Recreational drug use

Last updated

Adriaen Brouwer, The Smokers (1636) Adriaen Brower - The Smokers.jpg
Adriaen Brouwer, The Smokers (1636)
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876) Edgar Degas - In a Cafe - Google Art Project 2.jpg
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876)

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user. When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it induces an intoxicating effect. Generally, recreational drugs are divided into three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calmness); stimulants (drugs that induce a sense of energy and alertness); and hallucinogens (drugs that induce perceptual distortions such as hallucination).


In popular practice, recreational drug use generally is a tolerated social behaviour, rather than perceived as the medical condition of self-medication. [1] However, heavy use of some drugs is socially stigmatized. Many people also use prescribed and controlled depressants such as opioids, along with opiates, and benzodiazepines.

Recreational drugs include alcohol, commonly found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits; weed and hashish. (with legality of possession varying inter/intra-nationally); nicotine, commonly found in tobacco; caffeine, commonly found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, prescription drugs and the controlled substances listed as controlled drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations and cocoa, commonly found in chocolate, What controlled substances are considered generally unlawful to possess varies by country, but usually includes methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, MDMA, Lean, and club drugs. In 2015, it was estimated that about 5% of people aged 15 to 65 had used controlled drugs at least once (158 million to 351 million). [2]

Reasons for use

Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India. Bhang eaters before two huts (6124556163).jpg
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India Ganja Smoking - Gangasagar Fair Transit Camp - Kolkata 2013-01-12 2646.JPG
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India

Many researchers have explored the etiology of recreational drug use. Some of the most common theories are: genetics, personality type, psychological problems, self-medication, sex, age, instant gratification, basic human need, curiosity, rebelliousness, a sense of belonging to a group, family and attachment issues, history of trauma, failure at school or work, socioeconomic stressors, peer pressure, juvenile delinquency, availability, historical factors, or sociocultural influences. [4] There has not been agreement around any one single cause. Instead, experts tend to apply the biopsychosocial model. Any number of these factors are likely to influence an individual's drug use as they are not mutually exclusive. [4] [5] Regardless of genetics, mental health or traumatic experiences, social factors play a large role in exposure to and availability of certain types of drugs and patterns of drug use. [4] [6]

According to addiction researcher Martin A. Plant, many people go through a period of self-redefinition before initiating recreational drug use. They tend to view using drugs as part of a general lifestyle that involves belonging to a subculture that they associate with heightened status and the challenging of social norms. Plant says, "From the user's point of view there are many positive reasons to become part of the milieu of drug taking. The reasons for drug use appear to have as much to do with needs for friendship, pleasure and status as they do with unhappiness or poverty. Becoming a drug taker, to many people, is a positive affirmation rather than a negative experience". [4]


Anthropological research has suggested that humans "may have evolved to counter-exploit plant neurotoxins". The ability to use botanical chemicals to serve the function of endogenous neurotransmitters may have improved survival rates, conferring an evolutionary advantage. A typically restrictive prehistoric diet may have emphasised the apparent benefit of consuming psychoactive drugs, which had themselves evolved to imitate neurotransmitters. [7] Chemical–ecological adaptations, and the genetics of hepatic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450, have led researchers to propose that "humans have shared a co-evolutionary relationship with psychotropic plant substances that is millions of years old." [8]


Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis and ranked 20 popular recreational drugs by their dependence liability and physical and social harms. Rational harm assessment of drugs radar plot.svg
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis and ranked 20 popular recreational drugs by their dependence liability and physical and social harms.
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room Vytrezvitel' pri Moskovskoi chasti Peterburga.jpg
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room

