a joke—the pause, inflection, "ener[gy]," and look—is "everything". [79] Comedians often include taglines (dependent punchlines that follow another punchline) [80] and toppers (independent afterthoughts that follow a punchline). [81] [82] Some sources may use tags, toppers, and afterthoughts as synonyms. [83]

A jokoid is a placeholder joke, which will eventually be superseded by a funnier joke. [84] Stock jokes are similar to jokoids (as placeholders) and are hack jokes that are for "specific situations". [85] A paraprosdokian is a popular method that is used by comedians, creating a surprising punchline that causes the listener to reinterpret the setup. Stand-ups will often use the rule of three. [86] [87] [88] [89] Comedians will normally include stylistic and comedic devices, such as tropes, idioms, stop consonants, and wordplay. [90] [91]

A comedian's ideas and jokes will fail nine times out of ten; this may require a comedian to write hundreds of jokes to achieve enough successful ones to fill a set. [92] [93] [94]

The set

A traditional set is made of jokes (setup and punchline), bits (a joke or "3 or 4 jokes"), and chunks (multiple bits linked by a topic that may last "10-15 minutes"). [95] [96] [97] Long bits must have the biggest laugh at their endings. [98] Once a setup is established for a bit, the proceeding "jokes" should get shorter and shorter. [99] A segue is the link between jokes. [100] [101] A callback is a reference to a previous joke. [100] [102] [103] Bombing refers to when a comedian has failed to get an intended laugh. [104] A stand-up comedian uses a persona or character to deliver their jokes. [105] The quality of a comedian's material is more important than their persona, [106] [107] unless they are well known. [108] Other sources say that personality trumps material. [109] [110] A good comedian will create a tendentious-like tension that the audience releases with laughter. [115] This is known as a "relief/release" laugh. [116] A comedian's stand-up persona/voice consists of the type of material they perform, the format of the material, the aggregate set, the comedian's rapport with the audience, and the comedian's "own identity." [117] [118]

Crowd work

When a set is consistently bombing, most comedians will perform "crowd work" by communicating with audience members to save face; much of crowd work is prewritten with added improvisation. [119] Some comedians will use small talk that directs audience members to answer "a question" that the comedian "[has] a topper" for. Other comedians will become more intimate with their questions until they get multiple big laughs, before moving on. [120] The result of crowd work is often an inside joke.

Tight five

A "tight five" is a five-minute stand-up routine that is well-rehearsed and consists of a stand-up comedian’s best material that reliably gets laughs. [121] It is often used for auditions or delivered when audience response is minimal. [122] [123] [124] A tight five is the stepping stone to getting a paid spot. [125] [126]

Memory techniques

Comics memorize their jokes through the use of on-stage practice/blocking. [127] Some comedians employ a mnemonic device called the method of loci (memory palace technique) to remember their jokes. [128] [129] Some write their jokes over and over, while others have a set list in front of them; for professionals, this may be on cue cards or a stage monitor. [130] [131]

Terminology

Heckler

In stand-up, a heckler is a person who interrupts a comedian's set. Comedians will often have a repertoire of comebacks for hecklers. [132] Comedians will sometimes get into physical altercations with hecklers. [133]

Punching down

The term "punching down" is sometimes used to describe jokes that are made at the expense of disenfranchised groups or their members. It carries with it the assumption that comedy should be directed at the powerful rather than the afflicted. [134]

Pejorative terms

Claiming one can smell the road on a comic is a pejorative phrase for a comedian who has compromised their own originality to get laughs while travelling. [135] [136] [137] Comedian Seth Meyers coined the term "clapter": when an audience cheers or applauds for a joke that they agree with but that is not funny enough to get a laugh. [138] [139]

Hack

A hack is a pejorative term for a comedian with rushed, unoriginal, low-quality, or cliché material. [145] One proposed amelioration to hackneyed material is an essay by George Orwell called "Politics and the English Language: The Six Rules". [146]

Joke theft

When someone is accused of stealing a joke, the accused's defense is sometimes cryptomnesia [147] or parallel thinking. [148]

Warm-up comedian

A warm-up act (crowd warmer) performs at comedy clubs, before the filming of a television comedy in front of a studio audience, or the beginning of music concerts to prepare the crowd for the show or main act.

History of Europe

United Kingdom

Bronze statue of Britain's Max Miller Max Miller statue.JPG
Bronze statue of Britain's Max Miller

Stand-up comedy in the United Kingdom began in the music halls of the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable "front-cloth comics" who rose through the 20th century variety theatre circuit were Morecambe and Wise, Arthur Askey, Ken Dodd and Max Miller. [149] [150] [151] [152] Until 1968, the heavy censorship regime of the Lord Chamberlain's Office required all comedians to submit their acts for censorship. The act would be returned with unacceptable sections underlined in blue pencil (possibly giving rise to the term "blue" for a comedian whose act is considered bawdy or smutty). The comedian was then obliged not to deviate from the act in its edited form. [1]

The rise of the post-war comedians coincided with the rise of television and radio, and the traditional music hall circuit suffered greatly as a result.[ citation needed ] By the 1970s, music hall entertainment was virtually dead. Alternative circuits had evolved, such as working men's clubs. [1] Some of the more successful comedians on the working men's club circuit—including Bernard Manning, Bobby Thompson, Frank Carson and Stan Boardman—eventually made their way to television via such shows as The Wheeltappers and Shunters Social Club . The "alternative" comedy scene also began to evolve. Some of the earliest successes came from folk clubs, where performers such as Billy Connolly, Mike Harding and Jasper Carrott started as relatively straight musical acts whose between-song banter developed into complete comedy routines. The 1960s had also seen the satire boom, including the creation of the club, the Establishment, which, amongst other things, gave British audiences their first taste of extreme American stand-up comedy from Lenny Bruce. [153] Victoria Wood launched her stand-up career in the early 1980s, which included observational conversation mixed with comedy songs. Wood was to become one of the country's most successful comedians, in 2001 selling out the Royal Albert Hall for 15 nights in a row.[ citation needed ]

In 1979, the first American-style stand-up comedy club, the Comedy Store was opened in London by Peter Rosengard, where many alternative comedy stars of the 1980s, such as Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders, Alexei Sayle, Craig Ferguson, Rik Mayall and Ade Edmondson began their careers. [154] The stand-up comedy circuit rapidly expanded from London across the UK. The present British stand-up comedy circuit arose from the 'alternative' comedy revolution of the 1980s, with political and observational humor being the prominent styles to flourish. In 1983, young drama teacher Maria Kempinska created Jongleurs Comedy Clubs, now the largest stand-up comedy chain in Europe. Stand up comedy is believed to have been performed originally as a one-man show. Lately, this type of show started to involve a group of young comedians, especially in Europe.[ citation needed ]

Bob Hope, the United States of America's most famous stand-up comedian during World War II Hope WWII 44.jpg
Bob Hope, the United States of America's most famous stand-up comedian during World War II

Spain

Although the antecedents of this genre can be traced back to the monologues of Miguel Gila in the 1950s, the rise of live comedy in Spain took a long time in comparison with the American continent. The first generalized relationship with this comic genre occurred in 1999 with the creation of the Paramount Comedy channel, which included the New Comics program as one of its flagship programs, where monologuists such as Ángel Martín, José Juan Vaquero, David Broncano, and Joaquín Reyes stood out. Also, in 1999 began the journey of the program The club of comedy, an open adaptation of the popular comic format. In its first stage (1999-2005), it underwent several chain changes and released comedians like Luis Piedrahita, Alexis Valdes or Goyo Jiménez. In its new stage, starting in 2011 in La Sexta and presented by Eva Hache, it tries to start in the genre of comic monologue media characters from different artistic fields such as: Imanol Arias, José Luis Gil, Isabel Ordaz and Santiago Segura. Special mention deserves the Buenafuente program, started in 2005. The presenter, Andreu Buenafuente, made an initial monologue of about 9 to 11 minutes where he links current issues with everyday humorous situations. This became the most famous part of the program and made him one of the most recognized comedians in Spain, for his connection with the public and his ability to improvise. On the other hand, the comedian Ignatius Farray became one of the most representative icons of this genre today.

History of the Americas

United States

George Carlin in 1969 George Carlin 1969.JPG
George Carlin in 1969

Stand-up comedy in the United States got its start from the stump-speech monologues of minstrel shows in the early 19th century. [155] It also has roots in various traditions of popular entertainment of the late 19th century, including vaudeville, English music hall, burlesque or early variety shows, humorist monologues by personalities such as Mark Twain, and circus clown antics. [156] With the turn of the century and ubiquitousness of urban and industrial living, the structure, pacing and timing, and material of American humor began to change. Comedians of this era often depended on fast-paced joke delivery, slapstick, outrageous or lewd innuendo, and donned an ethnic persona—African, Scottish, German, Jewish—and built a routine based on popular stereotypes. Jokes were generally broad and material was widely shared, or in some cases, stolen. Industrialized American audiences sought entertainment as a way to escape and confront city living.

The founders of modern American stand-up comedy include Moms Mabley, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, George Burns, Fred Allen, Milton Berle and Frank Fay all of whom came from vaudeville or the Chitlin' Circuit. [157] They spoke directly to the audience as themselves, in front of the curtain, known as performing "in one". Frank Fay gained acclaim as a "master of ceremonies" at New York's Palace Theater. Vaudevillian Charlie Case (also spelled Charley Case) is often credited with the first form of stand-up comedy, performing humorous monologues without props or costumes. This had not been done before during a vaudeville show.

