Happy hour

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"Happy Hour" sign on a pub in Jerusalem. (in Hebrew: all draught beers, 1 + 1 free) Happy Hour.jpg
"Happy Hour" sign on a pub in Jerusalem. (in Hebrew: all draught beers, 1 + 1 free)

Happy hour is a marketing term for a time when a venue (such as a restaurant, bar, bowling alley, stadium, state fair, or county fair) offers discounts on alcoholic drinks. Free appetizers and discounted menu items are often served during happy hour.[ citation needed ]

Contents

Origin

The words "happy" and "hour" have appeared together for centuries when describing pleasant times. In act I, scene 2 of William Shakespeare's King Henry V, he says, "Therefore, my lords, omit no happy hour/That may give furtherance to our expedition..." The use of the phrase "happy hour," to refer to a scheduled period of entertainment is, however, of much more recent vintage.

One possible origin of the term "Happy Hour," in the sense of a scheduled period of entertainment, is from the United States Navy. In early 1913, a group of "home makers" called the "Happy Hour Social" organised "semi-weekly smokers" onboard USS Arkansas. [1] The name "Happy Hour Club," "Happy Hour Social Club," and similar variants, had been in use as the names of social clubs, primarily by women's social clubs, since at least the early 1880s. By June 1913, the crew of Arkansas had started referring to their regularly scheduled smokers as "Happy Hours." [2] The "Happy Hours" included a variety of entertainment, including boxing and wrestling matches, music, dancing, and movies. [3] By the end of World War I, the practice of holding "Happy Hours" had spread throughout the entire Navy. [4]

The idea of drinking before dinner has its roots in the Prohibition era.[ citation needed ] When the 18th Amendment and the Volstead Act were passed banning alcohol consumption, people would host "cocktail hours", also known as "happy hours", at a speakeasy before eating at restaurants where alcohol could not be served. Cocktail lounges continued the trend of drinking before dinner.

The Random House Dictionary of American Slang dates "Happy hour," as a term for afternoon drinks in a bar, to a Saturday Evening Post article on military life in 1959. The article detailed the lives of government contractors and military personnel who worked at missile-tracking facilities in the Caribbean and the Atlantic. "Except for those who spend too much during 'happy hour' at the bar – and there are few of these – the money mounts up fast." [3] [5] Barry Popick's online etymology dictionary, The Big Apple, lists several pre-1959 citations to "Happy Hour" in print, mostly from places near Naval bases in California, from as early 1951. [6]

Regulations

Canada

The Province of Alberta created restrictions to happy hours that took effect in August 2008. All such promotions must end at 8:00 p.m, and drink prices must conform to the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission's minimum price regulations at all times. [7]

In Ontario, while establishments may vary liquor prices as long as they stay above the minimum prices set by the Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, they are not permitted to advertise these prices "in a manner that may promote immoderate consumption." In particular, the phrase "happy hour" may not be used in such advertisement. [8]

Ireland

Happy hour has been illegal in the Republic of Ireland since 2003, under the Intoxicating Liquor Act. [9]

Netherlands

The KHN, a hospitality sector lobby group, has agreed with its members to stop happy hours to discourage binge drinking by youth, but only if the government would vote to not raise the minimum drinking age. [10] In March 2013, the law to raise the drinking age to 18 was passed. [11]

United Kingdom

The National Mandatory Licensing Conditions introduced in 2010 required "all reasonable steps" to be taken[ by whom? ] to prevent irresponsible drinks promotions which effectively banned traditional happy hours. [12] Under the 2014 revision to these conditions, the licensee "must ensure" such promotions do not take place, although there is a subjective test, that takes account of the kind of establishment and its track record, for any promotions that offer unlimited or unspecified alcohol free or for a fixed or discounted fee. [12]

Glasgow

In 2004 Glasgow banned happy hours to reduce binge drinking. [13]

United States

Massachusetts was one of the first U.S. states to implement a statewide ban on happy hours in 1984. [14] Other U.S. states also have similar restrictions. The reason for each ban varies, but include: to prevent drunk driving, avoid the nuisance to neighbors from loud crowds and public drunkenness, and to discourage unhealthy consumption of a large amount of alcohol in a short time.