Severity and type of risks that come with recreational drug use vary widely with the drug in question and the amount being used. There are many factors in the environment and within the user that interact with each drug differently. Overall, some studies suggest that alcohol is one of the most dangerous of all recreational drugs; only heroin, crack cocaine, and methamphetamines are judged to be more harmful. However, studies which focus on a moderate level of alcohol consumption have concluded that there can be substantial health benefits from its use, such as decreased risk of cardiac disease, stroke and cognitive decline. [10] [11] [12] [13] This claim has been disputed. Researcher David Nutt stated that these studies showing benefits for "moderate" alcohol consumption lacked control for the variable of what the subjects were drinking, beforehand. [14] Experts in the UK have suggested that some drugs that may be causing less harm, to fewer users (although they are also used less frequently in the first place), include cannabis, psilocybin mushrooms, LSD, and ecstasy. These drugs are not without their own particular risks. [15]

Responsible use

The concept of "responsible drug use" is that a person can use drugs recreationally or otherwise with reduced or eliminated risk of negatively affecting other aspects of one's life or other people's lives. Advocates of this philosophy point to the many well-known artists and intellectuals who have used drugs, experimentally or otherwise, with few detrimental effects on their lives. Responsible drug use becomes problematic only when the use of the substance significantly interferes with the user's daily life.

Responsible drug use advocates that users should not take drugs at the same time as activities such as driving, swimming, operating machinery, or other activities that are unsafe without a sober state. Responsible drug use is emphasized as a primary prevention technique in harm-reduction drug policies. Harm-reduction policies were popularized in the late 1980s, although they began in the 1970s counter-culture, when cartoons explaining responsible drug use and the consequences of irresponsible drug use were distributed to users. [16] Another issue is that the illegality of drugs in itself also causes social and economic consequences for those using them—the drugs may be "cut" with adulterants and the purity varies wildly, making overdoses more likely—and legalization of drug production and distribution would reduce these and other dangers of illegal drug use. [17] Harm reduction seeks to minimize the harm that can occur through the use of various drugs, whether legal (e.g., alcohol and nicotine), or illegal (e.g., heroin and cocaine). For example, people who take drugs intravenously (cocaine, heroin) can minimize harm to both themselves and members of the community through proper injecting technique, using new needles and syringes each time, and proper disposal of all injecting equipment.


In efforts to curtail recreational drug use, governments worldwide introduced several laws prohibiting the possession of almost all varieties of recreational drugs during the 20th century. The West's "War on Drugs" however, is now facing increasing criticism. Evidence is insufficient to tell if behavioral interventions help prevent recreational drug use in children. [18]

One in four adolescents has used an illegal drug and one in ten of those adolescents who need addiction treatment get some type of care. [19] School-based programs are the most commonly used method for drug use education; however, the success rates of these intervention programs is highly dependent on the commitment of participants, and is limited in general. [20]

Studies have also shown that home intervention is also effective in decreasing the appeal of drugs.


Male Smoking by Country.png
Smoking any tobacco product, %, Males [21]
Female Smoking by Country.png
Smoking any tobacco product, %, Females [21]
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol Alcohol by Country.png
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol


Alcohol is the most widely used drug in Australia. [23] 86.2% of Australians aged 12 years and over have consumed alcohol at least once in their lifetime, compared to 34.8% of Australians aged 12 years and over who have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime. [23]

United States

In the 1960s, the counterculture movement introduced the use of psychoactive drugs, including cannabis. Young adults and college students reported the recreational prevalence of cannabis, among other drugs, at 20-25% while the cultural mindset of using was open and curious. [24] In 1969, the FBI reported that between the years 1966 and 1968, the number of arrests for marijuana possession, which had been outlawed throughout the United States under Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, had increased by 98%. [25] Despite acknowledgement that drug use was greatly growing among America's youth during the late 1960s, surveys have suggested that only as much as 4% of the American population had ever smoked marijuana by 1969. [26] By 1972, however, that number would increase to 12%. [26] That number would then double by 1977. [26]