Nightclubs and resorts became the new breeding ground for stand-ups. Acts such as Alan King, Danny Thomas, Martin and Lewis, Don Rickles, Joan Rivers and Jack E. Leonard flourished in these new arenas.

In the 1950s and into the 1960s, stand-ups such as Mort Sahl began developing their acts in small folk clubs like San Francisco's hungry i (owned by impresario Enrico Banducci and origin of the ubiquitous "brick wall" behind comedians) [158] or New York's Bitter End. These comedians added an element of social satire and expanded both the language and boundaries of stand-up, venturing into politics, race relations, and sexual humor. Lenny Bruce became known as 'the' obscene comic when he used language that usually led to his arrest. [159] After Lenny Bruce, arrests for obscene language on stage nearly disappeared until George Carlin was arrested on 21 July 1972 at Milwaukee's Summerfest after performing the routine "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television" [160] (the case against Carlin was eventually dismissed).

Other notable comics from this era include Woody Allen, Shelley Berman, Phyllis Diller, and Bob Newhart. Some Black American comedians such as Redd Foxx, George Kirby, Bill Cosby, and Dick Gregory began to cross over to white audiences during this time.

In the 1970s, several entertainers became major stars based on stand-up comedy performances. Richard Pryor and George Carlin followed Lenny Bruce's acerbic style to become icons. Stand-up expanded from clubs, resorts, and coffee houses into major concerts in sports arenas and amphitheaters. Steve Martin and Bill Cosby had levels of success with gentler comic routines. The older style of stand-up comedy (no social satire) was kept alive by Rodney Dangerfield and Buddy Hackett, who enjoyed revived careers late in life. Don Rickles, whose legendary style of relentless merciless attacks on both fellow performers and audience members alike kept him a fixture on TV and in Vegas from the 1960s all the way to the 2000s, when he appeared in the wildly popular Pixar Toy Story films as Mr Potato Head, who just happened to share Don's grouchy onstage mannerisms. Television programs such as Saturday Night Live and The Tonight Show helped publicize the careers of other stand-up comedians, including Janeane Garofalo, Bill Maher and Jay Leno.

From the 1970s to the '90s, different styles of comedy began to emerge, from the madcap stylings of Robin Williams, to the odd observations of Jerry Seinfeld and Ellen DeGeneres, the ironic musings of Steven Wright, to the mimicry of Whoopi Goldberg, and Eddie Murphy. These comedians would serve to influence the next generation of comedians.

Mexico

In terms of live comedy in Mexico, the predecessors of this comic style are:

The new generation of comedians decided to use their own lives as the theme of their comedy, imitating the American style:

History of Asia

India

Kapil Sharma an Indian stand up comedian, known for comedy nights with Kapil Kapil sharma.jpg
Kapil Sharma an Indian stand up comedian, known for comedy nights with Kapil

Modern stand-up comedy in India is a young artform, however Chakyar koothu was prominent in Trivandrum and southern Kerala during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had all the attributes of modern stand-up comedy and is widely considered to be the oldest known staged comedy act anywhere in the world.[ citation needed ]

Even though the history of live comedy performances in India traces its early roots back to 1980s, for a long time stand-up comedians were only given supporting/filler acts in various performances (dance or music).[ citation needed ]

In 1986, India's Johnny Lever performed in a charity show called "Hope 86", in front of the whole Hindi film industry as a filler and was loved by audience. His talent was recognized, and he would later be described as "the iconic comedian of his generation". [161] [162]

It was not until 2005, when the TV show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge garnered huge popularity and stand-up comedy in itself started getting recognised. Thus, a lot more comedians became popular and started performing various live and TV shows. The demand for comedy content continues to increase. Some popular comedians around 2005-2008 include Raju Srivastav, Kapil Sharma, Sunil Pal etc. Most of them performed their acts in Hindi.

New generation stand up comedian Raju Srivastav Raju-Srivastav.jpg
New generation stand up comedian Raju Srivastav

Raju Srivastav first appeared on the comedy talent show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge . He finished as second runner-up and then took part in the spin-off, The Great Indian Laughter Challenge — Champions, in which he won the title of "The King of Comedy". [163] Srivastava was a participant on season 3 of Bigg Boss . He has participated in the comedy show Comedy Ka Maha Muqabla. [164]

Kapil Sharma is ranked no. 3 at the most admired Indian personality list by The Economic Times in 2015. [165] Currently he is hosting the most popular Indian comedy show "The Kapil Sharma Show" after "Comedy Nights with Kapil". [166] Sharma had been working in the comedy show Hasde Hasande Raho on MH One, until he got his first break in The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, one of the nine reality television shows he has won. He became the winner of the show in 2007 for which he won 10 lakhs as prize money. [166]

Sharma participated in Sony Entertainment Television’s Comedy Circus . [167] He became the winner of all six seasons of "Comedy Circus" he participated in. [168] He has hosted dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa Season 6 [169] and also hosted comedy show Chhote Miyan . [170] [171] Sharma also participated in the show Ustaadon Ka Ustaad .

Around the 2008-2009, two other popular comedians Papa CJ and Vir Das returned to India and started making their marks on Indian comedy scene. Both of them were exposed to UK and US comedy routines and they performed mostly in English. At the same time, a few more youngsters got inspired and started taking plunge into stand-up comedy.

Since 2011, the stand-up comedy has been getting substantial appreciation.[ citation needed ] The Comedy Store from London opened an outlet in Mumbai's Palladium Mall where people would regularly enjoy comedians from UK. The Comedy Story also supported local comedians and helped them grow. This outlet eventually become Canvas Laugh Club in Mumbai.

Around 2011, people started organizing different comedy open mic events in Mumbai, Delhi (and Gurgaon), Bangalore. All of this happened in association with growth of a counterculture in Indian cities which catered to the appetite of younger generations for live events for comedy, poetry, storytelling, and music. Various stand up events were covered by popular news channels such NDTV / Aajtak etc. and were appreciated by millions of viewers.

As a result of these developments, plus the increasing penetration of YouTube (along with Internet/World Wide Web), Indian stand up comedy started reaching further masses. While the established comedians such as Vir Das, Papa CJ were independently growing through various corporate / international performances, other comedians such as Vipul Goyal, Biswa Kalyan Rath, Kenny Sebastian, Kanan Gill grew popular through YouTube videos. The industry, still in its early stages, now sees a lot more influx of aspiring comedians as it transforms the ecosystem around it. Aasharya,Dores,Lekman grew from Nepal starting comedy from class.[ citation needed ]

Training and improvisation

Mark Twain and Jerry Seinfeld, both American masters of stand-up comedy, believe in practice and rehearsal. Twain prepared, rehearsed, revised and adapted his material for his popular humorous presentations. [172] Seinfeld says: "Most contemporary comedy is profane, outraged and disposable" but his philosophy is to give the best that he has. [173]

Comedy schools work with new comics to workshop material, assisting comics work to overcome stage fright and better their writing skills by helping their classmates improve their sets. [174] Comedy schools offer improvisation classes for comics so that they are more comfortable straying from written material such as when dealing with hecklers. Improvisation is also necessary when working among crowd and interacting with the audience.

Festivals

Janeane Garofalo performing at "Sweet" in New York City Janeane Garofalo Jan 15, 2008.jpg
Janeane Garofalo performing at "Sweet" in New York City

Stand-up comedy is the focus of four major international festivals: the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Edinburgh, Scotland; Just for Laughs in Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario in Canada; HBO's U.S. Comedy Arts Festival in Aspen, CO, and the Melbourne International Comedy Festival in Melbourne, Australia. [175] A number of other festivals operate around the world, including The Comedy Festival in Las Vegas, the Vancouver Comedy Festival, the New York Comedy Festival, the Boston Comedy and Film Festival, the New York Underground Film Festival, the Sydney Comedy Festival, and the Cat Laughs Comedy Festival in Kilkenny, Ireland. Radio hosts Opie and Anthony also produce a comedy tour called Opie and Anthony's Traveling Virus Comedy Tour, featuring their own co-host, Jim Norton as well as several other stand-up comedians regularly featured on their radio show. There is also a festival in Hong Kong called the HK International Comedy Festival.

The festival format attracts attention from the media to the art of stand-up and is often used as scouting and proving ground by industry professionals seeking new comedy talent. [176] [177]

Stand-up circuits

Defunct American circuits

Theatre Owners Booking Association (T.O.B.A.)

This was black vaudeville that predated the Chitlin' Circuit.

Chitlin' Circuit

The Chitlin' Circuit was a "collection of all-black venues, clubs, [and] theaters". [178] [179] The Apollo Theater was the performers' most sought after venue. [180] Notable performers for this circuit include Richard Pryor, Moms Mabley, Dick Gregory, Redd Foxx, and the duo Tim and Tom. [181]

Borscht Belt

Also called the Jewish Alps, they hired performers that included stand-up comedians. [182] The Catskill Mountains are depicted in The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel . [182]

Playboy comedy circuit

Before the advent of full-fledged American comedy clubs, Hugh Hefner created a chain of Playboy Clubs and employed people like Dick Gregory, [183] Mort Sahl, Steve Martin, and Lenny Bruce. [182] [184] [185] [186] [187] Hugh Hefner ok'd Burns and Carlin at the Playboy Club Tonight, which was not recorded in a Playboy club.