In 1984, the U.S. military abolished happy hours at military base clubs. [15] In 2011, the Utah State Legislature passed a ban on happy-hours, effective on 1 January 2012. In July 2011, Pennsylvania extended the period of time for happy hour from two hours to four hours. [16] In June 2012, happy hour became legal in Kansas after a 26-year ban. [17] In July 2015, a 25-year happy hour ban was ended in Illinois. [18]

As of July 2015, happy hour bans existed in Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah, and Vermont. [19]

For other services

By extension, certain file-hosting websites such as RapidShare and Megaupload use the term happy hour to designate periods during which users have complimentary access to certain premium features, such as increased bandwidth, elimination of queues, and bypassing of CAPTCHA verifications.

See also

Related Research Articles

Prohibition The outlawing of the consumption, sale, production etc. of alcohol

Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The word is also used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced.

Bar Establishment serving alcoholic beverages for consumption on the premises

A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the length of the table, just above floor height, for customers to rest a foot on, which gave the table its name. Over many years, heights of bars were lowered, and high stools added, and the brass bar remains today. The name bar became identified with the business, is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks. Bars often also sell snack foods such as crisps(also referred to as potato chips) or peanuts, for consumption on their premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" also refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" derives from the metal or wooden bar (barrier) that is often located along the length of the "bar".

The alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol, with separate legislation for England, Wales Northern Ireland and Scotland being passed, as necessary, by the UK parliament, the Senedd in Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the Scottish Parliament respectively.

Cover charge cover

A cover charge is an entrance fee sometimes charged at bars, nightclubs, or restaurants. The American Heritage Dictionary defines it as a "fixed amount added to the bill at a nightclub or restaurant for entertainment or service." In restaurants, cover charges generally do not include the cost of food that is specifically ordered, but in some establishments, they do include the cost of bread, butter, olives and other accompaniments which are provided as a matter of course.

Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States

Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States of America is an umbrella term for alcohol consumption by individuals under the age of 18 in the country.

The Alberta Gaming, Liquor and Cannabis Commission is an agency of the government of the Canadian province of Alberta, and regulates alcoholic beverage, recreational cannabis, and gaming-related activities. References to cannabis were added to AGLC's name and governing legislation as cannabis in Canada moved towards legalization in 2018. AGLC was created in 1996 as the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission by combining the responsibilities and operations of the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB), Alberta Lotteries, the Alberta Gaming Commission, Alberta Lotteries and Gaming and the Gaming Control Branch. The current Chief Executive Officer is Alain Maisonneuve.

A liquor license is a governmentally issued permit to sell, manufacture, store, or otherwise use alcoholic beverages.

Alcohol laws of Pennsylvania

The alcohol laws of Pennsylvania contain many peculiarities not found in other states, and are considered some of the strictest regulations in the United States.

Alcohol laws of New Jersey Laws governing alcoholic beverages in New Jersey

The state laws governing alcoholic drinks in New Jersey are among the most complex in the United States, with many peculiarities not found in other states' laws. They provide for 29 distinct liquor licenses granted to manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and for the public warehousing and transport of alcoholic drinks. General authority for the statutory and regulatory control of alcoholic drinks rests with the state government, particularly the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control overseen by the state's Attorney General.

Alcohol laws of Australia are laws that regulate the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The legal drinking age is 18 throughout Australia. The minimum age for the purchase of alcoholic products in Australia is 18. A licence is required to produce or sell alcohol.

Alcohol law Wikimedia disambiguation page

Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, being under the influence of and sale of alcohol or alcoholic beverages that contains ethanol. Common alcoholic beverages include beer, wine, cider, and distilled spirits. The United States defines an alcoholic beverage as, "any beverage in liquid form which contains not less than one-half of one percent of alcohol by volume", but this definition varies internationally. These laws can restrict those who can produce alcohol, those who can buy it, when one can buy it, labelling and advertising, the types of alcoholic beverage that can be sold, where one can consume it, what activities are prohibited while intoxicated, and where one can buy it. In some cases, laws have even prohibited the use and sale of alcohol entirely, as with Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933.

The alcohol laws of Wisconsin consist of both statewide statutes and local ordinances governing the sale of alcohol.

Drinking in public

Social customs and laws concerning drinking alcohol in public vary significantly around the world. "Public" in this context refers to outdoor spaces such as roads, walkways or parks, or in a moving vehicle. Drinking in bars, restaurants, stadiums, and other such establishments, for example, is not generally considered to be "in public" even though those establishments are open to the general public. In some countries, such as India and Sri Lanka, as well as in larger regions, such as the Muslim world, public drinking is almost universally condemned or outlawed, while in other countries, such as Portugal, Spain, Germany, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan and China, public drinking and public intoxication is socially acceptable, although may not be entirely legal.