The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 classified marijuana along with heroin and LSD as a Schedule I drug, i.e., having the relatively highest abuse potential and no accepted medical use. [27] Most marijuana at that time came from Mexico, but in 1975 the Mexican government agreed to eradicate the crop by spraying it with the herbicide paraquat, raising fears of toxic side effects. [27] Colombia then became the main supplier. [27] The "zero tolerance" climate of the Reagan and Bush administrations (1981–93) resulted in passage of strict laws and mandatory sentences for possession of marijuana and in heightened vigilance against smuggling at the southern borders.[ citation needed ] The "war on drugs" thus brought with it a shift from reliance on imported supplies to domestic cultivation (particularly in Hawaii and California). [27] Beginning in 1982, the Drug Enforcement Administration turned increased attention to marijuana farms in the United States, [27] and there was a shift to the indoor growing of plants specially developed for small size and high yield. [27] After over a decade of decreasing use, marijuana smoking began an upward trend once more in the early 1990s, [27] especially among teenagers, [27] but by the end of the decade this upswing had leveled off well below former peaks of use. [27]

Society and culture

Many movements and organizations are advocating for or against the liberalization of the use of recreational drugs, notably cannabis legalization. Subcultures have emerged among users of recreational drugs, as well as among those who abstain from them, such as teetotalism and "straight edge".

The prevalence of recreational drugs in human societies is widely reflected in fiction, entertainment, and the arts, subject to prevailing laws and social conventions. In video games, for example, drugs are portrayed in a variety of ways: including power-ups (cocaine gum replenishes stamina in Red Dead Redemption 2 ), obstacles to be avoided (such as the Fuzzies in Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island that distort the player's view when accidentally consumed), items to be bought and sold for in-game currency (coke dealing is big part of Scarface: The World Is Yours). In 1997's Fallout, drugs ("chems" in the game) can fill the role of any above mentioned.

Common recreational drugs

The following substances are used recreationally: [28]

Routes of administration

Insufflation of caffeine powder Caffeineinsufflation.JPG
Insufflation of caffeine powder
Injection of heroin Injecting Heroin.JPG
Injection of heroin

Drugs are often associated with a particular route of administration. Many drugs can be consumed in more than one way. For example, marijuana can be swallowed like food or smoked, and cocaine can be "sniffed" in the nostrils, injected, or, with various modifications, smoked.

Many drugs are taken through various routes. Intravenous route is the most efficient, but also one of the most dangerous. Nasal, rectal, inhalation and smoking are safer. The oral route is one of the safest and most comfortable, but of little bioavailability.



Depressants are psychoactive drugs that temporarily diminish the function or activity of a specific part of the body or mind. [54] Colloquially, depressants are known as "downers", and users generally take them to feel more relaxed and less tense. Examples of these kinds of effects may include anxiolysis, sedation, and hypotension. Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. When these are used, effects may include anxiolysis (reduction of anxiety), analgesia (pain relief), sedation, somnolence, cognitive/memory impairment, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure/heart rate, respiratory depression, anesthesia, and anticonvulsant effects. Depressants exert their effects through a number of different pharmacological mechanisms, the most prominent of which include potentiation of GABA or opioid activity, and inhibition of adrenergic, histamine or acetylcholine activity. Some are also capable of inducing feelings of euphoria. The most widely used depressant by far is alcohol (i.e. ethanol).

Stimulants or "uppers", such as amphetamines or cocaine, which increase mental or physical function, have an opposite effect to depressants.

Depressants, in particular alcohol, can precipitate psychosis. A 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis by Murrie et al. found that the rate of transition from opioid, alcohol and sedative induced psychosis to schizophrenia was 12%, 10% and 9% respectively. [55]


Antihistamines (or "histamine antagonists") inhibit the release or action of histamine. "Antihistamine" can be used to describe any histamine antagonist, but the term is usually reserved for the classical antihistamines that act upon the H1 histamine receptor. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction causes release of histamine by the body. Other uses of antihistamines are to help with normal symptoms of insect stings even if there is no allergic reaction. Their recreational appeal exists mainly due to their anticholinergic properties, that induce anxiolysis and, in some cases such as diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, and orphenadrine, a characteristic euphoria at moderate doses.[ citation needed ] High dosages taken to induce recreational drug effects may lead to overdoses. Antihistamines are also consumed in combination with alcohol, particularly by youth who find it hard to obtain alcohol. The combination of the two drugs can cause intoxication with lower alcohol doses.

