|2015 Beirut bombings|
|Part of the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon|
Bourj el-Barajneh entrance in the Palestinian refugee camp
|Location||Bourj el-Barajneh, Beirut, Lebanon|
|Date||12 November 2015|
|Two unidentified Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militants.|
On 12 November 2015, two suicide bombers detonated explosives in Bourj el-Barajneh, a southern suburb of Beirut, Lebanon, that is inhabited mostly by Shia Muslims.Reports of the number of fatalities concluded that around 89 people were killed, 43 directly died from the detonation, then many followed during treatment or from injury. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Bourj el-Barajneh is a municipality located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, in Lebanon. The municipality lies between Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport and the town of Haret Hreik.
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. No recent population census has been conducted, but 2007 estimates ranged from slightly more than 1 million to 2.2 million as part of Greater Beirut. Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast, Beirut is the country's largest and main seaport.
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.
The bombings were the worst terrorist attack in Beirut since the end of the Lebanese Civil War. They came twelve days after the bombing of a Russian airliner over the Sinai Peninsula that killed 224 people and a day before attacks in Paris that killed 137.ISIL claimed responsibility for these attacks as well.
The Lebanese Civil War was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities. As of 2012, approximately 76,000 people remain displaced within Lebanon. There was also an exodus of almost one million people from Lebanon as a result of the war.
Metrojet Flight 9268 was an international chartered passenger flight, operated by Russian airline Kogalymavia. On 31 October 2015 at 06:13 local time EST, an Airbus A321-231 operating the flight was destroyed by a bomb above the northern Sinai following its departure from Sharm El Sheikh International Airport, Egypt, en route to Pulkovo Airport, Saint Petersburg, Russia. All 224 passengers and crew who were on board were killed. The cause of the crash was most likely an onboard explosive device as concluded by Russian investigators.
The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that took place on 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis. Beginning at 21:16 CET, three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, during a football match. This was followed by several mass shootings and a suicide bombing, at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre, leading to a stand-off with police. The attackers were shot or blew themselves up when police raided the theatre.
Around 48 hours after the attack, Internal Security Forces arrested eleven people, mostly Syrians, over the attack. It later announced the arrest of two other Syrian and Lebanese suspects. They were arrested in a Palestinian refugee camp located in Burj al-Barajneh and a flat in the capital's eastern district of Achrafieh, which had allegedly been used to prepare the explosive belts. The initial plan was apparently to send five suicide bombers to a hospital in the neighbourhood, but heavy security forced them to change the target to a densely populated area.
The Internal Security Forces Directorate is the national police and security force of Lebanon.
Achrafieh also spelled Ashrafieh and Ashrafiyeh, is one of the oldest districts of Beirut, Lebanon.
Since 2011 the neighbouring country of Syria has been in a state of civil war. Shortly after its commencement, Lebanese groups have been divided along similar lines as in Syria, including participating in the war (such as Hezbollah involvement in Syria), as well as defending Lebanon within Lebanon itself. Lebanon has also faced a political vacuum since a continual failure to elect a new president (which has been requisite for a parliamentary election) since April 2014.
Hezbollah involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial since the beginning of armed insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War, and turned into active support and troop deployment from 2012 onwards. By 2014, Hezbollah involvement begun to turn steady in support of Syrian Ba'athist Government forces across Syria. Hezbollah deployed several thousand fighters in Syria and by 2015 lost up to 1,500 fighters in combat. Hezbollah has also been very active to prevent rebel penetration from Syria to Lebanon, being one of the most active forces in the Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon.
Two suicide bombings occurred in a commercial district of the Bourj el-Barajneh suburb of Southern Beirut, near the General Security Post in Hussaineya street, an apparent known stronghold of the Shia Hezbollah, according to al-Manar television,The first bombing occurred outside a Shia mosque, while the second took place inside a nearby bakery before 18:00. The second blast occurred about 20 metres away and five to seven minutes after the first one as passers-by tried to help the injured of the initial blast. A potential third attacker was killed before exploding his vest. He was found dead with his legs torn off but still wearing an explosives belt, according to an unnamed Lebanese security official. An unnamed government employee speculated that he was killed by the second explosion due to his proximity to that blast. Al Mayadeen also reported about the would-be bomber and showed a video of a bearded young man with an explosives belt. Hezbollah's Bilal Farhat said: "They targeted civilians, worshippers, unarmed people, women and elderly, they only targeted innocent people ... [it was a] satanic, terrorist attack." Lebanese security forces and Hezbollah gunmen cordoned off the area.
Al-Manar is a Lebanese satellite television station affiliated with Hezbollah, broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon.