Contemporary circuits

Open mic circuit (UK)

The open mic scene is referred to as the open mic circuit in the United Kingdom. [188] [189]

College circuit

There are two associations that lead the college circuit: the Association for the Promotion of Campus Activites (APCA) (which has 200 member colleges) and the National Association for Campus Activities (NACA) (which has 1,100 member colleges). [190]

Comedians in the USA and Canada audition for NACA to hundreds of college and university bookers, [191] first with a 90-second video submission, and then a ten-minute, in-person audtion to perform hour-long sets. [192]

Sets must not trigger students by "punching down," contain any denigrating material, [193] or contain dark or blue humor; it must be "intelligent humor" [192] and contain subjects that college-aged adults express contempt for. [194]

Higher education, that was once seen as the bastion of free speech is now criticized by comedians for being too PC (politically correct). [191] Many famous comedians no longer desire to perform at colleges and universities. [195] [196] [197] [198]

Cruise circuit (CLIA)

The Cruise Lines International Association contains 60 cruise liners. Comedians work an average of two days per week; this circuit is said to not aid in moving up in the field. [199] Cruiseliners have both clean comedy and blue comedy at different times during the day, but opinionated political material is frowned upon. [200] Hecklers are tolerated more in a cruise setting. [201]

Corporate circuit

Corporate circuit comedy must be clean comedy that neither swears nor references sexual acts; [202] church (or “squeaky clean”) comedy is preferred; two celebrities that perform this type of comedy are Jim Gaffigan and Brian Regan. [203] In a lecture given at the University of Oxford, Stewart Lee stated that his character is unable to do corporate gigs, because he takes on the role of being superior to his audience. [204]

Christian comedy circuit (CCA)

The Christian Comedy Association started in the 90s, in an attempt to use comedy as a "spiritual vehicle." [205] Comedian Doug Stanhope has criticized Christian comedy. [205] Heckling is almost nonexistent in the church circuit. [205] Christian comedy is clean comedy that claims to help one's soul. [206]

Salary

Many comedians have day jobs. [207] In a comedian's first five years, they will often lose money doing comedy. [208] [209] [210] Comedians will sometimes be paid for their performances with alcoholic beverages. [211] A stand-up's first comedy job will often be emceeing. [212] While it can take around a decade to make a living at comedy, [210] unknown comedians may achieve great financial success. [213]

As of 2015, hosts and MCs are paid $0-$150, depending on location and the time of week (emcees average $25 [214] ); showcase spots get $10-$75; features get approximately $300-$600; a headliner with no following gets $150-$1500, depending on many factors; headliners with a following or TV credits can make $1,500-$10,000 per show. [215] [216] [217] The headliner makes "10 times" more money than the feature act. [50] Famous headliners get paid from "door deals," or a percentage of the revenue, based on the number of seats sold; these comics rely on their notoriety to fill seats, which makes them more money than headliners with no following. [218] [219] Comics will sell merchandise after their shows; this will make up for other expenses, like traveling. [220]

Mark Normand states that a set on Conan will pay "a couple grand" for five minutes. [221] In 2012, Comedy Central routinely offered $15,000 for a half-hour special. [222] As of 2015, Comedy Central will pay comedians about $20,000 for a thirty-minute set; an hour, Comedy Central special can be up to $150,000; [223] as of 2018, Netflix will pay comedians $26,000+ for a fifteen-minute set; Netflix pays celebrity-comedians different amounts from one another. [224] [225]

The cruise-circuit comedian can make up to $10,000 per week, [199] some $85,000 per year; and, a college-circuit comedian can make six figures per year or thousands of dollars per gig. [222] [226] [227] Christian circuit comedy headliners make $1,500-$2,500 per show. [228] Although one source states that newer comics on the national (L.A.) circuit make $1,250-$2,500 per week, another source claims that this is very innacurate, and the amount of money one makes is closer to $20 for a spot. [229] [230]

Famous comedians may pay lesser comedians thousands of dollars for jokes and hire them on as writers, [231] [232] but many famous comedians do not reveal this, as it is considered a taboo to admit purchasing material for stand-up comedy sets. [233] Comedians may knowingly sell plagiarized jokes. [234]

Other media

Many of the earliest vaudeville-era stand-ups gained their greater recognition on radio. They often opened their programs with topical monologues, characterized by ad-libs and discussions about anything from the latest films to a missed birthday. Each program tended to be divided into the opening monologue, musical number, followed by a skit or story routine. A "feud" between Fred Allen and Jack Benny was used as comic material for nearly a decade.

HBO presented comedians uncensored for the first time, beginning with Robert Klein in 1975, and was instrumental in reaching larger audiences. George Carlin was a perennial favorite, who appeared in 14 HBO comedy specials.

Continuing that tradition, most modern stand-up comedians use television or motion pictures to reach a level of success and recognition unattainable in the comedy-club circuit alone.

Late-night talk shows and award show ceremonies are commonly hosted by comedians, delivering monologues similar to stand-up.

Since the mid-2000s, online video-sharing sites such as YouTube have also provided a venue for stand-up comedians, and many comedians' performances can be viewed online. [235]

An Amazon TV show, The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, depicts the fictional life of a woman comedian, set in the late 1950s. She often interacts with Lenny Bruce.

List of comedians

Other types of stand-up

See also

Related Research Articles

Bill Hicks American comedian

William Melvin Hicks was an American stand-up comedian, social critic, satirist and musician. His material—encompassing a wide range of social issues including religion, politics, and philosophy—was controversial and often steeped in dark comedy.

Phyllis Diller American actress and stand-up comedianne

Phyllis Ada Diller was an American actress and stand-up comedian, best known for her eccentric stage persona, her self-deprecating humor, her wild hair and clothes, and her exaggerated, cackling laugh.

Heckler verbal harasser

A heckler is a person who harasses and tries to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes. Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or to interrupt set-piece speeches, with the intent of disturbing performers and/or participants.

Dane Cook American actor and comedian

Dane Jeffrey Cook is an American stand-up comedian and film actor. He has released five comedy albums: Harmful If Swallowed; Retaliation; Vicious Circle; Rough Around The Edges: Live From Madison Square Garden; and Isolated Incident. In 2006, Retaliation became the highest charting comedy album in 28 years and went platinum. He performed an HBO special in the Fall of 2006, Vicious Circle, a straight-to-DVD special titled Rough Around The Edges, and a Comedy Central special in 2009 titled Isolated Incident. He is known for his use of observational, often vulgar, and sometimes dark comedy.

Open mic Live show at a variety of different clubs

An open mic or open mike is a live show at a coffeehouse, nightclub, comedy club, strip club, institution or pub at which audience members who are amateur performers or professionals who want to try out new material or plug an upcoming show are given the opportunity to perform onstage. Typically, as the name suggests, the performer is provided with a microphone which is plugged into a PA system, to make the individual's performance loud enough for the audience to hear. Often the performers sign up in advance for a time slot with the host or master of ceremonies, typically an experienced performer or the venue manager or owner. The master of ceremonies may screen potential candidates for suitability for the venue and give individuals a time to perform in the show. These events are focused on performance arts like poetry and spoken word, music, and comedy. Less commonly, small groups, such as a small rock band duo/trio or a comedy duo may appear. Group performances are uncommon, because of the space and the logistics of loading in and soundchecking such a group. In strip club terms, amateur night is a contest for everyday women and men who compete for a cash prize by taking their clothes off just like everyday strippers.

Jim Gaffigan American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and producer

James Christopher Gaffigan is an American stand-up comedian, actor, writer, and producer. He was raised in Chesterton, Indiana. His material is often about fatherhood, observations, laziness, and food. He is also regarded as a "clean" comic, using little profanity in his routines. He has had several successful comedy specials, including Mr. Universe,Obsessed, and Cinco, all three of which received Grammy nominations. His memoir, Dad Is Fat (2013) and his most recent book, Food: A Love Story (2014), are both published by Crown Publishers. He co-created and starred in a TV Land television series based on his life called The Jim Gaffigan Show.

Carlos Mencia American stand-up comedian

Ned Arnel Mencia, known professionally as Carlos Mencia is a Honduran-born American comedian, writer, and actor. His style of comedy is often political and involves issues of race, culture, criminal justice, and social class. He is best known as the host of the Comedy Central show Mind of Mencia which produced four seasons before being cancelled in 2008. Around this time, Mencia received several accusations of plagiarism and joke-stealing in his stand-up routines.

Stephen K. Amos English comedian

Stephen Kehinde Amos is a British stand-up comedian and television personality. A regular on the international comedy circuit, he is known for including his audience members during his shows. He began his career as a compere at the Big Fish comedy clubs in South London, and has been nominated for Chortle's Best Compere Award three times in 2004, 2007 and 2008.

Joke theft is the act of performing and taking credit for comic material written by another person without their consent. This is a form of plagiarism and can, in some cases, be copyright infringement.

Tommy Moore is an American comedian, clown, and motivational speaker versed in the styles of vaudeville and Catskill comedy. His act is filled with classic jokes, original material, props, costumes, improv, and misguided magic, drawing heavily on audience participation. Billed as The Professor of Fun, he has been called the "man who put the FUN back in Funny".

Act Your Age is a panel game on BBC Radio 4 hosted by Simon Mayo. The series, created by Ashley Blaker and Bill Matthews, was first broadcast on 27 November 2008. The show features three teams of stand-up comedians from different generations: "The Up-And-Comers", featuring younger comedians, captained by Jon Richardson; "The Current Crop", featuring comedians popular at the moment, captained by Lucy Porter; and "The Old Guard", featuring older, veteran comics, captained by Roy Walker,. Most critics disliked the show. The readers of the British Comedy Guide went as far as voting it the "Worst British Radio Panel Show / Satire 2008".