Hallucinations and possibly delirium resembling the effects of Datura stramonium can result if the drug is taken in much higher than therapeutic doses. Antihistamines are widely available over the counter at drug stores (without a prescription), in the form of allergy medication and some cough medicines. They are sometimes used in combination with other substances such as alcohol. The most common unsupervised use of antihistamines in terms of volume and percentage of the total is perhaps in parallel to the medicinal use of some antihistamines to extend and intensify the effects of opioids and depressants. The most commonly used are hydroxyzine, mainly to extend a supply of other drugs, as in medical use, and the above-mentioned ethanolamine and alkylamine-class first-generation antihistamines, which are – once again as in the 1950s – the subject of medical research into their anti-depressant properties.

For all of the above reasons, the use of medicinal scopolamine for recreational uses is also observed.


Analgesics (also known as "painkillers") are used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). The word analgesic derives from Greek "αν-" (an-, "without") and "άλγος" (álgos, "pain"). Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems; they include paracetamol (also known in the US as acetaminophen), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates (e.g. aspirin), and opioid drugs such as hydrocodone, codeine, heroin and oxycodone. Some further examples of the brand name prescription opiates and opioid analgesics that may be used recreationally include Vicodin, Lortab, Norco (hydrocodone), Avinza, Kapanol (morphine), Opana, Paramorphan (oxymorphone), Dilaudid, Palladone (hydromorphone), and OxyContin (oxycodone).


The following are examples of tranquilizers (GABAergics):


Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant Cocaine lines 2.jpg
Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant

Stimulants, also known as "psychostimulants", [56] induce euphoria with improvements in mental and physical function, such as enhanced alertness, wakefulness, and locomotion. Stimulants are also occasionally called "uppers". Depressants or "downers", which decrease mental or physical function, are in stark contrast to stimulants and are considered to be their functional opposites.

Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects may include increased alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, arousal, locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and a diminished desire for food and sleep.

Use of stimulants may cause the body to significantly reduce its production of endogenous compounds that fulfill similar functions. Once the effect of the ingested stimulant has worn off the user may feel depressed, lethargic, confused, and dysphoric. This is colloquially termed a "crash" and may promote reuse of the stimulant.

Amphetamines are a significant cause of drug-induced psychosis. Importantly, a 2019 meta-analysis found that 22% of people with amphetamine-induced psychosis transition to a later diagnosis of schizophrenia. [55]

Examples of stimulants include:



Hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. They can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness. Unlike other psychoactive drugs such as stimulants and opioids, hallucinogens do not merely amplify familiar states of mind but also induce experiences that differ from those of ordinary consciousness, often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, meditation, conversion experiences, and dreams.

Psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants have a long worldwide history of use within medicinal and religious traditions. They are used in shamanic forms of ritual healing and divination, in initiation rites, and in the religious rituals of syncretistic movements such as União do Vegetal, Santo Daime, Temple of the True Inner Light, and the Native American Church. When used in religious practice, psychedelic drugs, as well as other substances like tobacco, are referred to as entheogens.

Hallucinogen-induced psychosis occurs when psychosis persists despite no longer being intoxicated with the drug. It is estimated that 26% of people with hallucinogen-induced psychosis will transition to a diagnosis of schizophrenia. This percentage is less than the psychosis transition rate for cannabis (34%) but higher than that of amphetamines (22%). [55]

Starting in the mid-20th century, psychedelic drugs have been the object of extensive attention in the Western world. They have been and are being explored as potential therapeutic agents in treating depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcoholism, and opioid addiction. Yet the most popular, and at the same time most stigmatized, use of psychedelics in Western culture has been associated with the search for direct religious experience, enhanced creativity, personal development, and "mind expansion". The use of psychedelic drugs was a major element of the 1960s counterculture, where it became associated with various social movements and a general atmosphere of rebellion and strife between generations.


