|November 2015 Paris attacks|
|Part of terrorism in France (Islamic terrorism in Europe), the spillover of the Syrian Civil War, and the France-ISIL conflict|
On the left, and from top to bottom:
recollection at La Belle Équipe, intervention forces in Saint-Denis, police vehicles in front of the Bataclan, meditation place of the Republic. On the right, and from top to bottom: tricolor illumination of the Eiffel Tower,Paris motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur.
Locations of the attacks—stars denote suicide bombings
|Location||Paris and Saint-Denis, France|
|Date||21:16,13 November 2015 –|
00:58,14 November 2015 (CET)
|Mass shooting, suicide bombing, hostage taking|
|Weapons||Zastava M70 assault rifles TATP suicide belts|
|Deaths||138 (131 victims, 7 perpetrators )|
|413 (80–99 critically)|
|Perpetrators||Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|
No. of participants
|Motive||Islamic extremism, retaliation against French airstrikes on ISIL|
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of co-ordinated terrorist attacks that took place on 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis. CET, three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, during a football match. This was followed by several mass shootings and a suicide bombing, at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre, leading to a stand-off with police. The attackers were shot or blew themselves up when police raided the theatre.Beginning at 21:16
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in context of war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.
The attackers killed 130 people,including 90 at the Bataclan theatre. One traumatized survivor committed suicide in November 2017, two years after the event, and was recognized as 131st victim in June 2019. Another 413 people were injured, almost 100 seriously. Seven of the attackers also died while the authorities continued to search for accomplices. The attacks were the deadliest in France since the Second World War, and the second deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004. France had been on high alert since the January 2015 attacks on Charlie Hebdo offices and a Jewish supermarket in Paris that killed 17 people and wounded 22, including civilians and police officers.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi) and an estimated population of about 513 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.
The 2004 Madrid train bombings were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections. The explosions killed 193 people and injured around 2,000. The bombings constituted the deadliest terrorist attack carried out in the history of Spain and the deadliest in Europe since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. The official investigation by the Spanish judiciary found that the attacks were directed by an al-Qaeda terrorist cell, although no direct al-Qaeda participation has been established. Although they had no role in the planning or implementation, the Spanish miners who sold the explosives to the terrorists were also arrested.
Vigipirate is France's national security alert system. Created in 1978 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it has since been updated three times: in 1995, 2000 and 2004.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks,saying that it was retaliation for the French airstrikes on ISIL targets in Syria and Iraq. The President of France at the time, François Hollande, said the attacks were an act of war by ISIL. The attacks were planned in Syria and organised by a terrorist cell based in Belgium. Most of the Paris attackers had French or Belgian citizenship, two were Iraqis, and some had fought in Syria. Some of them had entered Europe among the flow of migrants and refugees.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, officially known as the Islamic State (IS) and also known by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.
Opération Chammal is the French military operation which is currently ongoing in Iraq and Syria in an attempt to contain the expansion of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and to support the Iraqi Army. Its name comes from the Shamal, a northwesterly wind blowing over Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.
The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces opposing both the Syrian government and each other in varying combinations. The war is currently the 2nd deadliest of the 21st century.
In response to the attacks, a three-month state of emergency was declared across the country to help fight terrorism, which involved the banning of public demonstrations, and allowing the police to carry out searches without a warrant, put anyone under house arrest without trial and block websites that encouraged acts of terrorism.On 15 November, France launched the biggest airstrike of Opération Chammal, its contribution to the anti-ISIL bombing campaign, striking ISIL targets in Raqqa. On 18 November, the suspected lead operative of the attacks, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, was killed in a police raid in Saint-Denis, along with two others.
Raqqa, also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah, is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 kilometres east of Aleppo. It is located 40 kilometres east of the Tabqa Dam, Syria's largest dam. The Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine city and bishopric Callinicum was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 796 and 809, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid. With a population of 220,488 based on the 2004 official census, Raqqa was the sixth largest city in Syria.
Abdelhamid Abaaoud was a Belgian-Moroccan Islamic militant who had spent time in Syria. He was suspected of having organized multiple terror attacks in Belgium and France, and is known to have masterminded the November 2015 Paris attacks. Prior to the Paris attacks, there was an international arrest warrant issued for Abaaoud for his activities in recruiting individuals to Islamic terrorism in Syria.
The 2015 Saint-Denis raid was a police raid which became a shootout between at least one hundred French police and soldiers and suspected members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in the Paris suburb of Saint-Denis.
France had been on high alert for terrorism since the Charlie Hebdo shooting and a series of related attacks in January by militants belonging to Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,and had increased security in anticipation of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, scheduled to be held in Paris at the beginning of December, as well as reinstating border checks a week before the attacks.
On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. Armed with rifles and other weapons, they killed 12 people and injured 11 others. The gunmen identified themselves as belonging to the Islamist terrorist group Al-Qaeda's branch in Yemen, which took responsibility for the attack. Several related attacks followed in the Île-de-France region on 7–9 January 2015, including the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege where a terrorist held 19 hostages, of whom he murdered 4 Jews.
