Nightclub

Last updated

Night club
Gatecrasher.jpg
Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a trance music event in a nightclub (Sheffield, 2006)
General information
Genres included Electronic dance music
LocationWorldwide
Types of street rave dance
Related events
Related topics
Two DJs perform at a club (Ibiza, 2015) Wikipedia space ibiza(03).jpg
Two DJs perform at a club (Ibiza, 2015)
People dance at an industrial music event in a nightclub (Athens, 2012) Incubite music concert at Second Skin nightclub in Athens, Greece in February 2012 24.JPG
People dance at an industrial music event in a nightclub (Athens, 2012)

A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night. A nightclub is generally distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music. The upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more likely than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry. Some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Friday and Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as house music or hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular genre or sound for branding effects. [1]

Music venue any location used for a concert or musical performance

A music venue is any location used for a concert or musical performance. A music venue range in size and location, from an outdoor bandshell or bandstand or a concert hall to an indoor sports stadium. Typically, different types of venues host different genres of music. Opera houses, bandshells, and concert halls host classical music performances, whereas public houses, nightclubs, and discothèques offer music in contemporary genres, such as rock, dance, country and pop.

Tavern place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food

A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, and in most cases, where travelers receive lodging. An inn is a tavern that has a license to put up guests as lodgers. The word derives from the Latin taberna whose original meaning was a shed, workshop, stall, or pub.

Dance A performing art consisting of movement of the body

Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin.

Contents

History

Early history

"The Cave" in the basement of the Gruenwald (later Roosevelt) Hotel, New Orleans opened in 1912; said by some to be one of the first nightclubs in the United States CardGrunewaldCave.jpg
"The Cave" in the basement of the Gruenwald (later Roosevelt) Hotel, New Orleans opened in 1912; said by some to be one of the first nightclubs in the United States

From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox. Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, [2] being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall", originally functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, and the Stork Club. These nightclubs featured big bands.

Working class those employed in lower tier jobs

The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus, according to the more inclusive definitions, the category can include almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.

Juke joint

Juke joint is the vernacular term for an informal establishment featuring music, dancing, gambling, and drinking, primarily operated by African Americans in the southeastern United States. The term "juke" is believed to derive from the Gullah word joog or jug, meaning rowdy or disorderly. A juke joint may also be called a "barrelhouse".

Jukebox device to play music singles with

A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons, with letters and numbers on them, which, when one of each group entered after each other, are used to select a specific record.

In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. [3] In Occupied France, jazz and bebop music, and the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques [4] where they danced to jazz and swing music, which was played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available. These discothèques were also patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous. There were also underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids.

A disc jockey, often abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays existing recorded music for a live audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJ, club DJ who performs at a nightclub or music festival and turntablist who uses record players, usually turntables, to manipulate sounds on phonograph records. Originally, the disc in disc jockey referred to gramophone records, but now DJ is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any source, including cassettes, CDs or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop. The title 'DJ' is commonly used by DJs in front of their real names or adopted pseudonyms or stage names. In recent years it has become common for DJs to be featured as the credited artist on tracks they produced despite having a guest vocalist that performs the entire song: like for example Uptown Funk.

Bebop style of jazz

Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody.

Jitterbug dance style associated with swing dance

The jitterbug is a kind of dance popularized in the United States in the early 20th century, and is associated with various types of swing dances such as the Lindy Hop, jive, and East Coast Swing.

In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or mostly live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, [5] Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music. The Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub.

Harlem Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

Harlem is a neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. It is part of greater Harlem, an area that encompasses several other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to 96th Street.

Connie's Inn was a Harlem, New York City nightclub established in 1923 by Connie Immerman (né Conrad Immerman; 1893–1967) in partnership with two of his brothers, George (1884–1944) and Louie Immerman (1882–1955). Having immigrated from Latvia, the Immerman brothers operated a Harlem delicatessen and made their fortune as bootleggers. Their club was located at 2221 Seventh Avenue at 131st Street from 1923 until 1934. Acts featured there included Louis Armstrong, Fats Waller, Wilbur Sweatman, Peg Leg Bates, Bricktop and Fletcher Henderson. Unlike the Cotton Club, Connie's Inn featured African-American performers but did not restrict its audience to whites only. Members of the Ziegfeld Follies, heiress Gertrude Vanderbilt, and numerous others poured in from downtown to enjoy the shows at Connie's Inn and were sometimes influential in moving their revues to Broadway.