Daniel Tosh American stand-up comedian and television host

Daniel Dwight Tosh is an American comedian, television host, actor, writer, and executive producer. He is known for his deliberately offensive and controversial style of black comedy, as the host of the Comedy Central television show Tosh.0, and as the star of stand-up comedy tours and specials.

Prince Abdi is a British stand-up comedian and actor.

Aditi Mittal is an Indian stand-up comedian, actress,and writer. One of the first women to do stand-up comedy in India, Mittal has been rated amongst India’s top 10 stand-up comedians by The Times of India. CNNIBN.com named her as one of the top 30 "witty, intelligent and incredibly funny" Indian women to follow on Twitter. Mittal has written columns and articles in Grazia Men magazine, DNA, Firstpost.com and Financial Times.

Ismo Leikola Finnish comedian

Ismo Leikola is a Finnish stand-up comedian.

Joke Thieves is a conceptual stand-up comedy show format created and hosted by the British comedian Will Mars. It was first staged at the London comedy club Downstairs at the King's Head in June 2013. The show later debuted at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe that year, drawing capacity crowds nightly, and again at the 2014 and 2015 festivals. Joke Thieves has since toured internationally, featuring a changing line-up of established stand-up comics, character comedians and occasional sketch groups. After a couple of years of one off performances, the Sketch group version of the show enjoyed its first full run at the Edinburgh Fringe in 2015.

“Comic Perversion” is the fifteenth episode of the fifteenth season of the American police procedural-legal drama Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. In the episode, a comedian, who makes jokes about gang rape to his audiences, is put on trial after it emerges that he has raped a young woman. Towards the end of the episode, Chicago P.D. character Erin Lindsay visits the Manhattan Special Victims Unit to obtain information regarding rapes that are occurring in Chicago. This episode continued in Chicago P.D. episode "Conventions".

Clean comedy is a comedy genre that is generally free of ribaldry: racism, rape jokes, pejoratives, profanity, obscenity, incest, illicit drugs, off-color humor, toilet humor, explicitly sexual content, and similarly objectionable material. Comedians may try to circumvent clean-comedy restrictions by using innuendos, euphemisms, doublespeak, double entendres, and gender-neutral language. Clean comedy is not necessarily unprovocative.