From 7 to 9 January 2015, terrorist attacks occurred across the Île-de-France region, particularly in Paris. Three attackers killed a total of 17 in four shooting attacks, and police then killed the three assailants. The attacks also wounded 22 other people. A fifth shooting attack did not result in any fatalities. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula claimed responsibility and said that the coordinated attacks had been planned for years.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen, is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. It was named for al-Qaeda, and states it is subordinate to that group and its now-deceased leader Osama bin Laden, a Saudi citizen of Yemeni heritage. It is considered the most active of al-Qaeda's branches, or "franchises," that emerged due to weakening central leadership. The U.S government believes AQAP to be the most dangerous al-Qaeda branch. The group established an emirate during the 2011 Yemeni Revolution, which waned in power after foreign interventions in the subsequent Yemeni Civil War.
Throughout 2015, France witnessed smaller attacks: the February stabbing of three soldiers guarding a Jewish community centre in Nice,the June attempt to blow up a factory in Saint-Quentin Fallavier, and the August shooting and stabbing attack on a passenger train.
Nice is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of about 1 million on an area of 721 km2 (278 sq mi). Located in the French Riviera, on the south east coast of France on the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Alps, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region after Marseille. Nice is approximately 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the principality of Monaco and 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region.
A terrorist attack took place on 26 June 2015 in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, near Lyon, France, when a French Muslim of North African descent, Yassin Salhi, decapitated his employer Hervé Cornara and drove his van into gas cylinders at a gas factory in Saint-Quentin-Fallavier near Lyon, France, which caused an explosion that injured two other people. Salhi was arrested and charged with murder and attempted murder linked to terrorism. Three other people were questioned by the police but released without charge. Salhi committed suicide in jail in December.
On 21 August 2015, a man opened fire on a Thalys train on its way from Amsterdam to Paris. Four people were injured, including the assailant. French, American, and British passengers confronted the attacker and subdued him when his rifle jammed. For their heroism they received France's highest decoration, the Legion of Honour. The assailant initially claimed to be only a robber, but later confessed that he had wanted to "kill Americans" to revenge bombings in Syria.
The Bataclan theatre had been threatened a number of times because of its public support for Israel.Two Jewish brothers, Pascal and Joël Laloux, owned the Bataclan for more than 40 years before selling it in September 2015. In 2011, a group calling itself Army of Islam told French security services they had planned an attack on the Bataclan because its owners were Jewish.
In the weeks leading up to the Paris attacks, ISIL and its branches had claimed responsibility for several other attacks: the downing of Metrojet Flight 9268 on 31 Octoberand the suicide bombings in Beirut on 12 November.
Intelligence agencies in Turkey and Iraq had reportedly warned of an imminent attack on France months beforehand, but were ignored by the French authorities.According to The Irish Times , a senior French security official said they receive this kind of correspondence "every day".
This was one of two terrorist cells sent to Europe by the Islamic State in 2015, the other cell consisting of three Syrians was apprehended by German special forces in Schleswig-Holstein in mid September 2016.
Three groups of menlaunched six distinct attacks: three suicide bombings in one attack, a fourth suicide bombing in another attack, and shootings at four locations in four separate attacks. Shootings were reported in the vicinity of the rue Alibert , the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi, the rue de Charonne, the Bataclan theatre, and avenue de la République. Three explosions occurred near the Stade de France, another on boulevard Voltaire , and two of the Bataclan shooters also detonated their suicide vests as police ended the stand-off. According to the Paris prosecutor, the attackers wore suicide vests that used acetone peroxide as an explosive.
Three explosions occurred near the country's national sports stadium, the Stade de France, in the suburb of Saint-Denis, resulting in four deaths, including the three suicide bombers.The explosions happened at 21:16, 21:19, and 21:53. The first explosion near the stadium was about 20 minutes after the start of an international friendly football match between France and Germany, which President Hollande was attending. The first bomber was prevented from entering the stadium after a security guard patted him down and discovered the suicide vest; a few seconds after being turned away, he detonated the vest, killing himself and a bystander. Investigators later surmised that the first suicide bomber had planned to detonate his vest within the stadium, triggering the crowd's panicked exit onto the streets where two other bombers were lying in wait. Ten minutes after the first bombing, the second bomber blew himself up near the stadium. Another 23 minutes after that, the third bomber's vest detonated nearby; according to some reports, that location was at a McDonald's restaurant; others state that the bomb detonated some distance away from any discernible target.
Hollande was evacuated from the stadium at half-time, while the German foreign minister, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, remained at the stadium.Hollande met with his interior minister Bernard Cazeneuve to co-ordinate a response to the emergency. Two of the explosions were heard on the live televised broadcast of the match; both football coaches were informed by French officials of a developing crisis, but players and fans were kept unaware of it until the game had finished. Hollande, concerned that the safety of the crowd outside the stadium could not be assured if the match was immediately cancelled, decided that the game should continue without a public announcement.
Following the game, fans were brought onto the pitch to await evacuation as police monitored all the exits around the venue. Security sources said all three explosions were suicide bombings.The German national football team was advised not to return to their hotel, where there had been a bomb threat earlier in the day, and they spent the night in the stadium on mattresses, along with the French team, who stayed with them in a display of camaraderie.