Cotton Club jazz club

The Cotton Club was a popular New York City nightclub from 1923 to 1940. It was located on 142nd Street and Lenox Avenue, then briefly in midtown Theater District (1935-1940) The club operated during the United States' era of Prohibition and Jim Crow era racial segregation. Black People could not initially patron the Cotton Club, but the venue featured many of the most popular black entertainers of the era, including musicians Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Jimmie Lunceford, Chick Webb, Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Fats Waller, Willie Bryant; vocalists Adelaide Hall, Ethel Waters, Cab Calloway, Bessie Smith, Aida Ward, Avon Long, the Dandridge Sisters, the Will Vodery Choir, The Mills Brothers, Nina Mae McKinney, Billie Holiday, Lena Horne, and dancers such as Katherine Dunham, Bill Robinson, The Nicholas Brothers, Charles 'Honi' Coles, Leonard Reed, Stepin Fetchit, the Berry Brothers, The Four Step Brothers, Jeni Le Gon and Earl Snakehips Tucker.

At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St. These original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a very young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally, mostly in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.

Coffeehouse Establishment serving coffee

A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café is an establishment that primarily serves coffee, related coffee drinks, and – depending on country – other drinks including alcoholic. Some coffeehouses may serve cold drinks such as iced coffee and iced tea; in continental Europe, cafés serve alcoholic drinks. A coffeehouse may also serve some type of food, such as light snacks, sandwiches, muffins or other pastries. Coffeehouses range from owner-operated small businesses to large multinational corporations.

An au pair is a domestic assistant from a foreign country working for, and living as part of, a host family. Typically, au pairs take on a share of the family's responsibility for childcare as well as some housework, and receive a monetary allowance for personal use. Au pair arrangements are subject to government restrictions which specify an age range usually from mid-late teens to mid to late twenties; some countries explicitly limit the arrangement to females.

1960s

While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, [3] where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era.[ citation needed ] In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first, foremost and hottest disco in New York City through 1969. [6] The first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses quickly gained international reputation. [7]

Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, jazz, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954.

Disco music genre

Disco is a genre of dance music and a subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene.

1970s: Disco

Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, blacks, Latinos, Italian-Americans, and Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies. Discoteques had a law where for every three men, there was one woman. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law. The women often sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, and a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net. [8] It brought together people from different backgrounds. [9] These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. [10]

By the late 1970s many major U.S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques, nightclubs, and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people 'dancing all night long'". [11] Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music.

The genre of disco has changed through the years. It is classified both as a musical genre and as a nightclub; and in the late seventies, disco began to act as a safe haven for social outcasts. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds. It was an inexpensive activity to indulge in, and discos united a multitude of different minorities in a way never seen before; including those in the gay and psychedelic communities. The music ultimately was what brought people together. [12]

Some cities had disco dance instructors or dance schools that taught people how to do popular disco dances such as "touch dancing", the "hustle" and the "cha-cha-cha". There were also disco fashions that discothèque-goers wore for nights out at their local disco, such as sheer, flowing Halston dresses for women and shiny polyester Qiana shirts for men. Disco clubs and "... hedonistic loft parties" had a club culture with many Italian-American, African American, gay [13] and Hispanic people.

In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving drug subculture, particularly for recreational drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine [14] (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers", [15] and the "... other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and turned one's arms and legs to Jell-O". [16] The "massive quantities of drugs ingested in discothèques by newly liberated gay men produced the next cultural phenomenon of the disco era: rampant promiscuity and public sex. While the dance floor was the central arena of seduction, actual sex usually took place in the nether regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and so on. In other cases the disco became a kind of "main course" in a hedonist's menu for a night out." [16]

Famous 1970s discothèques included celebrity hangouts such as Manhattan's Studio 54, which was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. Studio 54 was notorious for the hedonism that went on within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters, and drug use was rampant. Its dance floor was decorated with an image of the "Man in the Moon" that included an animated cocaine spoon. Other famous 1970s discothèques in New York City included Manhattan's Starship Discovery One at 350 West 42nd Street. The album cover of Saturday Night Band's Come On and Dance, Dance features two dancers in the Starship Discovery One. Roseland Ballroom, Xenon, The Loft, the Paradise Garage, a recently renovated Copacabana, and Aux Puces, one of the first gay disco bars. In San Francisco, there was the Trocadero Transfer, the I-Beam, and the End Up.

By the early 1980s, the term "disco" had largely fallen out of favour in most of the English-speaking world.