Inhalants are gases, aerosols, or solvents that are breathed in and absorbed through the lungs. While some "inhalant" drugs are used for medical purposes, as in the case of nitrous oxide, a dental anesthetic, inhalants are used as recreational drugs for their intoxicating effect. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled, including organic solvents (found in cleaning products, fast-drying glues, and nail polish removers), fuels (gasoline (petrol) and kerosene), and propellant gases such as Freon and compressed hydrofluorocarbons that are used in aerosol cans such as hairspray, whipped cream, and non-stick cooking spray. A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly, such as anesthetics (ether and nitrous oxide) and volatile anti-angina drugs (alkyl nitrites, poppers).

The most serious inhalant abuse occurs among children and teens who "[...] live on the streets completely without family ties". [63] Inhalant users inhale vapor or aerosol propellant gases using plastic bags held over the mouth or by breathing from a solvent-soaked rag or an open container. The effects of inhalants range from an alcohol-like intoxication and intense euphoria to vivid hallucinations, depending on the substance and the dosage. Some inhalant users are injured due to the harmful effects of the solvents or gases, or due to other chemicals used in the products inhaled. As with any recreational drug, users can be injured due to dangerous behavior while they are intoxicated, such as driving under the influence. Computer cleaning dusters are dangerous to inhale, because the gases expand and cool rapidly upon being sprayed. In many cases, users have died from hypoxia (lack of oxygen), pneumonia, cardiac failure or arrest, [64] or aspiration of vomit.

Examples include:

List of drugs which can be smoked


Substances (also not necessarily psychoactive plants smoked within them):

List of psychoactive plants, fungi and animals

Minimally psychoactive plants which contain mainly caffeine and theobromine:

Most known psychoactive plants:

Solanaceae plants—contain atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine

Cacti with mescaline:

Other plants:


Psychoactive animals:

See also

Related Research Articles

Controlled Substances Act United States drug-regulating law

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon. The Act also served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Narcotic Chemical substance with psycho-active properties

The term narcotic originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with numbing or paralysing properties. In the United States, it has since become associated with opiates and opioids, commonly morphine and heroin, as well as derivatives of many of the compounds found within raw opium latex. The primary three are morphine, codeine, and thebaine.


Psychopharmacology is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior. It is distinguished from neuropsychopharmacology, which emphasizes the correlation between drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells in the nervous system and changes in consciousness and behavior.

Stimulant Overarching term covers many drugs that increase activity of the central nervous system

Stimulants is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs. Among narcotics, stimulants produce a noticeable crash or comedown at the end of their effects. The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and amphetamine. It was estimated in 2015 that the percentage of the world population that had used cocaine during a year was 0.4%. For the category "amphetamines and prescription stimulants" the value was 0.7%, and for Ecstasy 0.4%.

Club drug Recreational drug

Club drugs, also called rave drugs, or party drugs are a loosely defined category of recreational drugs which are associated with discothèques in the 1970s and nightclubs, dance clubs, electronic dance music (EDM) parties, and raves in the 1980s to today. Unlike many other categories, such as opiates and benzodiazepines, which are established according to pharmaceutical or chemical properties, club drugs are a "category of convenience", in which drugs are included due to the locations they are consumed and/or where the user goes while under the influence of the drugs. Club drugs are generally used by teens and young adults. This group of drugs is also called "designer drugs", as most are synthesized in a chemical lab rather than being sourced from plants or opiates.

A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain. Depressants are also occasionally referred to as "downers" as they lower the level of arousal when taken. Stimulants or "uppers" increase mental and/or physical function, hence the opposite drug class of depressants is stimulants, not antidepressants.

Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.

Stimulant psychosis is a mental disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms which involves and typically occurs following an overdose or several day 'binge' on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy. Methamphetamine psychosis, or long-term effects of stimulant use in the brain, depend upon genetics and may persist for some time.

Poly drug use Use of multiple psychoactive substances

Poly drug use refers to the use of combined psychoactive substances to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low.