The first shootings occurred around 21:25 on the rue Bichat and the rue Alibert , near the Canal Saint-Martin in the 10th arrondissement. Attackers shot at people outside Le Carillon, a café and bar,before crossing the rue Bichat and shooting people inside the restaurant Le Petit Cambodge. According to French police, an eyewitness said one of the gunmen shouted "Allahu Akbar". Le Monde reported that 15 people were killed at these locations and 10 were critically injured. The assailants fled in one or two vehicles after the shootings. One vehicle had a Belgian number plate. Doctors and nurses from the nearby Hôpital Saint-Louis were in Le Carillon when the attacks happened and supplied emergency assistance to the wounded.
At 21:32, a man with a Kalashnikov rifle fired shots outside Café Bonne Bière,close to the terrace of the Italian restaurant La Casa Nostra, on the rue de la Fontaine-au-Roi where it intersects with the rue du Faubourg-du-Temple south of the rue Bichat. The Paris prosecutor said five people were killed and eight were injured. An eyewitness reported a gunman firing short bursts.
At approximately 21:36, two gunmen fired shots for several minutes at the outdoor terrace of the restaurant La Belle Équipe on the rue de Charonne in the 11th arrondissement where it intersects the rue Faidherbe, before returning to their car and driving away.Nineteen people were killed, and nine were left in critical condition.
At about 21:40, on the boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement, near the place de la Nation ,a man sat down in the Comptoir Voltaire café and placed an order before detonating his suicide vest, killing himself and injuring fifteen people, one of them seriously.
At approximately 21:40, a mass shooting and hostage-taking occurred at the Bataclan theatre on the boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement. The American band Eagles of Death Metal was playing to an audience of around 1,500 people.About an hour into the concert, a car pulled up outside the venue and three dark-clad men with AKM assault rifles entered the hall. The gunmen were three French natives: Foued Mohamed-Aggad, 23 years old, Ismaël Omar Mostefaï, 29 years old, and Samy Amimour, 28 years old. As the band began playing their song "Kiss the Devil", witnesses heard shouts of "Allahu Akbar" just before the gunmen opened fire on the crowd. Initially, the audience mistook the gunfire for pyrotechnics. The attack lasted 20 minutes, until one of the terrorists got shot by the police. A radio reporter attending the concert described the attackers as calm and determined, and that they reloaded three or four times.
Survivors escaped via the emergency exit into the street or made their way onto the roof, with some taking refuge in toilets and offices;others lay still on the floor pretending to be dead. According to surviving eyewitnesses, the terrorists walked among those who were lying down, kicked them and shot them in the head if there was any sign of life. They reloaded their weapons several times and laughed while shooting at people who tried to run for the exit while they were reloading. The band's members escaped without injury.
At around 22:00, after Amimour got shot by the first responders and detonated his explosive vest, the remaining attackers took 12 concertgoers hostage as police gathered outside the venue.They threatened to decapitate a hostage and throw the corpse out of the window every five minutes. A witness who escaped told a journalist that the gunmen had mentioned Syria. One witness in the Bataclan heard a gunman say, "This is because of all the harm done by Hollande to Muslims all over the world." There were further attacks on police and first responders who arrived at the scene.
Starting at 22:15, the Brigade of Research and Intervention (BRI) arrived on the scene, followed by the elite tactical unit, RAID.The assault on the theatre began at 00:20 and lasted three minutes. Police launched the assault because of reports that the attackers had started killing hostages. They initially estimated that 100 people had been killed, but the toll was revised to 89, and finally 90. Two attackers died by detonating their suicide vests. Another was hit by police gunfire and his vest blew up when he fell. Identification and removal of the bodies took 10 hours, a process made difficult because some audience members had left their identity papers in the theatre's cloakroom.
Three groups, comprising three men each, executed the attacks.They wore explosive vests and belts with identical detonators. Seven perpetrators died at the scenes of their attacks. The other two were killed five days later during the Saint-Denis police raid.
On 14 November, ISIL claimed responsibility for the attacks.François Hollande said ISIL organised the attacks with help from inside France. Claimed motives were an ideological objection to Paris as a capital of abomination and perversion, retaliation for airstrikes on ISIL in Syria and Iraq, and the foreign policy of Hollande in relation to Muslims worldwide. Shortly after the attacks, ISIL's media organ, the Al-Hayat Media Group, launched a website on the dark web extolling the organisation and recommending the encrypted instant messaging service Telegram.
Fabien Clain released an audio recording the day before the attacks in which he personally claimed responsibility for the attacks. Clain is known to intelligence services as a veteran jihadist belonging to ISIL, and of French nationality.
Syrian and Egyptian passports were found near the bodies of two of the perpetrators at two attack sites,but Egyptian authorities said the passport belonged to a victim, Aleed Abdel-Razzak, and not one of the perpetrators. By 16 November, the focus of the French and Belgian investigation turned to Abdelhamid Abaaoud, the radical jihadist they believed was the leader of the plot. Abaaoud had escaped to Syria after having been suspected in other plots in Belgium and France, including the thwarted 2015 Thalys train attack. Abaaoud had recruited an extensive network of accomplices, including two brothers, Brahim Abdeslam and Salah Abdeslam, to execute terrorist attacks; Abaaoud was killed in the Saint-Denis raid on 18 November.