1980s New York and London

A Disc Jockey mixing vinyl records on turntables (Inland Empire, 2009) Dj2can club dj.jpg
A Disc Jockey mixing vinyl records on turntables (Inland Empire, 2009)

During the 1980s, during the New Romantic movement, London had a vibrant nightclub scene, which included clubs like The Blitz, the Batcave, the Camden Palace and Club for Heroes. Both music and fashion embraced the aesthetics of the movement. Bands included Depeche Mode, Yazoo, The Human League, Duran Duran, Blondie, Eurythmics and Ultravox. Reggae-influenced bands included Boy George and Culture Club, and electronic vibe bands included Visage. At London nightclubs, young men would often wear make-up and young women would wear men's suits.

The largest UK cities like Leeds (The Orbit), Newcastle, Liverpool (Quadrant Park and 051), Swansea, Manchester (The Haçienda) and several key European places like Paris (Les Bains Douches), Ibiza (Pacha), Rimini etc. also played a significant role in the evolution of clubbing, DJ culture and nightlife.

Significant New York nightclubs of the period were Area, Danceteria, and The Limelight. [17]

1990s, 2000s, and 2010s

Club DJ using digital CDJ players for mixing music (Munich, 2010s) Bob Beaman Nightclub Munich 1.jpg
Club DJ using digital CDJ players for mixing music (Munich, 2010s)

In Europe and North America, nightclubs play disco-influenced dance music such as house music, techno, and other dance music styles such as electronica, breakbeat and trance. Most nightclubs in the U.S. major cities that have an early adulthood clientele, play hip hop, dance-pop, house and/or trance music. These clubs are generally the largest and most frequented of all of the different types of clubs. The emergence of the "superclub" created a global phenomenon, with Juliana's Tokyo (Japan), Ministry of Sound (London), Cream (Liverpool) and Pacha (Ibiza).

Techno clubs are popular around the world since the early 1990s. Famous examples of the 1990s include Tresor, E-Werk and Bunker in Berlin, Omen and Dorian Gray in Frankfurt, Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk and Natraj Temple in Munich, Stammheim in Kassel, [18] and The Haçienda in Manchester. A famous precursor also was the house club Warehouse in Chicago (1977–1982). Since the late 2000s, two venues that received particularly high media attention were Berghain in Berlin and Fabric in London.

In some languages, nightclubs are also referred to as "discos" or "discothèques" (German : Disko or Diskothek (outdated; nowadays: Club); French : discothèque; Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: discoteca,antro (common in Mexico), and boliche (common in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay), discos is commonly used in all others in Latinamerica). In Japanese ディスコ, disuko refers to an older, smaller, less fashionable venue; while クラブ, kurabu refers to a more recent, larger, more popular venue. The term night is used to refer to an evening focusing on a specific genre, such as "retro music night" or a "singles night." In Hong Kong and China, night club is used as a euphemism for a hostess club, and the association of the term with the sex trade has driven out the regular usage of the term.

Video art has been used in nightclubs since the 1960s, but especially with the rise of electronic dance music since the late 1980s VJing gained more and more importance. VJs ("video jockeys") mix video content in a similar manner that DJs mix audio content, creating a visual experience that is intended to complement the music.

Entry criteria

Many nightclubs use bouncers to choose who can enter the club, or specific lounges or VIP areas. Some nightclubs have one group of bouncers to screen clients for entry at the main door, and then other bouncers to screen for entry to other dance floors, lounges or VIP areas. For legal reasons, in most jurisdictions, the bouncers have to check ID to ensure that prospective patrons are of legal drinking age and that they are not intoxicated already. In this respect, a nightclub's use of bouncers is no different from the use of bouncers by pubs and sports bars. However, in some nightclubs, bouncers may screen patrons using criteria other than just age and intoxication status, such as dress code and guest list.

This type of screening is used by clubs to make their club "exclusive", by denying entry to people who are not dressed in a stylish enough manner. While some clubs have written dress codes, such as no ripped jeans, no jeans, no gang clothing, and so on, other clubs may not post their policies. As such, the club's bouncers may deny entry to anybody at their discretion. The guest list is typically used for private parties and events held by celebrities. At private parties, the hosts may only want their friends to attend. At celebrity events, the hosts may wish the club to only be attended by A-list individuals.

Cover charge

Clubgoers dancing at an upmarket nightclub (Miami, 2008) Aerobarmiami.jpg
Clubgoers dancing at an upmarket nightclub (Miami, 2008)

In most cases, entering a nightclub requires a flat fee, called a cover charge. Some clubs waive or reduce the cover charge for early arrivers, special guests or women (in the United Kingdom this latter option is illegal under the Equality Act 2010, [19] but the law is rarely enforced, and open violations are frequent). Friends of the doorman or the club owner may gain free entrance. Sometimes, especially at larger clubs in Continental European countries, one gets only a pay card at the entrance, on which all money spent in the discothèque (often including the entrance fee) is marked. Sometimes, entrance fee and cloakroom costs are paid by cash, and only the drinks in the club are paid using a pay card.[ citation needed ]

Some clubs, especially those located in Las Vegas, offer patrons the chance to sign up on their guest list. A club's guest list is a special promotion the venue offers separate from general admission. Each club has different benefits when you are signed up on their guest list. Some of the benefits of being on a club's guestlist are: free entry, discounted cover charge, the ability to skip the line, and free drinks. Many clubs hire a promotions team to find and sign up guest to the club's guest list.