Al Mayadeen is a pan-Arabist satellite television channel launched on 11 June 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon. Its programming is predominantly news. It has news reporters in most Arab countries. In the pan-Arab TV news market it competes against Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya, and also against Sky News Arabia and BBC Arabic Television. At its founding in 2012, many of Al Mayadeen's senior staff were formerly correspondents and editors at Al Jazeera. Al Mayadeen is viewed as pro-Hezbollah and pro-Syrian government.
The Health Ministry reported at least 43 deaths initially, with Health Minister Wael Abu Faour adding that 239 people were injured,but that the total casualty count was expected to rise due to some of the wounded people being in critical condition. Later the casualities rose to 89 people. Lebanon's International Red Cross and Red Crescent Society affiliate said that over 200 people were injured. Hospitals in the area called for people to donate blood due to an unprecedented number of casualties. Emergency services personnel asked by-standers to leave the area as they were hindering ambulances from ferrying the injured to medical institutions.
Amongst the initial casualties were two staff members of the American University of Beirut, according to the school, although no further details were announced.Three Lebanese-American residents of Dearborn, Michigan—a 49-year-old woman and a young couple—were killed, while the couple's three-year-old son was severely injured.
Hajj Hussein Yaari (Abu Murdata), a senior figure in the Hezbollah security system, was reportedly killed in the attack.
It was reported that one of the bombs exploded when Adel Termos, a resident of Beirut, tackled one of the bombers, thereby potentially saving many lives. Both Termos and the bomber were killed when the bomb detonated. On social media, Termos was hailed as a hero.
Within two days, six suspects were arrested over the bombing. They reportedly included five Syrians and a Palestinian.Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, Lebanon's Hezbollah leader, said Syrian and Lebanese detainees were arrested on suspicion of being involved in the bombings.
A man was arrested who claimed he planned to blow himself up in a café in the Jabal Mohsen neighbourhood of Tripoli, simultaneously with the other bombers, one of whom he named as Abou Khaled of Palestine, who had travelled with him to Lebanon from Syria. Investigations also drew connections between these bombings and one in Arsal which killed four people on November 5.
ISIL had reportedly assumed responsibility for the blasts, saying two Palestinians and a Syrian had carried out the attacks.In a post from an unspecified Twitter account, the group said that they perpetrated one of the attacks, noting that its agents blew up a bike with explosives in the middle of a street. While not mentioning the third bomber, the group's claim, as translated, reportedly read in part: "Let the Shiite apostates know that we will not rest until we take revenge in the name of the Prophet." An internet statement on an unspecified site reportedly further stated the "soldiers of the Caliphate" perpetrated the attack.
On November 26, Al-Manar reported that a team of Syrian and Hezbollah agents had killed Abdul-Salam Hendawi, suspected of smuggling the two bombers into Lebanon from Raqqa, during an assault in Homs Governorate. It did not report when this took place.
Acting President and Prime Minister Tammam Salam declared a day of national mourning for 13 November.He said the bombings were "unjustifiable," and called for government unity against "plans to create strife" in the country. Interior Minister Nouhad Machnouk echoed the condemnation and added "we will not be lenient in apprehending those behind these attacks."
Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc's Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah's assistant, Hussein Khalil, said: "What happened here is a crime...this battle against terrorists will continue and it is a long war between us."Nasrallah himself later said that such incidents only increase "our determination to fight" in the Syrian Civil War and that the goal of the attack "is to put pressure on Hezbollah [to withdraw from Syria], but they know very well these bombings will not benefit them at all. This will have the opposite effect." He further noted: "Palestinians and Syrians were among the martyrs and wounded. This terrorism does not differentiate [between its victims]. If [Daesh] assume that killing our men and women and children and burning our markets could weaken our determination, then they are mistaken;" while adding that the arrests of two Palestinians and a Syrian over the attack were inaccurate and were intended to raise discord. He added his gratitude to the security forces and civilians who offered aid following the attack.
Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon called on Lebanon to "not allow this despicable act to destroy the relative calm that has prevailed in the country over the past year."UN Special Coordinator for Lebanon Sigrid Kaag denounced the "heinous attack," called for those responsible to be brought to justice and said the international community was standing by Lebanon.
Government officials for several states issued condemnations of the attacks and condolences to those affected. These included the Czech Republic, France, Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Qatar, and the United States.
Amnesty International issues a censure saying that the attack revealed "appalling disregard for human life."
Hassan Nasrallah is the third and current Secretary General of the Lebanese political and paramilitary party Hezbollah since his predecessor, Abbas al-Musawi, was assassinated by the Israel Defense Forces in February 1992. Nasrallah is often referred to as "al-Sayyid Hassan", the honorific "Sayyid" denoting descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandson Husain ibn Ali. Under his tenure, Hezbollah has been designated a terrorist organization, either wholly or in part, by the United States and other nations, as well as by the European Union. Russia rejects the claims that Hezbollah is a terrorist organization, and considers Hezbollah a legitimate sociopolitical organization. The People's Republic of China remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah.