Most of the Paris attackers were French and Belgian citizens who crossed borders without difficulty, albeit registered as terrorism suspects.Two other attackers were Iraqi. According to the French prime minister, Manuel Valls, several of the perpetrators had exploited Europe's immigration crisis to enter the continent undetected. At least some, including the alleged leader Abdelhamid Abaaoud, had visited Syria and returned radicalised. Jean-Charles Brisard, a French expert on terrorism, called this a change of paradigm, in that returning European citizens were themselves the attackers. The Los Angeles Times reported that more than 3,000 Europeans have travelled to Syria and joined ISIL and other radical groups.
On 30 August 2016, jihadist Abu Mohammad al-Adnani was killed by an American missile and DGSI declared that his death ended the terrorist who had supervised the attacks on Brussels and Paris.
Three cars were recovered in Paris after the attacks:
Police described Salah, a 26-year-old Belgian citizen, as dangerous, and warned the public not to approach him.He was arrested on 18 March 2016 during an anti-terrorist raid in the Molenbeek area of Brussels (see below). His brother, Brahim, died in the attacks. Another brother, Mohamed, was detained on 14 November in the Molenbeek area of Brussels and released after several hours of questioning. Mohamed said he did not suspect his siblings of planning anything.
On 14 November, a car was stopped at the Belgium–France border and its three occupants were questioned then released. Three more people were arrested in Molenbeek.Links to the attacks were investigated in an arrest in Germany on 5 November, when police stopped a 51-year-old man from Montenegro and found automatic handguns, hand grenades and explosives in his car.
On 15–16 November, French tactical police units raided over 200 locations in France, arresting 23 people and seizing weapons.Another 104 people were placed under house arrest.
On 17 November, police followed a female cousin of the attacker and ringleader, Abdelhamid Abaaoud, to a block of flats in Saint-Denis where they saw Abaaoud with her.The next day, police raided a flat in Saint-Denis, and Abaaoud was killed in the ensuing gunfight, which lasted several hours. Chakib Akrouh, one of the perpetrators of the restaurant shootings, also died during the raid after detonating an explosive vest. Eight suspected militants were arrested at or near the flat.
On 23 November, an explosive belt was found in a litter bin in the Paris suburb of Montrouge. It may have been discarded by Salah Abdeslam, whose phone records showed that he was in Montrouge on the night of the attacks.
On 24 November, five people in Belgium had been charged on suspicion of their involvement in the Paris attacks, and Belgian prosecutors issued an arrest warrant for Mohamed Abrini, a 30-year-old suspected accomplice of Salah Abdeslam.Abrini was subsequently reported to have been arrested on 8 April 2016. He is also suspected of having been involved in the 2016 Brussels bombings.
On 9 December, two ISIL militants accompanying two of the Paris attackers into Europe, all masquerading as migrants, were arrested in Greece weeks before the attacks.In July 2016, a third militant involved was also arrested despite regular activity on Facebook from Belgium. The three militants were part of a unit intended to carry out further attacks on 13 November, but their plans were apparently disrupted by the first two arrests.
Fabien Clain was identified as the person reading the ISIL claim of responsibility. Clain is a French national who served 5 years from 2009 to 2014 in a French prison for recruiting fighters to go to Syria for jihad. Clain has been linked to other executed and planned terror attacks and is seen as a leader of known terrorists.
Jawad Bendaoud was arrested 18 November 2015 for "criminal criminal terrorist association for the purpose of committing violent action", as he provided lodging for Abaaoud, Hasna Aït Boulahcen, and a third man. In September 2017, the prosecuting judge filed for Bendaoud's trial for "concealment of terrorist criminals", a charge with a maximum penalty of six years.
Michael Leiter, former director of the United States National Counterterrorism Center, said the attacks demonstrated a sophistication not seen in a city attack since the 2008 Mumbai attacks and that it would change how the West regards the threat.Further comparisons were made between the Paris attacks and the Mumbai attacks. Mumbai Police Joint Commissioner (Law and Order) Deven Bharti pointed out the similarities as having several targets, shooting indiscriminately, and the use of improvised explosive devices. According to Bharti, one key difference was that the Mumbai attacks lasted several days, and the Paris attackers killed themselves as soon as capture seemed imminent. Evidence points to the attackers having regularly used unencrypted communications during the planning of the attack.
The attackers killed 130 victims and injured between 352 and 368,with 80 to 99 taken to hospital in serious condition. Hours before the attacks, Paris's doctors had practiced a mass shooting emergency response rehearsal. Of the dead, 89 died at the Bataclan theatre, 19 at La Belle Équipe, 15 at Le Carillon and Le Petit Cambodge, five at Café Bonne Bière and La Casa Nostra, and one at Stade de France.
Among those who died at the Bataclan were a music critic of Les Inrockuptibles ,an executive of Mercury Records France, and the merchandise manager of Eagles of Death Metal, the band that was performing. Some people suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The hashtag #portesouvertes ("open doors") was used by Parisians to offer shelter to those afraid to travel home after the attacks.
As had been the case in January after the Charlie Hebdo attacks, the Place de la République became a focal point of mourning, memorial, and tributes.An impromptu memorial also developed near the Bataclan theatre. On 15 November, two days after the attacks, a memorial service was held at Notre Dame Cathedral, presided over by the Archbishop of Paris, Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, with several political and religious figures in attendance.