Dress code

Light-up club wear for performances, glowing under black lights. (Barcelona, 2003) Beo Beyond Costume design.jpg
Light-up club wear for performances, glowing under black lights. (Barcelona, 2003)

Many nightclubs enforce a dress code in order to ensure a certain type of clientele is in attendance at the venue. Some upscale nightclubs ban attendees from wearing trainers (sneakers) or jeans while other nightclubs will advertise a vague "dress to impress" dress code that allows the bouncers to discriminate at will against those vying for entry to the club.

Many exceptions are made to nightclub dress codes, with denied entry usually reserved for the most glaring rule breakers or those thought to be unsuitable for the party. Certain nightclubs like fetish nightclubs may apply a dress code (BDSM) to a leather-only, rubber-only or fantasy dress code. The dress code criterion is often an excuse for discriminatory practices, such as in the case of Carpenter v. Limelight Entertainment Ltd. [20]

Exclusive boutique clubs

Large cosmopolitan cities that are home to large affluent populations (such as Atlanta, Chicago, Sydney, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Miami, New York City, and London) often have what are known as exclusive boutique nightclubs. This type of club typically has a capacity of less than 200 occupants and a very strict entrance policy, which usually requires an entrant to be on the club's guest list.[ citation needed ] While not explicitly members+only clubs, such as Soho House, exclusive nightclubs operate with a similar level of exclusivity. As they are off limits to most of the public and ensure the privacy of guests, many celebrities favor these types of clubs to other, less exclusive, clubs that do not cater as well to their needs.[ citation needed ]

Another differentiating feature of exclusive nightclubs is, in addition to being known for a certain type of music, they are known for having a certain type of crowd, for instance, a fashion-forward, affluent crowd or a crowd with a high concentration of fashion models. Many exclusive boutique clubs market themselves as being a place to socialize with models and celebrities. Affluent patrons who find that marketing message appealing are often willing to purchase bottle service at a markup of several times the retail cost of the liquor. [21]

London's most exclusive boutique nightclubs include Amika, Cirque le Soir, Project, The Box, and The Rose Club. They are frequently visited by an array of A-List celebrities from the fashion, film, and music industries. All are located in London's prestigious Mayfair, except Cirque le Soir and The Box, which are both located in Soho.

Los Angeles also contains exclusive clubs such as Warwick, owned by Eli Wehbe, which is frequented by celebrities such as G-eazy and Halsey. [22]

Guest list

Many nightclubs operate a "guest list" that allows certain attendees to enter the club for free or at a reduced rate. Some nightclubs have a range of unpublished guest list options ranging from free, to reduced, to full price with line by-pass privileges only. Nightclub goers on the guest list often have a separate queue and sometimes a separate entrance from those used by full price-paying attendees. It is common for the guestlist line-up to be no shorter or even longer than the full-paying or ticketed queues. Some nightclubs allow clubbers to register for the guest list through their websites.

Economic Effects

Nightclubs’ actions, as a result of their nature as an entertainment hub serving alcohol, create negative externalities that affects third parties, which is not reflected in the price of the goods and services provided by the club. There are two types of negative externalities that could exist in the market: negative externalities of consumption and negative externalities of production. The former is created by consumers consuming the product, and the latter occurs by the production of the product by the industry. In the consumption case, the negative externality is created when the social marginal benefit of consumption is lower than the actual marginal benefit in the market, meaning consumers are consuming too much. In the production scenario, the negative externality is created when the social marginal cost of production is higher than the actual marginal cost in the market, so producers are producing too much.  

Noise Pollution

An example of a negative externality created by the nightclub (or negative externality of production) would be noise pollution. The noise is created by the loud music, usually curated by a DJ, and can negatively affect third parties. Noise pollution is considered a public health problem by the World Health Organization, and nightclubs contribute to it, causing annoyance and complaints.[ citation needed ]

A study in the Melville community in Johannesburg aimed to see the extent of noise pollution caused by nightclubs [23] . They found that 87% of the measured noise levels did not comply with the official ambient noise levels of 40dB at night. 57% of the population sampled also indicated that the noise lead to irritability, fatigue and sleeping disorders.