Adrianne Tolsch was an American comedian. She was long associated with the Catch a Rising Star comedy club in New York City, as a performer, club manager and the club's first woman emcee. She also performed on Broadway and in cabaret shows and was a graphic artist. She was married to fellow comedian Bill Scheft.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Fisher, J Tommy Cooper: Always Leave Them Laughing ISBN   978-0-00-721511-9
  2. Wayne Federman (9 July 2019). "S2 Ep. 06: Meltdown". The History of Standup (Podcast). Dana Gould. The Podglomerate. Event occurs at 21:40-21:54. Retrieved 27 August 2019. A low ceiling and proximity to the stage is important because standup comedy is not a performance. It is a conversation in which the comedian does all of the talking.
  3. Morris, Andrea (26 July 2018). "A Robot Stand-Up Comedian Learns The Nuts And Bolts Of Comedy". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019. [A lot of] stand-up comedy…as a general art form…is pre-scripted
  4. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 16. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Jerry Seinfeld explains: ‘Comedy is a dialogue, not a monologue—that’s what makes an act click. The laughter becomes the audience’s part, and the comedian responds’
  5. Stewart Lee (3 July 2013). On Not Writing (Lecture) (YouTube). St Edmund Hall: University of Oxford. Event occurs at 48:54-48:58. Retrieved 13 February 2019. On the whole, you have to give the illusion that it’s a dialogue
  6. Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 190. ISBN   0-325-00179-0.
  7. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 90. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. A comic's material about his life may have some connection to reality, but basically an act is just that, an act—it’s a fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps, more relevant to people’s lives.
  8. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]
  9. Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. pp. 40–42. ISBN   978-1-4165-5364-9. I was demonstrating tricks eight to twelve hours a day
  10. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Jerry Seinfeld. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 199. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. That’s the goal—to become yourself.
  11. Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 12. ISBN   1-59257-231-6.
  12. Munro, David (2018). "The Art of the Joke". CRAFTSMANSHIP Quarterly: The Architecture of Excellence. The Craftsmanship Initiative. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  13. Evans, Bradford (7 August 2012). "Stand-Up Comedians and Their Alternate On-Stage Personas". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  14. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 90–91. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. [A stand-up’s] act [is a] fictionalized account with a few actual facts thrown in to make the act believable and, perhaps more relevant to people’s lives...Every stand-up goes onstage as a character to some extent. Some may adopt a persona that’s very similar to their own personality, but it’s still a separate entity...even observational comics...use truth...as a foundation on which to build jokes by taking the truth to its farthest [sic] extreme.
  15. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 262. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. (loosely) autobiographical comedy is the dominant form of stand-up today.
  16. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Gary Shandling. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 209. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. I [Gary Shandling] think you can only be on stage what you are in real life.
  17. Katzif, Mike (16 November 2018). "Mo Amer: Working The Classroom Comedy Circuit". NPR. Retrieved 11 September 2019. [I]f you're not real…people will sniff that out.
  18. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]
  19. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Roseanne Barr. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. pp. 190–191. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. I’ve [Roseanne Barr] always thought that comedy was about music and jazz…I used to think of it like the clarinet. I worked really hard to hear the music in my comedy.
  20. George Carlin, Charlie Rose (26 March 1996). George Carlin (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 7:43-8:23. Retrieved 1 February 2019. [Stand-up] is the only art-form where the intended receiver of the art is present at the delivery, and the art form can be altered according to their appreciation of it, as you go...[like] jazz or improv [theatre]...[The comedian is not limited to] tempo and key.
  21. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Larry Miller. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 235. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Comics are like poets
  22. Woodward, Jenny (20 December 2012). "Jerry Seinfeld: How to Write a Joke" (video). The New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 1 February 2019. I'm looking for the connective tissue...link [between bits]. You will shave letters off words. You count syllables...to get it just...it's more like songwriting
  23. Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 23:32-24:00. Retrieved 3 February 2019. the way they [used to] make samurai swords…they bang it…fold it…bang it again…fold it and keep banging it…they pound on it…fold it so that they’re squeezing out all the oxygen...just keep making it perfect…write another hour, and then fold it into that one. And then, get rid of all the impurities and all the bad stuff, and then keep doing that.
  24. [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]
  25. Louis C.K. (22 April 2011). Talking Funny (Film). Event occurs at 11:55-12:12.
  26. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Chris Dipetta. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 68. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. The average club seats [250] people
  27. Fearless delivery sets Will Ferrell apart. The Denver Post, 24 June 2005. Accessed on 29 March 2010.
  28. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. George Wallace. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 240. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. How did you answer them? 'By being George Wallace, and finding out who you are as a comedian. And that takes between seven and eleven years.'
  29. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Jerry Seinfeld. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 200. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. How long did it take you to figure out your individual comedic essence? 'I'd [Jerry Seinfeld] say ten years.'
  30. Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 3:59-4:03. Retrieved 3 February 2019. A stage presence comes pretty quickly [but] how to write jokes and how to generate material and know it’s going to work; [concerning these, the] first ten years are building the [base] skills
  31. Bobby Lee (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 1:02:38-1:02:48. Bombing is a necessary event. It’s the only way one gets better, but every time it happens, it’s very painful.
  32. John Thomson (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 1:02:52-1:02:55. You’ve got to die to get good.
  33. Seabaugh, Julie (18 March 2014). "Hannibal Buress: 'Bombing Can Be Good'". The Village VOICE. Hannibal Buress. VILLAGE VOICE, LLC. Retrieved 4 February 2019. Yeah, bombing can be good…you grow up and realize it’s about continuing to work. It’s about making progress.
  34. Khazan, Olga (27 February 2014). "The Dark Psychology of Being a Good Comedian". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  35. Lee, Stewart (2010). How I Escaped My Certain Fate: The Life and Deaths of a Stand-up Comedian. London, UK: faber and faber Ltd. p. 43. ISBN   978-0-571-25481-1. A show begins the moment the audience walk into a venue.
  36. Chris Rock (interviewee) (2017). Dying Laughing (Motion picture). Gravitas Ventures. Event occurs at 11:24-11:31. A lot of comedians just want laugh, laugh, laugh…every, what is it, 15 seconds they say?
  37. Nevins, Jake (4 October 2017). "Learning laughter: an expert's guide on how to master standup comedy". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 January 2019. Comedy club audiences...expect upwards of four laughs per minute.
  38. Roye, Steve. "How Many Jokes Are In A Minute Of Stand-up Comedy Material?". Stand-up Comedy Tips. Retrieved 26 January 2019. If a comedian wants to generate headliner laughter levels, they need to average 4-6+ laughs per minute.
  39. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 253–254. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. As each comic’s usage of material varies (some say they use as few as two jokes a minute, other comics say they need a laugh every fifteen seconds or the act goes ‘in the toilet’)
  40. [36] [37] [38] [39]
  41. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Stephen K Amos. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 209. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0. The first two minutes is very important with a stand-up
  42. Pete Lee (2017). I Need You To Kill (Motion picture). Comedy Dynamics. Event occurs at 31:27-31:56. I call the first two minutes, your flash. And that’s where you…go up there and…hook them with whatever material it is, so that they know exactly what’s funny about you and they trust you and they’ll come along with you for everything.
  43. MacInnes, Paul (15 August 2004). "How can he show his face?". The Guardian. Karen Koren. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 22 March 2019. If you don't make them laugh in the first two minutes, you're fucked
  44. Neill, Geoffrey (22 December 2015). Hitting Your Funny Bone: Writing Stand-up Comedy, and Other Things That Make You Swear. San Bernardino, CA. p. Chapter 5. ISBN   9781515180661. If you have a strong first minute…the minutes that follow will be great, too.
  45. [41] [42] [43] [44]
  46. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 169. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0.
  47. Rutter, Jason (1997). "Stand-up as interaction: Performance and Audience in Comedy Venues" (PDF). Department of Sociology. CORE. University of Saford: Institute for Social Research. pp. 149–150. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  48. Malone, Michael. "8 Rules to Emceeing a Comedy Show". Malone Comedy. Wav Records. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  49. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. pp. 67–68. ISBN   9781468004847.
  50. 1 2 3 Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 195. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0.
  51. Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. pp. 136, 139. ISBN   978-1-4165-5364-9. One week, I opened for a show...I was now capable of doing two different twenty-five-minute sets per evening
  52. Oswalt, Patton (14 June 2014). "A Closed Letter to Myself About Thievery, Heckling and Rape Jokes". Patton Oswalt. Patton Oswalt. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Open mikes are where, as a comedian [like Daniel Tosh and his controversy], you’re supposed to be allowed to fuck up.
  53. Schaefer, Sara (16 March 2012). "Advice to a Young Comedian (& Myself)". Sara Schaefer. Retrieved 1 February 2019. the next day, my friend who was also on the show [in a theatre above a porn shop across from the Port Authority], told me a scout from casting at Fox was in the audience and they wanted to meet with him.
  54. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 197. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0.
  55. Dunican, Angus (10 September 2012). "What do 'bringer' shows REALLY bring to the circuit?". Chortle. Retrieved 28 January 2019. it gets tarred with the brush of new-act exploitation and lumped in with less scrupulous nights and the insidious blight of pay-to-play...[but] I, personally, have found it to be a very nice room.
  56. Kelly-Clyne, Luke (20 September 2018). "I Want Out How to Leave the Boring Job You Don't Like and Start Your Comedy Career". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. In order to get stage time at [bringer shows]…you [have to] bring…5 to 15 friends, each of whom must show up and agree to buy at least two drinks…Some people think bringers are a scam, and they kind of are. They’re a cash grab for club owners
  57. Richardson, Jim (11 December 2013). "Evil "Bringer Shows" & "Pay-to-Play Shows" Are even worse Than the already discredited Open Mic system". Jim Richardson's Organized Comedy. Retrieved 28 January 2019. Some clubs require 10 bringers/show. If you show up with 9 people, you will not get on and your friends will not get their money back.
  58. Strauss, Neil (24 January 1999). "My Brief, Weird Life as a Stand-Up Comic" . The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 February 2019. Clubs like Caroline's will ask for 15 people.
  59. Strauss, Neil (24 January 1999). "My Brief, Weird Life as a Stand-Up Comic" . The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  60. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 63. ISBN   9781468004847.
  61. Salvatore Attardo, ed. (2014). Encyclopedia of Humor Studies. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 417. ISBN   978-1-4129-9909-0. A canned joke is a generally short narrative ending in a punchline…[that] the speaker has memorized.