Muslim organisations in France, such as the Union of Islamic Organisations of France, strongly condemned the attacks in Paris.The attacks affected business at high-profile venues and shopping centres in Paris, and many Parisians were concerned the attacks might lead to a marginalisation of Muslims in the city. There was not the same call for solidarity with Islam, as in January, following the attacks. Sales of the French flag, which the French had rarely displayed prior to the attacks, increased dramatically after the attacks.
On 4 December, the Bonne Bière café reopened, adorned by a banner with the defiant slogan "Je suis en terrasse" ("I'm on the Terrace"). A street cleaner told France 24 that the city had removed six truckloads of wilted flowers and several kilograms of candles from memorials placed around this and the other shooting scenes: "We didn't really want to get rid of things, but it feels a bit like a cemetery with all the flowers."
President Hollande issued a statement asking the French people to remain strong in the face of the attacks.He also visited the Bataclan theatre and vowed to "mercilessly" fight against terrorism. Hollande chaired an emergency meeting of the French Cabinet that night and directed his national security council to meet the next morning. The authorities urged the residents of Paris to stay indoors for their own safety and declared a state of emergency. Hollande cancelled his trip to the 2015 G-20 Antalya summit because of the attacks, instead sending Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and Finance Minister Michel Sapin as his representatives. On 14 November, Hollande announced three days of national mourning. On 17 November, Hollande convened a special Congress of the French Parliament to address the attack and lay out legislative and diplomatic plans he wanted to take in response to them. These proposals included an extension of the state of emergency for three months, changes to the French constitution, one of which would enable France to protect itself from dual citizens who might pose a risk, and an increase in military attacks against ISIL.
On 4 December 2015, the French government published a guide in form of a cartoon on how to survive a terrorist attack. The guide is to be posted in public places and be available online.
In August 2016 minister of the interior Bernard Cazeneuve stated that about 20 radicalised mosques and further than some 80 hate preachers had been expelled from France since 2012.
On 15 November, the French Air Force launched the biggest airstrike of Opération Chammal, its bombing campaign against ISIL, sending 10 aircraft to drop 20 bombs on Raqqa, the city where ISIL is based.On 16 November, the French Air Force carried out more airstrikes on ISIL targets in Raqqa, including a command centre and a training camp. On 18 November 2015, French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle left its home port of Toulon heading towards the eastern Mediterranean to support bombing operations carried out by the international coalition. This decision was taken before the November attacks but was accelerated by the events.
French authorities regularly gave detailed information to US authorities on the whereabouts of high-ranking IS members in the Syria-Iraq zone to be tracked and killed. This cooperation was led to American air strikes being able to kill the planners of the 13 November 2015 attacks. United States authorities cooperate as they consider that if terrorist attacks hadn't happened in France, they would have happened in the US instead.
Applications to join the French Army, which were around 100–150 per day in 2014, rose to 1,500 in the week following the attacks, higher than the rise to 400 after the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January.
All major political parties, including Hollande's governing Socialist Party, Marine Le Pen's National Front, and Nicolas Sarkozy's Republicans temporarily suspended their election campaigns for the upcoming French regional elections.There was a nationwide minute of silence at noon which President Hollande and several ministers observed at a ceremony at the Paris Sorbonne University.
On 18 November, Hollande reaffirmed France's commitment to accept 30,000 Syrian refugees over the next two years.This was despite the doubts that the terror attack had sown in people's minds. His announcement drew a standing ovation from a gathering of French mayors.
However, in the election campaign for the regional elections of France, to begin on 6 December 2015, Marine Le Pen, leader of the far-right Front National party who is vying to be president of the Nord-Pas de Calais area, was recommending hardline security measures. She was getting a great deal of media attention with her strong anti-immigrant stance and may have been helping to sway public opinion across France. "The influx of migrants must be stopped," Le Pen told the CBC in an interview.Le Pen was doing well in opinion polls as of early December 2015. Since the elections would start only weeks after the Paris attacks, she was thought to be getting dividends from the timing, when the fear of terrorism was still very strong.
Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, rejected calls to rethink the European Union's policy on migration. Dismissing suggestions that open borders led to the attacks, Juncker said he believed that the attacks should be met with a stronger display of liberal values, including internal open borders.European Commission Vice-President Federica Mogherini and EU defence ministers unanimously backed France's request for help in military missions.
The United Kingdom has stated its intent to help France with operations in Syria,while some countries intend to aid France by taking over activities in Africa. Germany announced sending troops to Mali and military trainers to Kurdish forces in Iraq, and has on 4 December voted in favour of deploying aircraft and a frigate in an effort to aid the French forces over Syria.
The attacks prompted European officials to re-evaluate their stance on EU policy toward migrants, especially in light of the ongoing European migrant crisis.Many German officials believed a higher level of scrutiny was needed, and criticised German Chancellor Angela Merkel, while the German Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel defended her.
French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve said that he would meet with EU ministers to discuss how to deal with terrorism across the European Union.Meeting reports indicated that Schengen area border controls have been tightened for EU citizens entering or leaving, with passport checks and systematic screening against biometric databases.