Lacing is the act of adding one or more substances to another. Some street drugs are commonly laced with other chemicals for various reasons, but it is most commonly done so as to bulk up the original product or to sell other, cheaper drugs in the place of something more expensive. Individuals sometimes lace their own drugs with another substance to combine or alter the physiological or psychoactive effects.

Sex and the use of drugs have been linked throughout human history, encompassing all aspects of sex: desire, performance, pleasure, conception, gestation, and disease.

Many urban legends and misconceptions about drugs have been created and circulated among young people and the general public, with varying degrees of veracity. These are commonly repeated by organizations which oppose all classified drug use, often causing the true effects and dangers of drugs to be misunderstood and less scrutinized. The most common subjects of such false beliefs are LSD, cannabis, and MDMA. These misconceptions include misinformation about adulterants or other black market issues, as well as alleged effects of the pure substances.

Drug policy of California Overview of the drug policy of the U.S. state of California

Drug policy of California refers to the policy on various classes and kinds of drugs in the U.S. state of California. Cannabis possession has been legalized with the Adult Use of Marijuana Act, passed in November 2016, with recreational sales starting January of the next year. With respect to many controlled substances, terms such as illegal and prohibited do not include their authorized possession or sale as laid out by applicable laws.

Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971 UN treaty to regulate recreational drugs

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects.

The U.S. state of Oregon has various policies restricting the production, sale, and use of different substances. In 2006, Oregon's per capita drug use exceeded the national average. The most used substances were marijuana, methamphetamine and illicit painkillers and stimulants.

Amphetamine dependence Medical condition

Amphetamine dependence refers to a state of psychological dependence on a drug in the amphetamine class. Dependence on amphetamines seems to be on a rise; one study has shown that drug films heavily influence the sensations of craving in drugs, something that can contribute to amphetamine dependence. Stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine, however, do not cause physical dependence.

Psychoactive drug Chemical substance that alters nervous system function

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic drug is a chemical substance that changes nervous system function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. These substances may be used medically; recreationally; to purposefully improve performance or alter one's consciousness; as entheogens for ritual, spiritual, or shamanic purposes; or for research. Some categories of psychoactive drugs, which have therapeutic value, are prescribed by physicians and other healthcare practitioners. Examples include anesthetics, analgesics, anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian drugs as well as medications used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and stimulant medications. Some psychoactive substances may be used in the detoxification and rehabilitation programs for persons dependent on or addicted to other psychoactive drugs.

Stimulant use disorder is a type of substance use disorder that involves the non-medical use of stimulants. It is defined in the DSM-5 as "the continued use of amphetamine-type substances, cocaine, or other stimulants leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, from mild to severe". These psychoactive drugs, known as stimulants, are the most widely used drugs in the world today. Approximately 200 million Americans have used some type of stimulant in the past year alone.

<i>Licit and Illicit Drugs</i>

Licit and Illicit Drugs is a 1972 book on recreational drug use by medical writer Edward M. Brecher and the editors of Consumer Reports.