Alcohol laws of Massachusetts

The serving of alcohol in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is governed by the Alcoholic Beverages Control Commission (ABCC), which is responsible for issuing licenses and permits for all manufacturers, wholesalers and importers, out-of-state suppliers, brokers, salespeople, warehouses, planes, trains, ships, ship chandlers and vehicles transporting alcoholic beverages.

Binge drinking is more common in men than it is in women. Among students in the US, approximately 50 percent of men and 39 percent of women binge drink.

The legal drinking age in India and the laws which regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol vary significantly from state to state. In India, consumption of alcohol is prohibited in the states of Bihar, Gujarat and Nagaland, Mizoram as well as the union territory of Lakshadweep. There is partial ban on alcohol in some districts of Manipur. All other Indian states permit alcohol consumption but fix a legal drinking age, which ranges at different ages per region. In some states the legal drinking age can be different for different types of alcoholic beverage.

Many college campuses throughout the United States have some form of alcohol advertising including flyers on bulletin boards to mini billboard signs on college buses. It is so prevalent on college campuses especially because college students are considered the "targeted marketing group," meaning that college students are more likely to consume larger qualities of alcohol than any other age group, which makes them the prime consumers of alcohol in the United States.

Pregaming is the process of getting drunk prior to going out socializing, typically done by college students and young adults in a manner as cost-efficient as possible, with hard liquor and cheap beer consumed while in group.

Until 2018, Indiana was one of nearly a dozen U.S. states to ban all Sunday alcohol sales outside of bars and restaurants. That ban was repealed when Senate Bill 1 was signed by Gov. Eric Holcomb on February 28, 2018. Effective March 4, 2018, convenience stores, grocers, and liquor stores may sell alcohol from 12:00 PM to 8:00 PM on Sundays and after 7:00 AM on Mondays.

References

  1. "U.S.S. Arkansas". Our Navy, The Standard magazine of the United States Navy. 6 (11): 12. March 1913.
  2. "U.S.S. Arkansas". Our Navy, The Standard Magazine of the U.S. Navy. 7 (3): 21. July 1913.
  3. 1 2 Brown, Peter Jensen. "History and Etymology of Happy Hour" . Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  4. "Athletics in Our Fleet". Our Navy, the Standard Magazine of the U.S. Navy. 12 (8): 66. December 1918.
  5. Martin, Harold H. (April 25, 1959). "The Men Who Chase Missiles". Saturday Evening Post.
  6. Popick, Barry. "The Big Apple" . Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  7. Alberta sets new rules to improve bar safety:Minimum drink prices, restricted happy hours among new policies to curb binge drinking. Alberta News Release, July 3, 2008.
  8. :Pricing and Promotion of Liquor by Liquor Sales Licensees. Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario Information Bulletin, July 2007.
  9. Happy hour to end at midnight RTÉ News (17 August 2003)
  10. DutchNews.nl - End of happy hours in sight - if the legal drinking age remains 16 Archived 2012-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
  11. "Wetsvoorstel verhoging alcoholleeftijd 16 naar 18 aangenomen". Archived from the original on 2014-04-16. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
  12. 1 2 Allen, Poppleston (1 October 2014). "Mandatory Licensing Conditions: what the new rules mean".
  13. "City bans happy hours to curb binge drinking". The Scotsman. 15 January 2004.
  14. Campbell, Colin (December 11, 1984). "'Happy Hour' Ban Starts In Massachusetts Bars". The New York Times . Retrieved December 8, 2019.
  15. Weisskopf, Michael (March 3, 1985). "Differ on Minimum Age, 'Happy Hours' : Army, Navy in Dispute Over Drinking". The Washington Post .
  16. "Pennsylvania law allows longer happy hours in bars, restaurants". PennLive.com.
  17. McCallister, Laura (30 June 2012). "New liquor law revives happy hour in Kansas".
  18. "Happy hour to return to Illinois bars". Chicago Tribune. 15 July 2015.
  19. Quinn, Garrett (July 16, 2015). "Why Is Happy Hour Still Illegal in Massachusetts?". Boston . Retrieved December 8, 2019.