Poland's European affairs minister designate Konrad Szymański declared that he saw no possibility of enacting the recent EU refugee relocation scheme.The new Prime Minister of Poland, Beata Szydło said she would ask the EU to change its decision on refugee quotas. Szydło said Poland would honour the commitment made by the previous government to accommodate 9,000 refugees.
Hungary's prime minister, Viktor Orbán, rejected the concept of mandatory resettlement quotas.
Czech Prime Minister, Bohuslav Sobotka, criticised president Miloš Zeman for supporting anti-Islamic groups and spreading hatred, according to Reuters, whose report adds that the Sobotka government has been deporting migrants.
Shortly after the attacks, intelligence staff in multiple countries began to review electronic surveillance recorded before the attacks.Adam Schiff, the ranking Democratic member of the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, said he did not know of any intercepted communications that would have provided warning of the attacks.
One source said the French National Police met with German police and intelligence services a month before the attack to discuss suspicions that terrorists were staking out possible targets in France. The exact targets were not known at that time.
Police in Germany stopped a car on 5 November, arrested its driver, and confiscated weapons that may have been connected to the Paris attacks.
Some of the attackers were known to law enforcement officials prior to the attacks, and at least some of the attackers had residences in the Molenbeek area of Brussels, which is noted for its links to extremist activities.A counter-terrorism expert said the fact that the perpetrators were known to authorities suggests that intelligence was "pretty good" but the ability to act on it was lacking. The number of Europeans who have links to Syria makes it difficult for security services to keep track of them all.
On 26 December 2015, "Belgian newspaper De Morgen reported that a police oversight body, known as Committee P," is investigating why prior warnings from a school about the radicalisation of one of the attackers, Bilal Hadfi, were not reported to Belgian law enforcement.
In response to the attacks, France was put under an état d'urgence (state of emergency) for the first time since the 2005 riots,borders were temporarily closed, and 1,500 soldiers were called in to help the police maintain order in Paris. The plan blanc (Île de France) and plan rouge (global), two contingency plans for times of emergency, were immediately activated.
Flights to and from Charles de Gaulle Airport and Orly Airport were mostly unaffected.American Airlines delayed flights to Paris until further notice. Many Paris Métro stations in the 10th and 11th arrondissements were shut down because of the attacks. Uber suspended car hails in Paris after the attacks.
All state schools and universities in Paris remained closed the next day.Sports events in France for the weekend of 14–15 November were postponed or cancelled. Disneyland Paris, which had operated every day since opening in 1992, closed its parks as a mark of respect for those who died in the attacks. The Eiffel Tower, a Paris landmark visited by 20,000 people a day, was closed for two days. Other venues that were to remain closed included shops and cinemas. Protests were banned until 19 November, while bands such as U2, Foo Fighters, Motörhead, and Coldplay cancelled performances in Paris.
The week after 20 November, Hollande was planning to travel to the US and Russia to discuss greater international co-operation against ISIL.
On 13 November, President Hollande declared the state of emergency.
On 20 November, the Senate in France agreed to extend the current state of emergency by three months; this measure gave police extra powers of detention and arrest intended to increase security, at the expense of some personal liberties. [ citation needed ](For effects, see also: 2016 Nice attack#Raids and house arrests under state of emergency.)
A next time, the state of emergency was extended until the end of July 2016.Further extensions followed after the attack in Nice on 14 July 2016.
Belgium immediately on 13 November tightened security along its border with France and increased security checks for people arriving from France.
Starting on 21 November 2015, the government of Belgium imposed a security lockdown on Brussels, including the closure of shops, schools, public transportation, due to information about potential terrorist attacks in the wake of the series of coordinated attacks in Paris.One of the perpetrators of the attack, Belgian-born French national Salah Abdeslam, was thought to be hiding in the city. As a result of warnings of a serious and imminent threat, the terror alert level was raised to the highest level (four) across the Brussels metropolitan area, and people were advised not to congregate publicly, effectively putting the city under lockdown.
Cities in the United States took security precautions, especially at sites where large crowds were expected, as well as sports events, concerts, the French embassy and other French government sites.William J. Bratton, the New York City Police Commissioner, said the Paris attacks have changed the way law enforcement deals with security. Singapore raised its national security alert level, stepping up border checks and security across the city-state. Police and military authorities in Manila were placed on full alert in preparation for the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting.
Many heads of state and heads of government, as well as the United Nations, offered messages of condolence and solidarity in the wake of the attacks.
The U.S. House of Representatives has passed a bill that made it more difficult for Syrian and Iraqi refugees to enter the United States.At least 31 governors of U.S. states declared they would refuse to accept Syrian refugees.
Muslim heads of state, scholars, imams, leaders and groups condemned the attacks, many before ISIL claimed responsibility.These included the imam who heads the University of Al-Azhar in Egypt; the Supreme council of Religious Scholars in Saudi Arabia; Iranian president Hassan Rouhani and the Ahmadiyya caliph Mirza Masroor Ahmad.
Syrian president Bashar al-Assad condemned the attacks, but added that France's support for Syrian rebel groups had contributed to the spread of terrorism.France had been a particularly vocal opponent of Assad during the Syrian civil war.