  62. Rutter, Jason (1997). "Stand-up as interaction: Performance and Audience in Comedy Venues" (PDF). Department of Sociology. CORE. University of Saford: Institute for Social Research. pp. 188–189. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  63. Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 46. ISBN   1-59257-231-6. [T]he Universal Joke Formula: Premise + Point of View + Twist = Joke
  64. Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 104. ISBN   1-879505-21-5. we can craft a joke just by creating and then defeating that specific expectation...introduction, validation, violation
  65. Martin, Rod A. (2007) [2006]. The Psychology of Humor: An Integrative Approach. Department of Psychology: University of Western Ontario. Internet Archive (Interactive Online Book). Ontario, Canada: Burlington, MA : Elsevier Academic Press. p. 2. ISBN   978-0123725646 . Retrieved 18 February 2019. a joke is a context-free and self-contained unit of humor that carries within itself all the information needed for it to be understood and enjoyed.
  66. Neill, Geoffrey (22 December 2015). Hitting Your Funny Bone: Writing Stand-up Comedy, and Other Things That Make You Swear. San Bernardino, CA. p. Chapter 4. ISBN   9781515180661. A setup is the information a person needs to get the joke.
  67. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 126. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0. The setup is the essential information the audience needs in order to get the punchline
  68. Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 14. ISBN   978-1-444-10726-5. A joke…must have all the information implicit in the setup, so…the punchline…makes sense.
  69. Jeff McBride, Harrison Tweed. "Episode 48 The Setup". Let’s Talk About Sets (Podcast). Geoffrey Asmus. Event occurs at 12:45-13:05. Retrieved 29 August 2019. It’s the first half of the joke…It’s the first part…I’ve seen it said that it’s the part that gives all the information you need, so that people understand the joke, but I would take it a step a little bit to the side of that…[the setup] is whatever is needed to make the joke work.
  70. Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. Bret Watson. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 51. ISBN   1-59257-231-6. It seems like 99% of comedy comes from juxtaposing two things that don't seem to go together
  71. Corley, Jerry. "The Most Powerful Tool for Your Joke Writing". standupcomedyclinic. Retrieved 27 January 2019. You turn it into a juxtaposition of two ideas and create jokes.
  72. Martin, Rod A. (2007) [2006]. The Psychology of Humor: An Integrative Approach. Department of Psychology: University of Western Ontario. Internet Archive (Interactive Online Book). Ontario, Canada: Burlington, MA : Elsevier Academic Press. p. 85. ISBN   978-0123725646 . Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  73. Rutter, Jason (1997). "Stand-up as interaction: Performance and Audience in Comedy Venues" (PDF). Department of Sociology. CORE. University of Saford: Institute for Social Research. p. 17. Retrieved 8 March 2019. Incongruity has been and remains the most influential approach to the study of humour even though superiority predates it by approximately two thousand years.
  74. Luu, Chi (12 June 2019). "The Dubious Art of the Dad Joke". JSTOR. ITHAKA. Retrieved 15 June 2019. At its core, humor seems to be all about incongruity.
  75. [70] [71] [72] [73] [74]
  76. Johnson, Stephen (24 March 2017). "Every Joke Falls in One of 11 Categories, Says Founding Editor of The Onion". Big Think. The Big Think, Inc. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  77. Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 1. ISBN   0-325-00179-0.
  78. Raga, Suzanne (27 October 2016). "11 Wisecracking Secrets of Stand-Up Comedians". Mental Floss. Minute Media. Retrieved 22 March 2019. [C]omedians will often say that something happened to them recently when it really happened years ago—or may have never happened at all.
  79. George Carlin, Charlie Rose (26 March 1996). George Carlin (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 7:29-7:37. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  80. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 38. ISBN   9781468004847. Taglines are...very short [jokes that are]...delivered right as the original laughter from the punchline is dying down.
  81. Mendrinos, James (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Writing Comedy. Bret Watson. NY, New York: ALPHA: A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. p. 93. ISBN   1-59257-231-6.
  82. Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 61. ISBN   0-325-00179-0.
  83. Andrew (24 September 2010). "Writing for stand up part 3: Refining Jokes". thenakedspeaker: a public speaking blog. WordPress. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  84. Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 106. ISBN   1-879505-21-5. A jokoid fills the place on the page where a genuinely funny joke will eventually go
  85. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 36. ISBN   9781468004847. Stock jokes are jokes that a comic has...that are pretty much hack jokes used for specific situations...they should only be used in certain situations until you can think of something better.
  86. Simon Amstell, Eddie Izzard (2011). The Art of Stand-Up (TV). United Kingdom: BBC: One. Simon Amstell states, 'I transcribed a couple of the tapes just to figure out what he [Eddie Izzard] was doing cause it just seemed so (pause) It wasn’t like setup-punch. I would sort of underline words…is that the rule of three? I don’t know what that is.' Eddie Izzard states, 'it should be—establish, reaffirm, and then you kill it on the third...you can keep reaffirming before you twist.
  87. Hannibal Buress, Marcus Raboy (2014). Live from Chicago (Audio). COMEDY CENTRAL. They have a parades department. New Orleans police department has a parades department. There’s homicide, there’s narcotics, and there’s parades. There’s other departments too, but you know, rule of three, for comedy.
  88. Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 151. ISBN   978-1-58297-357-9. [Three is the] cadence [that makes] it the most important number in comedy.
  89. Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. pp. 123–124. ISBN   978-1-444-10726-5.
  90. Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 63. ISBN   978-1-58297-357-9.
  91. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 249. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Seinfeld adds, ‘any k sound is good—it’s a very strong letter that impinges on people.'
  92. Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN   1-879505-21-5. For every ten jokes you tell, nine will be trash…you’ll need hundreds and hundreds of failed jokes to build a decent body of work.
  93. Louis C.K., Charlie Rose (7 May 2014). Louis C.K. (Interview) (TV Show). HBO. Event occurs at 2:20-2:38. Retrieved 3 February 2019. failure is the road to being a great comic…failure is not succeeding in the moment
  94. Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 109. ISBN   978-1-58297-357-9. For every ten jokes written, only one might be acceptable
  95. WAITHE, ELSA. "How to Write a 5-Minute Comedy Set". Gold Comedy. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  96. Craig Anton (28 January 2010). I Am Comic (film). IFC Films. Event occurs at 3:42-4:53. a bit, 3 or 4 jokes in and around one central theme or idea…[and then] 10-15 minutes, we call that a chunk
  97. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Abby Stein. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 248. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. A ‘bit,’ Reiser explains, ‘is a group of words used to incorporate a premise and all variations thereof’
  98. Woodward, Jenny (20 December 2012). "Jerry Seinfeld: How to Write a Joke" (video). The New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 1 February 2019. If you have a long bit, the biggest laugh has to be at the end. It has to be. It can't be in the middle or the beginning.
  99. Helitzer, Mel; Shatz, Mark (2005). Comedy Writing secrets: the best-selling book on how to think funny, write funny, act funny, and get paid for it (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. p. 245. ISBN   978-1-58297-357-9. Since the setup has already been established, the second, third, and fourth jokes are short, shorter, shortest.
  100. 1 2 Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 187. ISBN   0-325-00179-0.
  101. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 111–112. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0.
  102. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 112–114, 118. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0.
  103. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 53. ISBN   9781468004847.
  104. Dean, Greg (2000). Step by Step to Stand-up Comedy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. p. 190. ISBN   0-325-00179-0.
  105. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 91. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Every stand-up goes onstage as a character to some extent. Some may adopt a persona that’s very similar to their own personality, but it’s still a separate entity—a person telling jokes as opposed to telling the truth, which no ‘real’ person does. Even observational comics, who base their material in reality, use the truth not as an end but as a foundation on which to build jokes by taking the truth to its farthest [sic] extreme.
  106. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Budd Friedman. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 261. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. [W]hat’s more important, material or delivery? I had to say it’s the material.
  107. Budd Friedman (28 January 2010). I Am Comic (film). IFC Films. Event occurs at 31:25-31:34. when the material is good, you can overlook anything
  108. Alleyne, Richard (6 May 2011). "Why comedians get laughs for even their worst jokes". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 22 March 2019. We argue that using the name of someone who people consider funny generates an expectancy of humour when hearing a joke.
  109. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Irvin Arthur. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 274. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. I [Irvin Arthur] firmly believe that it’s the persona first, and then the material.
  110. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Abby Stein. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 252. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. [P]ersonality is far more important than material
  111. Oliver Double (2011). Alan Yentob (ed.). The Art of Stand-Up (TV). United Kingdom: BBC: One. Event occurs at 47:23-47:48. The classic theorist would be Freud. Tendentious jokes…a difficult or edgy subject is going to create a certain tension in the audience, and having created the tension, if your punchline is funny, the laugh is bigger.
  112. Strauss, Neil (24 January 1999). "My Brief, Weird Life as a Stand-Up Comic" . The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2 February 2019. A good standup creates a tension in the room, which the audience wants to break with laughter. If you can do this, any punch line will work as a release valve.
  113. Vorhaus, John (1994). The Comic Toolbox: How to Be Funny Even If You're Not. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 53. ISBN   1-879505-21-5. Every time you start a joke, you create some tension...If the joke works, then all that stored is released at the punchline in the form of laughter.
  114. Cohen, Roger; Richards, Ryan. "When the Truth Hurts, Tell a Joke: Why America Needs Its Comedians". Humanity in Action. Humanity In Action Inc. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  115. [111] [112] [113] [114]
  116. Sarah Silverman (30 May 2017). Sarah Silverman: A Speck of Dust (film). Event occurs at 17:26-17:34. I would call that a relief laugh…like release laugh.
  117. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 88–89. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0.
  118. Stuart Goldsmith (5 March 2014). "The Comedian's Comedian with Stuart Goldsmith: 67 – GARY DELANEY (LIVE)". The Comedian’s Comedian (Podcast). Stuart Goldsmith. Event occurs at 5:00-5:38. Retrieved 3 February 2019. You start off, and you want to be like your heroes…you start out under the naive belief that you get to choose your style…[but] your style of comedy chooses you…it's a misnomer when people say you need to think about your persona…its all bollocks about persona and timing. I didn’t set out to be a one-liner comic, but I was shit at everything else.
  119. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. pp. 66–72. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0.
  120. Goldsmith, Stuart. "125 – DARA Ó BRIAIN". The Comedian's Comedian with Stuart Goldsmith. Retrieved 29 January 2019. don't stop [your crowd work with a single audience member] until you've got [approximately] 4 big laughs.
  121. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 168. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. After deciding to become a stand-up…Cathy Ladman worked to develop ‘five decent minutes’
  122. Maxwell, Dobie (December 2013). "A Tight Five..." Comedy of Chicago. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  123. Waithe, Elsa (2017-11-06). "How to Write a 5-Minute Comedy Set". Gold Comedy. Gold Comedy. Retrieved 25 March 2019. ‘tight five’ —five minutes of solid go-to jokes that show who you are and reliably get laughs.