As we can see in this example, the marginal cost of nightclubs are too low, as their noise creates a nuisance for the people around them. Therefore, the socially optimum marginal cost is higher than their actual marginal cost, meaning that the supply of nightclubs should be lower such that the social marginal cost would equal the actual marginal cost.

Substance Abuse

A distinctive feature of a nightclub is also the fact that it can serve as a hub for substances like alcohol, which could affect third parties, creating a negative externality of consumption. The culture of nightclubs create a sense of consuming alcohol in larger quantities than usual. A study in Sao Paulo looking to identify causes of binge drinking found that environmental variables such as more number of dancefloors, higher level of noise, and ‘all you can drink’ services to be significantly linked to binge drinking [24] . Furthermore, the culture created around nightclubs to indulge in ‘pre-drinking’ accentuates the amount of alcohol consumed, which leads to more problems in residential areas off nightclub premises (for example, a higher chance of participating in a fight) [25] .

Moreover, young consumers of nightclubs who tend to binge drink are often found to be less safe during sexual encounters as a result of the alcohol [26] , which could lead to the spread of STDs.

A big issue that stems from alcohol and drug abuse in nightclubs is transportation. Private cars are the most prominent mode of transportation to and from nightclubs, and the use of drugs and alcohol in nightclubs are reported to increase the number of risky behaviors, such as driving under the influence or taking a lift from someone under the influence [27] . A portion of driving customers, despite drinking less than non-driving customers, are still observed to have alcohol levels above the legal threshold after a night out at a nightclub [28] .

Number of patients with alcohol-related serious injury and trauma to the emergency department at different hours of the day, before and after a change in alcohol legislation that made partying stricter in the Sydney CBD Entertainment Precinct. These policies include: increased monitoring, increased strictness on entry of clubs, and sharing of information between venues to prevent intoxicated patrons to access different places. On average, there is significant decreases in any alcohol-related injury . Ba alc.JPG
Number of patients with alcohol-related serious injury and trauma to the emergency department at different hours of the day, before and after a change in alcohol legislation that made partying stricter in the Sydney CBD Entertainment Precinct. These policies include: increased monitoring, increased strictness on entry of clubs, and sharing of information between venues to prevent intoxicated patrons to access different places. On average, there is significant decreases in any alcohol-related injury .

Solutions

In order to correct the externality, we must make the nightclubs' marginal cost and marginal benefit equal the social marginal cost and social marginal benefit. With respect to noise pollution, laws and regulations on maximum decibels of noise between certain periods of time of night may force nightclubs to internalize the cost. An example of these types of regulations are found in Paris, where bars, clubs, and other nightlife establishments with outdoor seating must keep noise levels below 3 decibels between 10:00 PM and 7:00 AM, in addition to implementing proper insulation. [30] These regulations will increase the actual marginal cost of nightclubs, making it inline with the socially optimal.

Other forms of regulation, aimed at decreasing the consumption of nightclubs, can decrease the marginal benefit to the socially optimal level. While a pigovian tax on the alcohol can stimulate an incentive to drink less at the venue, club goers may resort to more pre-drinking as a result, which can lead to more damage to third parties. [25] Therefore, a tax on the entrance fee patrons must pay to attend nightclubs may be more effective decreasing the marginal benefit of the customers. Furthermore, curfew laws and last calls can physically inhibit customers from consuming alcohol, which would decrease their demand for attending nightclubs. It is found that changing the hours of the sale of alcohol by ≥2 hours has great effect on alcohol related harms. [31] These policies can decrease the actual marginal benefit of nightclubs customers, aligning it with the socially optimal level.

Photography

At high end or exclusive nightclubs, professional photographers will take publicity photos of patrons, to use in advertising for the nightclub. Digital SLR cameras and speedlight flash units are typically used. [32] Concert photography and event photography are used to provide clubgoers with a memorable keepsake in addition to promo material used by clubs. Since several years, some nightclubs and in particular techno clubs pursue a strict no photo policy in order to protect the clubbing experience, and smartphone camera lenses of visitors are taped up with stickers when one enters the venue. [33] [34]

Security

Most nightclubs employ teams of bouncers, who have the power to restrict entry to the club and remove people. Some bouncers use handheld metal detectors to prevent weapons being brought into clubs. [35] [ page needed ] [36] Bouncers often eject patrons who bring party drugs into the venue. [37] [38] Bouncers count the number of people admitted to a club in order to prevent stampedes and fire code violations, and also enforce a club's dress code, frequently accepting bribes to let people jump the queue. [39] Many clubs have balcony areas specifically for the security team to watch over the clubbers.