Ahrar ash-Sham and Jaysh al-Islam, the major mainstream Islamist rebels against the Syrian regime, both condemned the attacks.Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbollah, condemned the attacks, and expressed his solidarity with the French people. Other militant groups also condemned the attacks, including Hamas and Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.
The al-Nusra Front, the Syrian branch of Al-Qaeda, praised the attacks, saying that even though they viewed ISIL as "dogs of hellfire," they applauded when "infidels" get attacked by ISIL.
A few days after the attacks, on 17 November, a football friendly set to be played at HDI-Arena in Hannover between Germany (who had just been present at the Stade de France during the Paris attacks) and the Netherlands was cancelled and thousands of football fans evacuated from the arena following a bomb threat.The match, having been hailed as a "symbol of freedom" after the Paris attacks, was set to be attended in a show of solidarity with France by German chancellor Angela Merkel, vice-chancellor Sigmar Gabriel, several other German government ministers, as well as Dutch defence minister Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert and health and sport minister Edith Schippers.
According to a French intelligence dossier, five bombings had been prepared to be detonated at or around the stadium by a named five-member terror cell in a series of coordinated bomb attacks.German authorities refused to give more details on findings, with Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere claiming that "some of these answers would alarm the public." While police claimed to not have found any explosives, German newspapers published allegations of a cover-up, which claimed that a paramedic had witnessed explosives hidden in an ambulance at the stadium, before being told by special forces at the scene "to not talk about it." Another newspaper claimed it had been a truck bomb disguised as an ambulance. Three police officers were disciplined for leaking information about alleged bomb finds.
At the same time also in Hannover, the TUI Arena was evacuated before a concert by the band Soehne Mannheims, and a train station was closed off after a suspicious device was found.Later the same evening, two Air France flights headed from the United States to Paris were diverted because of bomb threats. The events followed the previous day, when a football match set to be played in Brussels between Belgium and Spain had also been cancelled over security concerns.
On 15 March 2016, Belgian police carried out a raid on a house in the suburb of Forest in Brussels. A police statement said that the raid was related to the Paris attacks.Four police officers were wounded in the raid, and a manhunt for escaped suspects followed.
On 18 March 2016, there were further raids in the Molenbeek area of Brussels.Two suspects were reportedly injured in one such raid and a third suspect was killed. Five people, one identified as Salah Abdeslam, suspected accomplice in the Paris attacks, were arrested during the raid.
One of the people who was present in the Bataclan theatre on 13 November 2015 during the terrorist attacks was a French artist who works under the pseudonym Fred Dewilde. In October 2016 he published a graphic novel about his firsthand experience of these tragic events, named Mon Bataclan.
The Bataclan is a theatre located at 50 Boulevard Voltaire in the 11th arrondissement of Paris, France. Designed in 1864 by the architect Charles Duval, its name refers to Ba-ta-clan, an operetta by Jacques Offenbach. Since the early 1970s, it has been a venue for rock music.
On 15 January 2015, Belgian police carried out a raid on premises in Verviers, Belgium. According to news sources, the raids were an anti-terrorist operation against Islamist radicals.
Hayat Boumeddiene is currently being sought by French police as a suspected accomplice of her common law husband Amedy Coulibaly, who was the main suspect for the Montrouge shooting, in which municipal police officer Clarissa Jean-Philippe was shot and killed, and was the hostage-taker and gunman in the Porte de Vincennes siege, in which he killed four hostages and was killed by police.
On the night of 13 November 2015, Paris suffered a series of terror attacks. In reaction to those events, many individuals, governments, and other organisations around the world expressed their solidarity with France and with the victims. Many world leaders issued statements, mostly strongly condemning the attacks and vowing to stand by and support France. Public vigils took place in many international cities, and a number of world landmarks were illuminated in the colours of the French flag. Members of the public expressed their solidarity through social media by sharing images, notably the "Peace for Paris" symbol, designed by the French graphic designer Jean Jullien, and through the slogans, "Pray for Paris" and "Je suis Paris".
Salah Abdeslam is a Belgium-born French national. He is suspected of being the only surviving member of the group directly involved in the attacks in Paris on 13 November 2015 through providing logistical support for the assailants, driving them to their target locations, and having some involvement in the manufacture of the explosives used.
On 20 December 2014, a man in Joué-lès-Tours near the city of Tours in central France entered a police station and attacked officers with a knife, shouting "Allahu Akbar" and injuring three before he was shot and killed. The attack was categorised as a case of religiously inspired terrorism by Europol, and has been reported by Europol as well as mappings by CNN and AFP as inspired by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
This article contains a timeline of events from January 2015 to December 2015 related to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/ISIS). For a list of other time periods, see Timeline of ISIL related events. This article contains information about events committed by or on behalf of the Islamic State, as well as events performed by groups who oppose them.
On 14 January 2016, multiple explosions and gunfire were reported near the Sarinah shopping mall in central Jakarta, Indonesia, at the intersection of Jalan Kyai Haji Wahid Hasyim and Jalan MH Thamrin. One blast went off in a Burger King restaurant outside the mall. The attack occurred near a United Nations (UN) information centre, as well as luxury hotels and foreign embassies, including France's. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) confirmed that a Dutch UN official was seriously injured in the attacks. It was reported an armed stand-off took place on the fourth level of the Menara Cakrawala on Jalan MH Thamrin. At least eight people—four attackers and four civilians —were killed, and 23 others were injured due to the attack. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility.