  124. Roye, Steve (26 February 2019). "Your First 5 Minutes Of Stand-up Comedy Material". Real First Steps. Retrieved 25 March 2019. A tight 5 minutes of stand-up comedy material generates an average 4-6+ collective audience laughs each performing minute.
  125. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. p. 195. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0. If you have an all 'A' [material] 5-minute set, you'll get paid nothing.
  126. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 169. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Fran Capo [states that]…an audition is usually five minutes.
  127. Richardson, Jim (29 December 2013). "The physical brain prefers concrete over abstract activities: How to Easily Memorize Your Jokes". Jim Richardson's Organized Comedy. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  128. Morgan, Nick (5 March 2015). "The Public Speaking Secrets Of Comedians". Forbes. Forbes Media LLC. . Retrieved 22 March 2019. To avoid going blank on stage, use the Memory Palace.
  129. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Gary Delaney. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 124. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0. I'm currently using memory palaces or I think the loci method
  130. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Hannibal Buress. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 121. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0. I will put a set list on the stage monitor
  131. Rosenfield, Stephen (2018). Mastering Stand-Up: The Complete Guide to Becoming a Successful Comedian. Chicago, Illinois: Chicago Review Press. pp. 176–178. ISBN   978-1-61373-692-0.
  132. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Jim Jefferies. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. pp. 230–231. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0. I have a list of three or four [comebacks]...and the rest will be off the cuff
  133. Kettle, James (24 August 2010). "When heckling goes bad". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  134. Cohen, Sascha. "a brief history of punch-down comedy" . Mask. Maskmag. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  135. Kris Tinkle, Pete Holmes, W. Kamau Bell (30 April 2014). I Am Road Comic (Motion Picture). Comedy Dynamics. Event occurs at 38:16-38:38.
  136. Chad Daniels, Louis Lee (2017). I Need You To Kill (Motion Picture). Comedy Dynamics. Event occurs at 1:07:26-1:08:18.
  137. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 69. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. George Calfa, who feels that he’s been forced to downplay the degree of real creativity in his act in order to pander to road crowds and bookers
  138. Sacks, Mike (2014). Poking a Dead Frog: Conversations with Today's Top Comedy Writers. NY, NY: Penguin Books. p. 3. ISBN   978-0-14-312378-1.
  139. West, Kelly (2008). "30 Rock's Tina Fey Clarifies Her Remark About The Daily Show". CINEMA BLEND. gateway blend: ENTERTIANMENT. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  140. Kindler, Andy (2007) [1991]. "The Hack's Handbook: A Starter Kit" (PDF). Harvard University: National Lampoon. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  141. Koester, Megan (23 April 2013). "How Not to Be a Stand-Up Comedian". Vice. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  142. Schwenson, Dave (2005). COMEDY FAQS AND ANSWERS: HOW THE STAND-UP BIZ REALLY WORKS. New York, NY: ALLWORTH PRESS. p. 68. ISBN   1-58115-411-9.
  143. Stas Bekman: stas (at) stason.org. "The Complete Guide To Hack Stand-Up Comedy". Stason.org. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  144. Jeff McBride, Harrison Tweed. "Episode 48 The Setup". Let’s Talk About Sets (Podcast). Event occurs at 8:35-8:49. Retrieved 29 August 2019. One definition of hack is that you [the stand-up comedian] are thinking about what the audience wants instead of what you think is funny…as opposed to being the artist that comes up with something new.
  145. [140] [141] [142] [143] [144]
  146. Murray, Logan (25 June 2010). Be A Great Stand-Up (2nd ed.). London, Great Britain: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 92. ISBN   978-1-444-10726-5.
  147. Voss, Erik (4 November 2010). "Is There Ever a Justification for Joke Stealing?". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  148. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Abby Stein. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 242. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. [T]here are also cases of simple coincidence and, often in the case of observational material, parallel thinking.
  149. Double, Oliver (19 September 2012). Britain Had Talent: A History of Variety Theatre. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN   9781137265623. The line connecting Max Miller to modern comedians such as Michael McIntyre is by no means unbroken, but the fact is that the very form of stand-up evolved from music hall song, and started life as the front cloth comedy of variety.
  150. "The last of Vaudeville: Ken Dodd died on March 11th" . The Economist. 22 March 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2019. [Ken Dodd] was the last of the front-cloth comedians, meaning they dropped a cloth behind you while they cleared up the stage from the Liberty Horses and got it ready for the man who pulled doves out of his jacket, and there you were, but with an act that had been burnished until it was a jewel. And he knew he was the last, for all the greats, from Max Miller on, had crossed the boards before him.
  151. Hunter, I.Q.; Porter, Laraine (2012). British Comedy Cinema. Routledge. ISBN   9781136508370. In 1929, he finally settled on Frank Randle and became a ‘front-cloth’ comic, performing his character sketch routines.
  152. Double, Oliver (2005). Getting The Joke: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. A&C Black. pp. 34, 37. ISBN   9780413774767. [C]omedians like Max Miller, Tommy Trinder, Ted Ray, Billy Russell, Suzette Tarri, Beryl Reid and Frankie Howerd performed something which was stand-up comedy in all but name. These performers were known as 'front-cloth comics.' The name derives from the staging of British variety theatre, in which acts which used the full stage—such as sketch comedians who normally used the set—alternated with ones which could be performed in front of the [stage] curtain—the front-cloth comedians…Front-cloth comedy existed at least as early as the 1920s…[British] [f]ront-cloth comedians…[survived] their US equivalents, the monologists, because British variety survived decades longer than American vaudeville…[F]ront-cloth comics on the variety theatres had used catchphrases, costumes and comic personas, their acts fleshed out with songs and even dances
  153. "So Farewell Then: The Untold Life of Peter Cook" Cook, Wendy E. ISBN   0-00-722893-7, p. 139-144
  154. Wilmut, R and Rosengard, P Didn't You Kill My Mother-In-Law: The Story Of Alternative Comedy In Britain. ISBN   978-0-413-17390-4
  155. Parker, Bethany (12 September 2008). "Probing Question: What are the roots of stand-up comedy?". Research. PennState News. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved 24 February 2019. American stand-up comedy has its beginnings in the minstrel shows of the early 1800s
  156. Zoglin, Richard. "Stand-up comedy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  157. "'Whoopi Goldberg Presents Moms Mabley'" ZAP 2 IT: http://blog.zap2it.com/frominsidethebox/2013/11/whoopi-goldberg-presents-moms-mabley-eddie-murphy-bill-cosby-and-arsenio-hall-all-owe-a-debt.html
  158. McLellan, Dennis (2007-10-16). "Enrico Banducci, 85; owned hungry i nightclub". Los Angeles Times. ISSN   0458-3035 . Retrieved 2016-05-23.
  159. Make Em Laugh: The Funny Business of America Maslon, Laurence E. ISBN   978-0-446-50531-4, p.340 – p.341
  160. Jim Stingl (June 30, 2007). "Carlin's naughty words still ring in officer's ears". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel . Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  161. Johnny Lever on Phalke Awards
  162. Johny Lever: The missing comic in Hindi films | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis
  163. Raju Shrivastav threatened, asked not to joke about Dawood
  164. Raju Srivastav tickles the funny bone at Le Meridien, Bangalore
  165. "Kapil Sharma ranked no.3 in Admired list".
  166. 1 2 "Kapil Sharma plays the 'Traffic monitor' at India Gate". The Times of India. 26 September 2013.
  167. "Parvati Singhal, Kapil crown Comedy King". Siasat. 2010-08-29. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  168. "Kapil wins another season of Comedy circus".
  169. Kapil sharma`s profile in Forbes list Archived 2014-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
  170. Aparna Banerji (2009-07-24). "Lady laughter sends T-town rolling". Tribune India. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  171. "Daily soaps weren't creatively satisfying: Manish Paul". The Times of India . 11 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
  172. Zacks, Richard (2016). Chasing the Last Laugh - Mark Twain's raucous and redemptive round-the-world-comedy-tour. New York, London: Doubleday. ISBN   9780385536448.
  173. Purcell, Andrew (3 November 2016). "Jerry Seinfeld touring Australia in 2017: 'You will see the best that I have'". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. Retrieved 6 September 2017.Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  174. "How to Become a Comedian". theartcareerproject.com. The Art Career Project. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  175. Brown, Georgia (16 March 2007). "Five top comedy festivals around the world". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  176. Frances-White, Deborah; Shandur, Marsha (2016). Off the Mic: The World's Best Stand-up Comedians Get Serious About Comedy. Jim Jefferies. NY, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 176. ISBN   978-1-4725-2638-0. Go to festivals, because that's where you get noticed by the media...[and] gauge [yourself against] everybody else.
  177. Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Buddy Mora. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 280. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. I [Buddy Morra] go to the Montreal and Aspen comedy festivals, but I haven’t seen much that’s knocked me out.
  178. Wayne Federman (18 June 2019). "S2 EP. 03: THE APOLLO AND THE CHITLIN' CIRCUIT". The History of Standup (Podcast). The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 3:12-4:00. Retrieved 17 August 2019. The Chitlin’ Circuit was a collection of all-black venues, clubs, [and] theaters—that was in the United States during the era of, basically racial segregation, and this is not just in the South my friend. This is in the North as well, where a lot of African-American families came north during what’s called the Great Migration and a number of clubs opened up specifically in these neighborhoods—which were redlined—and subsequently launched some of the greatest music and comedy acts we’ve ever known. And so the Apollo Theater was in the chitlin circuit. Not only in it, the crown jewel.
  179. Nesteroff, Kliph (22 December 2015). "Make 'Em Laugh: 'The Comedians' Tells The Story Of Stand-Up". NPR. Retrieved 20 August 2019. The Chitlin' Circuit was African-American comedians performing for African-American audiences because comedy was segregated back then…But it was not acceptable in those days for a black comedian to address a white crowd, because as a comedian on stage, you are superior to your audience. You are giving them your point of view — and in those days it wasn't allowed, so the Chitlin' Circuit alleviated that thing.
  180. McNary, Dave (13 February 2019). "Apollo Theater Documentary Selected as Tribeca Festival Opener". Variety. Retrieved 20 August 2019. The Apollo began operating in 1934 during the Harlem Renaissance and became the most prized venue on the ‘Chitlin’ Circuit’ during the time of racial segregation in the United States.
  181. Barnes, Mo (9 January 2019). "A conversation with Luenell: When does Black comedy become hurtful?". rollingout. Retrieved 20 August 2019. Comedians such as Redd Foxx, Dick Gregory, Richard Pryor and Moms Mabley were popular first in clubs on the ‘Chitlin’ Circuit’ in urban hubs.
  182. 1 2 3 "What Hugh Hefner did for comedy". Chortle. 28 September 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2019. [Hugh Hefner’s] clubs providing a bridge between the old-school resorts of the Catskill mountains and the comedy club explosion of the 1980s.
  183. Parker, Ryan (27 September 2017). "Hugh Hefner Gave Dick Gregory His Big Break". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  184. Wayne Federman (11 June 2019). "S2 Ep. 02: The Playboy Circuit". Apple Podcasts (Podcast). The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 0:00-2:07. Retrieved 17 August 2019. Hugh Hefner...decides in 1960...to open a club in Chicago called the Playboy Club and then opens a number of these clubs all around the country, creates this circuit where comedians...this is before comedy clubs.
  185. Wayne Federman (11 June 2019). "S2 Ep. 02: The Playboy Circuit". Apple Podcasts (Podcast). Tom Dreesen. The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 23:00-23:30. Retrieved 17 August 2019. When I started out in show business, there were no comedy clubs. Every nightclub in America had a comic...They [Playboy] had two showrooms, The Penthouse and The Playroom...When they’re ready to start the show...The girl singer would go on and do 3 or 4 songs and then, she would finish, and we’d come on and we’d be doing like 45 minutes and she would do 15 like minutes