The Islamic Jihad Organization – IJO or Organisation du Jihad Islamique (OJI) in French, but best known as "Islamic Jihad" for short, was a Shia militia known for its activities in the 1980s during the Lebanese Civil War. They demanded the departure of all Americans from Lebanon and took responsibility for a number of kidnappings, assassinations, and bombings of embassies and peacekeeping troops which killed several hundred people. Their deadliest attacks were in 1983, when they carried out the bombing of the barracks of French and U.S. MNF peacekeeping troops, and that of the United States embassy in Beirut.
Imad Fayez Mughniyeh, alias al-Hajj Radwan, was the founding member of Lebanon's Islamic Jihad Organization and number two in Hezbollah's leadership. Information about Mughniyeh is limited, but he is believed to have been Hezbollah's Chief of Staff and understood to have overseen Hezbollah's military, intelligence, and security apparatuses. He was one of the main founders of Hezbollah in the 1980s. He has been described as "a brilliant military tactician and very elusive".
Since 2004, a series of bombings and assassinations have struck Lebanon, most of them occurring in and around the capital, Beirut. This wave of bombings began with the assassination attempt on Marwan Hmade, then peaked with the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri on 14 February 2005, which touched off the Cedar Revolution and the withdrawal of Syrian troops. After the massive protests sparked by Hariri's killing, several more bombings hit Lebanon.
The South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) or the Security Zone conflict in Lebanon refers to 15 years of warfare between the Lebanese Christian proxy militias SLA with military and logistic support of Israel Defense Forces against Lebanese Muslim guerrillas led by the Iranian-backed Hezbollah, within what was defined as the "Security Zone" in South Lebanon. It can also refer to the continuation of conflict in this region, beginning with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) operations transfer to South Lebanon, following Black September in the Kingdom of Jordan. Historical tension between Palestinian refugees and Lebanese factions fomented the violent Lebanese internal political struggle between many different factions. In light of this, the South Lebanon conflict can be seen as a part of the Lebanese Civil War.
Dahieh, Beirut is a predominantly Shia Muslim suburb south of Beirut, locating in the Baabda District, Lebanon, composed of several towns and municipalities. There is also a minority of coexisting Sunni Muslims. They also inhabit a Palestinian refugee camp which has 20,000 inhabitants. It is located north of the Rafic Hariri International Airport, with the Airport Road passing through it. Prior to the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, it was a residential area as well as a commercial area with malls and stores. The district is home to many souks. It's also the Beirut stronghold of the Shi'ite Islamist group, Hezbollah, and it had a large auditoriums in Haret Hreik, Hadeth, Beirut and Bourj al-Barajne where Hezbollah followers gather during special occasions.
Hezbollah has a military branch and is the sponsor of a number of lesser-known groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah itself. These groups include the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, and Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.
The Abdullah Azzam Brigades, or al-Qaeda in Lebanon, is a Sunni Islamist militant group, and the al-Qaeda's branch in Lebanon. The group, which began operating in 2009, was founded by Saudi Saleh Al-Qaraawi and has local networks in various countries, mainly in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Gaza Strip and Lebanon.
Events in the year 2003 in Israel.
On 19 October 2012, Wissam al-Hassan, a brigadier general of the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) and the head of its intelligence-oriented information branch, died along with several others killed by a car bomb in the Achrafieh district of Beirut. The killing of a senior figure closely linked with the anti-Assad camp in Lebanon led to immediate speculation that Syria, or its allies, were behind the attack in Beirut. Al-Hassan had also led the investigation that implicated Syria and its ally Hezbollah in the killing of the former prime minister Rafik Hariri.
The Iranian embassy bombing was a double suicide bombing that occurred in front of the Iranian embassy in Beirut, Lebanon on 19 November 2013. The two bombings resulted in 23 deaths and injured at least 160 others.
From its inception, the Syrian Civil War has produced and inspired a great deal of strife and unrest in the nation of Lebanon. Prior to the Battle of Arsal in August 2014, the Lebanese Army has tried to keep out of it and the violence has been mostly between various factions within the country and overt Syrian involvement has been limited to airstrikes and occasional accidental incursions.
The following lists events that happened in 2014 in Lebanon.
From its inception, the Syrian Civil War has produced and inspired a great deal of strife and unrest in the nation of Lebanon. Prior to the Battle of Arsal in August 2014, the Lebanese Army has tried to keep out of it and the violence has been mostly between various factions within the country and overt Syrian involvement has been limited to airstrikes and occasional accidental incursions. Since then, the Lebanese armed forces have taken a major part in the frey within Lebanon, and there have been jihadist attempts at invasion which have been repulsed by both the Army and Hezbullah.
On 10 January 2015, nine people were killed and more than 30 wounded when two suicide bombers blew themselves up in a crowded café in Jabal Mohsen, Tripoli, Lebanon.