Najm al-'Ashrāwī, also known as Abū Idrīs al-Baljīkī or Soufiane Kayal, was a Belgian-Moroccan Islamic militant loyal to the Islamic State and was one of two suicide bombers at the Brussels Airport in the 2016 Brussels bombings. The Islamic State confirmed that he was responsible for making all the explosives used in the November 2015 Paris attacks.
Osama Krayem, also known as Naïm or Naim al Hamed, is a Swedish national of Syrian origin and a suspected terrorist involved in the 2016 Brussels bombings. He was one of five men arrested on 8 April 2016 by the Belgian police.
The Brussels ISIL terror cell were a group accused of involvement in large-scale terrorist attacks in Paris in November 2015 and Brussels in early 2016, as well as other attacks against European targets. The terror cell is connected to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a jihadist terrorist organisation primarily based in Syria and Iraq and led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
On 13 June 2016, a police officer and his partner, a police secretary, were stabbed to death in their home in Magnanville, France, located about 55 km (34 mi) west of Paris, by a man convicted in 2013 of associating with a group planning terrorist acts. Amaq News Agency, an online outlet said to be sponsored by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), said that a source had claimed that ISIL was behind the attack, an assertion that was later validated.
On the evening of 14 July 2016, a 19-tonne cargo truck was deliberately driven into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, France, resulting in the deaths of 86 people and the injury of 458 others. The driver was Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, a Tunisian resident of France. The attack ended following an exchange of gunfire, during which Lahouaiej-Bouhlel was shot and killed by police.
Islamic terrorism in Europe has been carried out by the Islamic State (ISIS) or Al-Qaeda as well as Islamist lone wolves since the late 20th century.
On 4 September 2016, a car containing seven canisters of gas and pages with Arabic writing was found parked near Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral in Paris.
ISIL-related terror attacks in France refers to the terrorist activity of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in France, including attacks committed by ISIL-inspired lone wolves. The French military operation Opération Sentinelle has been ongoing in France since the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks.
On 12 May 2018, a 21-year-old Chechnya-born French citizen, armed with a knife, killed one pedestrian and injured several more near the Palais Garnier, the opera house in Paris, France, before being fatally shot by police. The knifings were in the area of Rue Saint-Augustin and Passage Choiseul. French President Emmanuel Macron said France had "paid once again the price of blood but will not cede an inch to the enemies of freedom." The suspect, identified as Khamzat Azimov, had been on a counter-terrorism watchlist since 2016. Amaq News Agency posted a video of a hooded person pledging allegiance to Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, claimed to be the attacker. Europol classified the attack as jihadist terrorism.
The group says the killings were in response to airstrikes against its militants in Syria, adding France would remain a "key target".
Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attacks on a social media account, but didn't provide specific information that would allow the claim to be verified. It said that the attacks were retaliation for French airstrikes against the group in Syria and Iraq.
The French prime minister, Manuel Valls, said some of the killers had taken advantage of Europe's migrant crisis to "slip in" unnoticed.
As waves of refugees from Syria converged on Europe this summer, law enforcement authorities feared this scenario: That terrorist operatives would slip in among the multitudes [...] Last week's attacks on France may have validated some of those fears. At least three of the seven known attackers and the suspected ringleader, Abdelhamid Abaaoud [...] are thought to have crossed clandestinely from Syria into Europe.
[O]ne of them shouted, "What you are doing in Syria, you are going to pay for it now!"
"I clearly heard them say 'It's the fault of (French President Francois) Hollande, it's the fault of your president, he should not have intervened in Syria'. They also spoke about Iraq", said Pierre Janaszak
Selon plusieurs sources concordantes, l'assaut est terminé au Bataclan. Selon BFM-TV, deux terroristes auraient été tués.
list of some of the seven attackers who died [...] Ismail Omar Mostefai, 29 (born Nov. 21, 1985), Frenchman of Algerian descent involved in Bataclan concert hall attack [...] Samy Amimour, 28 (born Oct. 15, 1987), involved in Bataclan attack. French, from Drancy, Saint Denis, north of Paris [...] Brahim Abdeslam, 31 (born July 30, 1984),[...] French, resident of Belgium. Blew himself up at Comptoir Voltaire café in Paris. [...] Bilal Hadfi, 20 (born Jan 22, 1995). Involved in Stade de France attack. [...] Suicide bomber involved in Stade de France attack. Passport found beside dead body of kamikaze bomber carries name of Ahmad Al Mohammad, 25, (born Sept. 10 1990), from Idlib, northwest Syria.
Since his arrest on Wednesday, November 18, Jawad Bendaoud insists that he did not know the identity of his three recent "tenants" of 8, rue du Corbillon: Abdelhamid Abaaoud, the alleged instigator of the attacks of November 13, his cousin Hasna Aït Boulahcen, as well as a third man with an unknown identity. All killed during the RAID assault.
In their order signed Wednesday, the investigating magistrates ordered that Jawad Bendaoud be tried for " concealment of terrorist criminals ", said the source, a crime punishable by a six-year prison sentence as he is in a state of recidivism .
La Mairie de Paris appelle les habitants de la capitale à rester chez eux