  186. Wayne Federman (11 June 2019). "S2 Ep. 02: The Playboy Circuit". Apple Podcasts (Podcast). Dick Capri. The Podglomerate.Learn. Event occurs at 24:30-25:20. Retrieved 17 August 2019. They [Playboy] gave you nothing…they did not pay transportation and they did not pay for the hotel room; you could eat there where the employees ate…and the top money at that time was a 1,000 dollars a week, and I did not get that; Jackie Gayle, he was the top comedian of the playboy clubs in those days you know, and I got $500 a week.
  187. Martin, Steve (2007). Born Standing Up: A Comic's Life. New York: Scribner. p. 156. ISBN   978-1-4165-5364-9. In March 1975 my agent, Mart Klein, secured a job in San Francisco, two weeks headlining the Playboy Club for fifteen hundred dollars per week
  188. Larner, Sam (25 November 2015). "What Life Is Like As an Amateur Comic On the Open-Mic Circuit". VICE UK. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  189. "100 ways to save the open-mic circuit". Chortle. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  190. Schwenson, Dave (2005). COMEDY FAQS AND ANSWERS: HOW THE STAND-UP BIZ REALLY WORKS. New York, NY: ALLWORTH PRESS. p. 171. ISBN   1-58115-411-9.
  191. 1 2 Flanagan, Caitlin (September 2015). "That's Not Funny! Today's college students can't seem to take a joke". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  192. 1 2 Bauer-Wolf, Jeremy (30 August 2018). "College Comedy: Provocative Yet… PC?". INSIDE HIGHER ED. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  193. Chris Fleming (comedian), Michael Moynihan (Vice News), Jason Meier (Emerson College booker), Kat Michael (Simmons College booker), Katy Hamm (Lesly University booker), Judy Gold (comedian) (24 May 2018). College Campuses Can Be Minefields For Comedians (HBO) (YouTube) (Streaming). Boston: VICE News Tonight: HBO. Event occurs at 3:32-3:39. Retrieved 8 February 2019. [A comedian] can talk about [their] experience, but [they] can't make fun of someone else's identity.
  194. Ellis, Iain (8 February 2018). "Haven't You Learned How to Take a Joke? The Comedy-on-Campus Debates". popMATTERS: Culture. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Thus, college comedians can mock those groups "liberal" students deride—Evangelical Christians, Scientologists, working-class rural males—yet they dare not even flirt with jokes about race, gender, and sexuality.
  195. Rich, Frank (1 December 2014). "In Conversation Chris Rock: What's killing comedy. What's saving America". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 10 February 2019. I stopped playing colleges…because they’re way too conservative…in their social views and their willingness not to offend anybody.
  196. Schramm, Michael (8 June 2015). "Jerry Seinfeld says comedians avoid college gigs, students are 'so PC'". USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, LLC. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  197. Chris Fleming (comedian), Michael Moynihan (Vice News), Jason Meier (Emerson College booker), Kat Michael (Simmons College booker), Katy Hamm (Lesly University booker), Judy Gold (comedian) (24 May 2018). College Campuses Can Be Minefields For Comedians (HBO) (YouTube) (Streaming). Boston: VICE News Tonight: HBO. Event occurs at 4:15-4:26. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Judy gold is one of many famous comics, including Jerry Seinfeld and Chris Rock who say they avoid playing college campuses, because they believe younger audiences can't take a joke.
  198. Ellis, Iain (8 February 2018). "Haven't You Learned How to Take a Joke? The Comedy-on-Campus Debates". popMATTERS: Culture. Retrieved 10 February 2019. It is notable that the majority of the most vociferous critics of today's student audiences—Seinfeld, Maher, Gottfried, Louis CK, Dennis Miller, Larry the Cable Guy—are middle-aged (or older), white, presumably heterosexual males...Ricky Gervais...too
  199. 1 2 "Entertainers' careers buoyed on the cruise ship circuit". Las Vegas Sun. Las Vegas Sun. 14 July 2000. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  200. Golden, Fran (11 September 2014). "The best cruise lines for comedy". Great Falls Tribune. USA Today Network. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  201. Scott, Katherine (June 2018). "Five reasons to set sail on a comedy cruise". honey: travel. Nine Digital Pty Ltd. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  202. Corely, Jerry. "Corporate Comedy". Jerry Corley's Comedy Clinic. Stand Up Comedy Clinic. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  203. Goodale, Gloria; Wood, Daniel B. (9 July 2016). "Why clean comedy is becoming big business". The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  204. Stewart Lee (3 July 2013). On Not Writing (Lecture) (YouTube). St Edmund Hall: University of Oxford. Event occurs at 46:40-47:40. Retrieved 13 February 2019. I can’t ever do the lucrative, corporate gigs that…because in that…people can get paid a lot of money for doing half an hour at a bankers' convention, but you have to be the sort of person that appears to please people…[and not treat them as] deficient
  205. 1 2 3 Leon, Harmon (1 July 2015). "God's Comics: Inside the World of Christian Stand-Up". VICE. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  206. Posten, Bruce (15 August 2014). "Christian ventriloquist Ryan Bomgardner believes God wants us to laugh" . Reading Eagle. Retrieved 18 February 2019. I define Christian comedy as clean comedy that can be good for the soul. I believe God wants us to laugh
  207. Guglielmi, Jodi (24 June 2013). "12 jobs comedians had before they were famous: Kevin Hart, Jon Stewart, Louis C.K. and more!". LaughSpin. LaughSpin. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  208. Lindsay Goldwert (18 April 2016). "Mark Normand: Funny for Money 002". SPENT (Podcast). Event occurs at 4:14-4:40. I didn’t start getting anywhere until…five years in, financially…even then, it was month to month [in New York City].
  209. Buck, Jerry (9 December 1987). "Comedian has last laugh". Observer Reporter (AP TV Writer). Yakov Smirnoff. Retrieved 8 April 2019. It took four or five years before I [Yakov Smirnoff] could make a living as a comedian.
  210. 1 2 Ajaye, Franklyn (2002). Comic Insights: The Art of Stand-up Comedy. Jay Leno. Silman-James Press. pp. 124–125. ISBN   1-879505-54-1. I've [Jay Leno] always told comedians that if you can do this for seven years, I mean physically make it to the stage for seven years, you’ll always make a living...You start to get paid at the end of the fourth or fifth year—I mean paid in terms of here’s $500 dollars for one night, not $15 or $20 for a set.
  211. Koester, Megan (26 June 2014). "How to Be a Touring Stand-Up Comic". VICE. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  212. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 12. ISBN   9781468004847. The first paying position a comic can land is to emcee or host a show.
  213. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Chris Dipetta. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 67. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. People like Leno and Wright can make ten thousand dollars a show now—that’s not shocking. What’s shocking is that I’m a virtually unknown comic and I make about one hundred twenty-five thousand dollars a year.
  214. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 79. ISBN   9781468004847. An emcee will make usually from $10-$35 a show. It's usually $25.
  215. Strauss, Duncan (3 November 1988). "Comedy: The Clubbing of America: The rise of comedy club chains". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 10 September 2019. At the better chains, middle acts earn a weekly salary of $600 and up; headliners, anywhere from $2000 to $10,000, plus air fare and lodging – usually at the club's 'comedy condo' in town...The chief variable is drawing power, based on accumulated TV and movie credits.
  216. Hofstetter, Steve (2 July 2015). "What to Expect when You're Expecting...to be Paid at a Club". Comedy Hints: Helping Comedians Help Themselves. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  217. O’Brien, Jane (21 October 2015). "No laughing matter: The secrets behind comedy success". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 22 March 2019. If it's somebody starting off in the business it could be $1,500 a show. For somebody who's had some TV credits you could go from $4,500 to $7,500.
  218. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 87. ISBN   9781468004847. the famous comics have what’s called a “door deal” and get paid based on the amount of people in the crowd.
  219. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Rick Messina. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 68. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. It depends on the TV exposure of the comic, whether the comic draws and if he can command a higher ticket price.
  220. Breidbart, Shaun Eli (2018-07-09). "13 Things a Stand-Up Comedian Won't Tell You". Reader’s Digest. Trusted Media Brands, Inc. Retrieved 22 March 2019. Those T-shirts and CDs we sell are what we make our real money on...And when we do book a paying gig? We spend most of the money on transportation to get there.
  221. Goldwert, Lindsay (16 October 2016). "Comedians explain the improbable economics of stand-up". QUARTZ. Quartz Media, Inc. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  222. 1 2 Zinoman, Jason; Megan, Angelo (2012-11-02). "Clever, How They Earn That Laugh" . The New York Times. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  223. mattoo, Priyanka (22 September 2015). "What Comedy Pays". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  224. Simons, Seth (24 January 2018). "How Much Does Netflix Pay for 15 Minutes of Stand-Up?". PASTE. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  225. Abramovitch, Seth (15 June 2018). "'I Sold the Same Special Twice!' How Netflix Is Driving an L.A. Comedy Gold Rush". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media, LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019. Netflix is wooing superstar comics with eight-figure deals, including Dave Chappelle (a reported $60 million), Louis C.K. ($26 million), Amy Schumer ($20 million) and Jim Gaffigan ($10 million).
  226. Holm, Heather (26 March 2009). "'Quick-witted' Burress set for laughs". Daily Eastern News: Tell the truth and don’t be afraid. The Daily Eastern News. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Hannibal Burress was the most popular comedian in Caponera’s (2009) price range of $2,000.
  227. Flanagan, Caitlin (September 2015). "That's Not Funny! Today's college students can't seem to take a joke". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 January 2019. Keith is one of the kings of the college circuit. A few years ago, he was the most-booked college comic, playing 120 campuses. He charges $2,300 for a single performance.
  228. Leon, Harmon (1 July 2015). "God's Comics: Inside the World of Christian Stand-Up". VICE. VICE MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 18 February 2019. Headliners can reap $1,500 to $2,500 per church comedy show
  229. Abramovitch, Seth (15 June 2018). "'I Sold the Same Special Twice!' How Netflix Is Driving an L.A. Comedy Gold Rush". The Hollywood Reporter. Prometheus Global Media, LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019. A newer comic on the national circuit can earn anywhere from $1,250 to $2,500 per week, according to one prominent touring agent; more established names can pull in anywhere from $10,000 to $100,000 in the same period.
  230. Caffir, Justin (20 June 2018). "Comedians Reveal What the L.A. Stand-up Scene Actually Pays". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 25 March 2019. it’s very hard to make that amount even on the road…To mislead someone with a figure that is beyond an exaggeration and just ridiculous.
  231. Durham, Rob (2011). Don't Wear Shorts on Stage: the stand-up guide to comedy. Middletown, DE. p. 36. ISBN   9781468004847. Bigger name comics have been known to pay thousands for jokes and hire writers...After a famous comic has an HBO Special, they almost always hire writers to help them pump out more material.
  232. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Barry Sand. Simon & Schuster, Inc. pp. 239–240. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. Comics need material badly, especially once they get to be in demand—they’ve got to keep coming up with the stuff...Often, once a comic becomes successful, his requirements for material begin to exceed his ability to create it—particularly in the case of TV spots, which ‘eat’ it instantly.
  233. Hesse, Josiah (25 September 2014). "Should All Standup Comics Write Their Own Jokes?". Vulture: Devouring Culture. NEW YORK MEDIA LLC. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  234. Borns, Betsy (1987). Comic Lives: Inside the World of American Stand-up comedy. Rita Rudner. Simon & Schuster, Inc. p. 241. ISBN   0-671-62620-5. [T]hat’s another thing people do—write down jokes they see on TV, then sell them to other comics who don’t realize what they’re doing.
  235. "Watch Stand Up Comedians on YouTube". Daniel Scocco. Dailybits.com. 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2008-09-27.

Further reading