Serious incidents

See also

Related Research Articles

Party gathering of invited guests

A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host for the purposes of socializing, conversation, recreation, or as part of a festival or other commemoration of a special occasion. A party will typically feature food and beverages, and often music and dancing or other forms of entertainment. In many Western countries, parties for teens and adults are associated with drinking alcohol such as beer, wine, or distilled spirits.

Rave Dance party

A rave is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music. DJs at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, hardcore, house, drum & bass,, bassline, dubstep, and post-industrial. Occasionally live performers have been known to perform, in addition to other types of performance artists such as go-go dancers and fire dancers. The music is amplified with a large, powerful sound reinforcement system, typically with large subwoofers to produce a deep bass sound. The music is often accompanied by laser light shows, projected coloured images, visual effects and fog machines.

Club drug Recreational drug

Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music parties, and raves in the 1980s to today. Unlike many other categories, such as opiates and benzodiazepines, which are established according to pharmaceutical or chemical properties, club drugs are a "category of convenience", in which drugs are included due to the locations they are consumed and/or where the user goes while under the influence of the drugs. Club drugs are generally used by teens and young adults. This group of drugs are also called "designer drugs", as most are synthesized in a chemical lab rather than being sourced from plants.

The Limelight A chain of nightclubs best known for their NYC location in a former Episcopal Church

The Limelight was a chain of nightclubs that were owned and operated by Peter Gatien. The Limelight had locations in Hallandale, Florida; Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, New York City, and London.

Studio 54 former nightclub and current theater in New York, New York

Studio 54 is a former nightclub and currently a Broadway theatre, located at 254 West 54th Street, between Eighth Avenue and Broadway in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The building, originally built as the Gallo Opera House, opened in 1927, after which it changed names several times, eventually becoming CBS radio and television Studio 52.

Go-go dancing form of nightclub entertainment

Go-go dancers are dancers who are employed to entertain crowds at nightclubs or other venues where music is played. Go-go dancing originated in the early 1960s, by some accounts when women at the Peppermint Lounge in New York City began to get up on tables and dance the twist. Some claim that go-go dancing originated at, and was named after, the very popular Los Angeles rock club Whisky a Go Go which opened in January 1964, but the opposite may be true – the club chose the name to reflect the already popular craze of go-go dancing. Many 1960s-era clubgoers wore miniskirts and knee-high, high-heeled boots, which eventually came to be called go-go boots. Night club promoters in the mid‑1960s then conceived the idea of hiring women dressed in these outfits to entertain patrons.

Bouncer (doorman) Security guard profession

A bouncer is a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs, stripclubs, casinos, hotels, billiard halls, restaurants, sporting events or concerts. A bouncer's duties are to provide security, to check legal age, to refuse entry for intoxicated persons, and to deal with aggressive behavior or non-compliance with statutory or establishment rules. They are civilians and they are often hired directly by the venue, rather than by a security firm. Bouncers are often required where crowd size, clientele or alcohol consumption may make arguments or fights a possibility, or where the threat or presence of criminal gang activity or violence is high.

Nightlife entertainment occurring at night

Nightlife is a collective term for entertainment that is available and generally more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. It may include pubs, bars, nightclubs, parties, live music, concerts, cabarets, theatre, cinemas, and shows. These venues often require a cover charge for admission. Nightlife entertainment is often more adult-oriented than daytime entertainment. People who prefer to be active during the night-time are called night owls.

Gatecrasher

Gatecrasher is an international clubbing brand made famous by the "Gatecrasher" dance music events, which were held at the Gatecrasher One nightclub in Sheffield, UK during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The promoters of the brand are Simon Raine, Simon Oates and, until 2004, Scott Bond. By August 2014, the only Gatecrasher venue remaining was located in the United Kingdom city of Birmingham. This venus was closed down permanently by the authorities on 25 November 2015.

Sundissential is a dance music club started in Birmingham, England, in the 1990s. Originally hosted in various venues in the city, the event started as an after normal club hours event and exploited loopholes in Licensing laws of the United Kingdom to allow alcohol to be sold on a Sunday to clubbers at this time.

Go-go bar

The term go-go bar originally referred to a nightclub, bar, or similar establishment that featured go-go dancers; while some go-go bars in that original sense still exist, the link between its present uses and that original meaning is often more tenuous and regional. Speaking broadly, the term has been used by venues that cover a wide range of businesses, from nightclubs or discotheques, where dancers are essentially there to set the mood, to what are in essence burlesque theaters or strip clubs, where dancers are part of a show and the primary focus.