  1. "Specialty Drug Classes That Are Costing Consumers an Arm and a Leg". The Motley Fool. 24 October 2015.
  2. Global Overview of Drug Demand and Supply (PDF). World Drug Report 2017. United Nations. 2017. p. 13. ISBN   978-92-1-148291-1 . Retrieved 9 June 2018.
  3. Staelens, Stefanie (10 March 2015). "The Bhang Lassi Is How Hindus Drink Themselves High for Shiva". Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Plant, Martin A. (1980), "Drugtaking and Prevention: The Implications of Research for Social Policy", British Journal of Addiction, 75 (3): 245–254, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1980.tb01378.x, PMID   6938224
  5. White, Tony (2012), Working with Drug and Alcohol Users, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p. 77, ISBN   9780857006189
  6. "Department of Health | 3.1 Reasons why people use drugs". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  7. Roger J Sullivan; Edward H Hagen; Peter Hammerstein (2008). "Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1640): 1231–1241. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1673. PMC   2367444 . PMID   18353749.
  8. R. J. Sullivan; E. H. Hagen (2000). "Psychotropic substance-seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation?" (PDF). Addiction (Abingdon, England). 97 (4): 389–400. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00024.x. PMID   11964056 . Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  9. Nutt, D; King, LA; Saulsbury, W; Blakemore, C (24 March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID   17382831. S2CID   5903121.
  10. Stampfer MJ, Kang JH, Chen J, Cherry R, Grodstein F (January 2005). "Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function in women". N Engl J Med. 352 (3): 245–53. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa041152. PMID   15659724.
  11. Hines LM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J (February 2001). "Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction". N Engl J Med. 344 (8): 549–55. doi:10.1056/NEJM200102223440802. PMID   11207350.
  12. Berger K, Ajani UA, Kase CS (November 1999). "Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among U.S. male physicians". N Engl J Med. 341 (21): 1557–64. doi:10.1056/NEJM199911183412101. PMID   10564684.
  13. Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA (January 2003). "Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men". N Engl J Med. 348 (2): 109–18. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022095. PMID   12519921.
  14. Nutt, David (7 March 2011). "There is no such thing as a safe level of alcohol consumption - Professor David Nutt". The Guardian.
  15. ""Drug harms in the UK: a multi-criteria decision analysis", by David Nutt, Leslie King and Lawrence Phillips, on behalf of the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs". The Lancet. 2 November 2010.
  16. Charles E. Faupel; Alan M. Horowitz; Greg S. Weaver. The Sociology of American Drug Use. McGraw Hill. p. 366.
  17. "Failed states and failed policies, How to stop the drug wars". The Economist. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  18. Moyer, VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (6 May 2014). "Primary care behavioral interventions to reduce illicit drug and nonmedical pharmaceutical use in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (9): 634–9. doi: 10.7326/m14-0334 . PMID   24615535.
  19. Lord S, Marsch L (2011). "Emerging trends and innovations in the identification and management of drug use among adolescents and young adults". Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 22 (3): 649–69, xiv. PMC   4119795 . PMID   22423469.
  20. "Error during processing". Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  21. 1 2 "WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008" (PDF).
  22. "Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004" (PDF).
  23. 1 2 "National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2016: detailed findings". Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 28 September 2017.
  24. Aikins, Ross D. (2 January 2015). "From recreational to functional drug use: the evolution of drugs in American higher education, 1960–2014". History of Education. 44 (1): 25–43. doi:10.1080/0046760X.2014.979251. ISSN   0046-760X. PMC   4972325 . PMID   27499559.
  25. David Farber (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. p. 432. ISBN   978-1412710091.
  26. 1 2 3 Decades of Drug Use: Data From the '60s and '70s Jennifer Robison,, 2 July 2002, Accessed 13 November 2013
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "marijuana: History of Marijuana Use".
  28. "Commonly Used Drugs Charts". National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  29. "Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs" (PDF).
  30. Trevisan, Louis A.; Boutros, Nashaat; Petrakis, Ismene L.; Krystal, John H. "Complications of Alcohol Withdrawal" (PDF). Alcohol Health and Research World. 22 (1): 61–66.
  31. John Philip Jenkins. "methamphetamine (drug) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  32. Cruickshank, CC; Dyer, KR (July 2009). "A review of the clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine". Addiction. 104 (7): 1085–1099. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02564.x. PMID   19426289.
  33. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "15". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 370. ISBN   978-0-07-148127-4. Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons.