Electric Circus (nightclub)

The Electric Circus was a nightclub and discotheque located at 19-25 St. Marks Place between Second and Third Avenues in the East Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, from 1967 to September 1971. The club was created by Jerry Brandt, Stanton J. Freeman and their partners and designed by Chermayeff & Geismar. With its invitation to "play games, dress as you like, dance, sit, think, tune in and turn on," and its mix of light shows, music, circus performers and experimental theater, the Electric Circus embodied the wild and creative side of 1960s club culture.

The Tramshed and Zoo Bar were two adjoining night clubs in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. First called "Theo's Zoo bar", in the early 1990s, and named after the head bouncer, the original venue was a standalone nightclub. The Tramshed and Zoo Bar were brought to national attention by the media as a "haven" for underage drinkers, when they became among the first establishments to be closed under the auspices of the Licensing Act 2003, which came into effect in England and Wales at midnight on 23 November 2005.

Dance party social gathering at which people dance

A dance party is a social gathering where dancing is the primary activity. Some dance parties are held in a casual setting and open to the public, such as a rave, or those held in nightclubs and discothèques.

The Scotch Club in Aachen was the first discothèque in Germany, opening on 19 October 1959. It was closed in 1992.

The Study Club fire killed 22 people and injured over 50 in a Detroit, Michigan dance hall on September 20, 1929.

Clubbing is the custom of visiting and gathering socially at nightclubs and festivals. That includes socializing, listening to music, dancing, drinking alcohol and sometimes using recreational drugs. In most cases it is done to hear new music on larger systems than one would usually have in their domicile or for socializing and meeting new people. Clubbing and raves have historically referred to grass-roots organized, anti-establishment and unlicensed all night dance parties, typically featuring electronically produced dance music, such as techno, house, trance and drum and bass.

Karen Mixon Cook became the first professional female nightclub disco disc jockey in the United States in 1974. While there had been female professional radio disc jockeys in the U.S. since at least 1966, none had been focused on the disco club music scene.

References

  1. "How to ... run a clubnight". Fact . 12 November 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  2. "Webster Hall Landmark Status Certification" (PDF). Greenwich Village Society for History Preservation. The intact, elegantly detailed façade of Webster Hall has sheltered some of the Village’s most infamous moments, and this first modern night club deserves to be an individual landmark
  3. 1 2 Crossland, David (19 October 2009). "Club Culture: Meet Heinrich, the World's First Disc Jockey". Spiegel Online . Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  4. "The birth of disco". OXford Dictionaries. 30 October 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  5. Johnny Pierre (6 December 2009). "The Whiskey A Go Go (Los Angeles, CA)". Rock and Roll is a state of mind. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  6. Time magazine. (14 May 1965). Brewster, B.; Broughton, F. Last Night a Disc Jockey Saved My Life, Grove Press, 2000, pp. 62–64. ISBN   0802136885
  7. Hecktor, Mirko; von Uslar, Moritz; Smith, Patti; Neumeister, Andreas (1 November 2008). Mjunik Disco – from 1949 to now (in German). pp. 212, 225. ISBN   978-3936738476.
  8. Lawerence, Tim (14 March 2011). Disco and the Queering of the Dance Floor.
  9. Lawrence, Tim. "Disco and the Queering of the Dance Floor". Cultural Studies 25.2 (2011): 230–43.
  10. "Gay bars". Life Stories Network. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  11. Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (July – August 2000). "The body and soul of club culture". UNESCO Courier. 53. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  12. Dyer, Richard. Only Entertainment. Routledge, 2002.
  13. "Reviews of Love Saves the Day". Tim Lawrence. 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  14. Gootenberg, Paul. "Between Coca and Cocaine: A Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860–1980". Hispanic American Historical Review, 83:1, February 2003, pp. 119–150. He says that "The relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough; ..."
  15. "Nitrites". DrugScope. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014. Amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known as alkyl nitrites) are clear, yellow liquids inhaled for their intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were popped open. This led to nitrites being given the name 'poppers' but this form of the drug is rarely found in the UK. The drug became popular in the UK first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and then at dance and rave venues in the 1980s and 1990s.
  16. 1 2 Braunstein, Peter (November 1999). "Disco". American Heritage Magazine . 50 (7). Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  17. Miller, Daniel (2001). Consumption: critical concepts in the social sciences. Taylor & Francis. p. 447. ISBN   978-0-415-24269-1 . Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  18. Hitzler, Ronald; Pfadenhauer, Michaela; Hillebrandt, Frank; Kneer, Georg; Kraemer, Klaus (1998). "A posttraditional society: Integration and distinction within the techno scene". Loss of safety? Lifestyles between multi-optionality and scarcity (in German). p. 85. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-83316-7. ISBN   978-3-531-13228-0.
  19. "Is Ladies' Night illegal? Nightclub entry policy and the Equality Act". Law Think. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  20. "In the Matter of the Human Rights Code R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 210 (as amended): Carpenter v. Limelight Entertainment Ltd. (1999), C.H.R.R. Doc. 99-197: Trudy Carpenter (now Trudy Jack) v. Limelight Entertainment Ltd. doing business as "Limit Night Club"" (PDF). British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  21. "NYC Clubs and lounges - Your Guide to Exclusive New York Nightlife". Socialyeti.com. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
  22. "Halsey and G-Eazy mix business with pleasure at LA nightclub". Page Six. 21 September 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  23. Patience Mahapa, Tebogo; Siziba, Wellington; Moja, Shadung J. (2017). "Nightclubs and Restaurant Bars Noise Pollution: A Case Study of Melville Community, Johannesburg". Civil and Environmental Research. 9 (10).
  24. Carlini, C; Andreoni, S; Martins, SS; Benjamin, MM; Sanudo, A; Sanchez, ZM (2014). "Environmental characteristics associated with alcohol intoxication among patrons in Brazilian nightclubs". Drug and Alcohol Review. 33 (4): 358–366. doi:10.1111/dar.12155. PMID   24975881.
  25. 1 2 Hughes, Karen; Anderson, Zara; Morleo, Michela; Bellis, Mark A. (2008). "Alcohol, nightlife and violence: the relative contributions of drinking before and during nights out to negative health and criminal justice outcomes". Addiction. 103 (1): 60–65. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02030.x. ISSN   1360-0443. PMID   17996008.
  26. Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Golub, Sarit A.; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T. (1 January 2010). "Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior among Young Adults in Nightclubs". The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 36 (1): 39–45. doi:10.3109/00952990903544836. ISSN   0095-2990. PMC   5824634 . PMID   20141395.
  27. Calafat, A.; Blay, N.; Juan, M.; Adrover, D.; Bellis, M. A.; Hughes, K.; Stocco, P.; Siamou, I.; Mendes, F. (31 March 2009). "Traffic Risk Behaviors at Nightlife: Drinking, Taking Drugs, Driving, and Use of Public Transport by Young People". Traffic Injury Prevention. 10 (2): 162–169. doi:10.1080/15389580802597054. ISSN   1538-9588. PMID   19333829.
  28. Wagner, Gabriela A.; Sanchez, Zila M. (2017). "Patterns of drinking and driving offenses among nightclub patrons in Brazil". The International Journal on Drug Policy. 43: 96–103. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.02.011. ISSN   1873-4758. PMID   28343115.
  29. Forster, S. Lesley; Smith, Myles; Fulde, Gordian WO (2 November 2015). "Presentations with alcohol-related serious injury to a major Sydney trauma hospital after 2014 changes to liquor laws". The Medical Journal of Australia. 203 (9): 366. doi:10.5694/mja15.00637. PMID   26510806.
  30. "Have Anti-Noise Regulations Turned Paris Into the City of Sleep?". TripSavvy. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  31. Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook (2010–2012). "Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 39 (6): 590–604. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.09.016. ISSN   0749-3797. PMC   3712516 . PMID   21084080.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  32. Papasergis, George. “Nightclub Photography Tips”, Digital Photography Bureau.
  33. Izzy Hargreaves (24 March 2016). "The hard cell: Should phones be allowed in clubs?". Mixmag . Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  34. Anna Poeltl (8 November 2016). "Berghain: Berlin's mysterious techno temple". theculturetrip.com. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  35. Dick Hobbs (2003). Bouncers: Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-925224-4.
  36. Lee Vineyard (2013). Bouncer Training Manual. Lulu.com. p. 59. ISBN   978-1-304-08611-2.
  37. Bill Sanders (1 April 2005). "In the Club: Ecstasy Use and Supply in a London Nightclub". Sociology. 39 (2): 241–258. doi:10.1177/0038038505050537 . Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  38. "Jenni Ward: Researching Drug Sellers". Socresonline.org.uk. 21 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 April 2008. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  39. "Bouncers: Promoters' nightmare". The Chronicle . 12 September 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  40. "Количество жертв пожара в пермском клубе возросло до 155 человек" [Number of victims of the fire in the Permian club has risen to 155 people] (in Russian). Interfax. 5 January 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  41. "СКП: В результате пожара в Перми пострадали и погибли 234 человека" [UPC: 234 people were injured and killed in a fire in Perm] (in Russian). Vzglyad. Russian News Agency TASS. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2014.