  34. Nestler, Eric J. (Eric Jonathan), 1954- (2009). Molecular neuropharmacology : a foundation for clinical neuroscience. Hyman, Steven E., Malenka, Robert C. (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN   9780071641197. OCLC   273018757.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. "Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Methylecgonidine, a Crack Cocaine Pyrolyzate".
  36. British Journal of Pharmacology – Abstract of article: Evidence for cocaine and methylecgonidine stimulation of M2 muscarinic receptors in cultured human embryonic lung cells
  37. Fandiño, Anabel S.; Toennes, Stefan W.; Kauert, Gerold F. (1 December 2002). "Studies on Hydrolytic and Oxidative Metabolic Pathways of Anhydroecgonine Methyl Ester (Methylecgonidine) Using Microsomal Preparations from Rat Organs". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 15 (12): 1543–1548. doi:10.1021/tx0255828. PMID   12482236.
  38. Rahman, Muhammad; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Worrall-Carter, Linda (2014). "Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues". Tobacco Induced Diseases. 12 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/1617-9625-12-21. PMC   4350653 . PMID   25745382.
  39. Burstyn, I (9 January 2014). "Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risks". BMC Public Health. 14: 18. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-18. PMC   3937158 . PMID   24406205.
  40. Grana, R; Benowitz, N; Glantz, SA (13 May 2014). "E-cigarettes: a scientific review". Circulation. 129 (19): 1972–86. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.114.007667. PMC   4018182 . PMID   24821826.
  41. Holbrook, Bradley D. (2016). "The effects of nicotine on human fetal development". Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews. 108 (2): 181–92. doi:10.1002/bdrc.21128. ISSN   1542-975X. PMID   27297020.
  42. Siqueira, Lorena M. (2016). "Nicotine and Tobacco as Substances of Abuse in Children and Adolescents". Pediatrics. 139 (1): e20163436. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3436 . ISSN   0031-4005. PMID   27994114.
  43. Jenssen, Brian P.; Boykan, Rachel (2019). "Electronic Cigarettes and Youth in the United States: A Call to Action (at the Local, National and Global Levels)". Children. 6 (2): 30. doi:10.3390/children6020030. ISSN   2227-9067. PMC   6406299 . PMID   30791645.
  44. Breitbarth, Andreas K.; Morgan, Jody; Jones, Alison L. (2018). "E-cigarettes—An unintended illicit drug delivery system". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 192: 98–111. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.07.031 . ISSN   0376-8716. PMID   30245461.
  45. Albert Hofmann. "LSD My Problem Child" . Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  46. "Brecher, Edward M; et al. (1972). "How LSD was popularized". Consumer Reports/Drug Library". Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  47. United States Congress (24 October 1968). "Staggers-Dodd Bill, Public Law 90-639" (PDF). Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  48. Hofmann A, Heim R, Tscherter H (1963). "Phytochimie – présence de la psilocybine dans une espèce européenne d'agaric, le Psilocybe semilanceata Fr." [Phytochemistry – presence of psilocybin in a European agaric species, Psilocybe semilanceata Fr.]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences (in French) 257 (1). pp. 10–12.
  49. Wonnacott S (February 1997). "Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (2): 92–8. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(96)10073-4. PMID   9023878. S2CID   42215860.
  50. "Erowid DMT (Dimethyltryptamine) Vault". Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  51. "The drug plague destroying families across South Africa". Zululand Observer. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  52. "Quaaludes (methaqualone) Uses, Effects & History of Abuse". Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  53. "ATIVAN® 1 mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS; ATIVAN® 2 mg SUBLINGUAL TABLETS". Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  54. "MSDS Glossary". Archived from the original on 17 January 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  55. 1 2 3 Murrie, Benjamin; Lappin, Julia; Large, Matthew; Sara, Grant (16 October 2019). "Transition of Substance-Induced, Brief, and Atypical Psychoses to Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 46 (3): 505–516. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbz102 . PMC   7147575 . PMID   31618428.
  56. "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:psychostimulant".
  57. Morgan Christopher J.; Abdulla A.-B. Badawy (2001). "Alcohol-induced euphoria: exclusion of serotonin". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 36 (1): 22–25. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/36.1.22 . PMID   11139411.
  58. Foster, Steven (2002). A field guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 58. ISBN   978-0395838068.
  59. Alan W. Cuthbert "stimulants" The Oxford Companion to the Body. Ed. Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011
  60. Rhodri Hayward "euphoria" The Oxford Companion to the Body. Ed. Colin Blakemore and Sheila Jennett. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011
  61. "ecstasy" World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011
  62. "opium". World Encyclopedia. Philip's, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 July 2011
  63. "NIDA - Research Monographs - Monograph Index" (PDF).
  64. Inhalants; archived at Inhalants