Lamiaceae

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Mint family
Lamium purpureum jamestown1.jpg
Lamium purpureum L.
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family:Lamiaceae
Martinov [1] [2]
Type genus
Lamium
L.
Genera

See text

Lamium purpureum, showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower Lamium purpureum Closeup.jpg
Lamium purpureum , showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower
Melissa officinalis Melissa officinalis01.jpg
Melissa officinalis

The Lamiaceae ( /ˌlmiˈsiˌ, -ˌ/ [3] ) or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs, such as basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Some species are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or, rarely, vines. Many members of the family are widely cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities, but also their ease of cultivation, since they are readily propagated by stem cuttings.[ citation needed ] Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage, such as Coleus . Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia hispanica (chia), or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus edulis , Plectranthus esculentus , Plectranthus rotundifolius , and Stachys affinis (Chinese artichoke).

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family".

Flowering plant clade of flowering plants (in APG I-III)

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure; in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion and sperma ("seed").

Herb In general rather than botanical use, plant used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume

In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, medicinal purposes, or for fragrances; excluding vegetables and other plants consumed for macronutrients. Culinary use typically distinguishes herbs from spices. Herbs generally refers to the leafy green or flowering parts of a plant, while spices are usually dried and produced from other parts of the plant, including seeds, bark, roots and fruits.

Contents

The family has a cosmopolitan distribution. [4] The enlarged Lamiaceae contain about 236 genera [5] and have been stated to contain 6,900 [4] to 7,200 [5] species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534. [6] The largest genera are Salvia (900), Scutellaria (360), Stachys (300), Plectranthus (300), Hyptis (280), Teucrium (250), Vitex (250), Thymus (220), and Nepeta (200). [5] Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, [5] but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150. [7]

Cosmopolitan distribution biogeographic term

In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats. Such a taxon is said to exhibit cosmopolitanism or cosmopolitism. The opposite extreme is endemism.

In biology, a species ( ) is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more closely they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, and in a ring species. Also, among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, and each clone is potentially a microspecies.

The family has traditionally been considered closely related to the Verbenaceae; [5] in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in the Verbenaceae should be classified in the Lamiaceae [8] [9] or to other families in the order Lamiales. [1]

Verbenaceae family of plants

The Verbenaceae are a family — the verbena family or vervain family — of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.

Research formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge

Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc.

In biological classification, the order is

  1. a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank.
  2. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders.

The alternate family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip (labia in Latin). The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with five united petals and five united sepals. They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate (a flower cluster that looks like a whorl of flowers, but actually consists of two crowded clusters). Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae in referring to this family. The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the previous one (decussate) or whorled. The stems are frequently square in cross section, [10] but this is not found in all members of the family, and is sometimes found in other plant families.

Petal Part of most types of flower

Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots.

Sepal part of a calyx

A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms. Usually green, sepals typically function as protection for the flower in bud, and often as support for the petals when in bloom. The term sepalum was coined by Noël Martin Joseph de Necker in 1790, and derived from the Greek σκεπη (skepi), a covering.

Leaf organ of a vascular plant, composing its foliage

A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".

Genera

Leucas aspera in Hyderabad, India Leucas aspera at Gandipet, Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9054.jpg
Leucas aspera in Hyderabad, India
Orthosiphon thymiflorus flower Orthosiphon pallidus (Jyoti) in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8284.jpg
Orthosiphon thymiflorus flower
Oregano Origanum vulgare - harilik pune.jpg
Oregano

The last revision of the entire family was published in 2004. [5] It described and provided keys to 236 genera. These are marked with an asterisk (*) in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004. These are marked with a plus sign (+). The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation. [11] Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family.

In biology, an identification key is a printed or computer-aided device that aids the identification of biological entities, such as plants, animals, fossils, microorganisms, and pollen grains. Identification keys are also used in many other scientific and technical fields to identify various kinds of entities, such as diseases, soil types, minerals, or archaeological and anthropological artifacts.

Kew Gardens provides a list of genera that includes additional information. [12] A list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is frequently updated. [13]

Kew Gardens worlds largest collection of living plants in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames

Kew Gardens is a botanical garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world". Founded in 1840, from the exotic garden at Kew Park in Middlesex, England, its living collections include more than 30,000 different kinds of plants, while the herbarium, which is one of the largest in the world, has over seven million preserved plant specimens. The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the illustrations collection contains more than 175,000 prints and drawings of plants. It is one of London's top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage Site.

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy.

Recent changes

The circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Tsoongia, Paravitex, and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex. [14] Huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria. [7] Kalaharia, Volkameria, Ovieda, and Tetraclea have been segregated from a formerly polyphyletic Clerodendrum. [7] Rydingia has been separated from Leucas. [15] The remaining Leucas is paraphyletic over four other genera. [16]

Subfamilies and tribes

In 2004, the Lamiaceae were divided into seven subfamilies with 10 genera not placed in any of the subfamilies. [5] The unplaced genera are: Tectona, Callicarpa, Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, Garrettia, Cymaria, Acrymia, Holocheila, and Ombrocharis. The subfamilies are the Symphorematoideae, Viticoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae, Scutellarioideae, and Lamioideae. The subfamily Viticoideae is probably not monophyletic. [14] The Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes. These are shown in the phylogenetic tree below.

Phylogeny

Most of the genera of Lamiaceae have never been sampled for DNA for molecular phylogenetic studies. Most of those that have been are included in the following phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny depicted below is based on seven different sources. [5] [9] [7] [14] [17] [18] [19]

Lamiaceae 

Callicarpa

Tectona

Viticoideae  (pro parte) 

Gmelina

Premna

Viticoideae  (pro parte) 

Vitex

Symphorematoideae  

Congea

Symphorema

Ajugoideae  

Rotheca

Teucrium

Ajuga

Oxera

Faradaya

Kalaharia

Clerodendrum

Volkameria

Ovieda

Aegiphila

Tetraclea

Amasonia

Prostantheroideae  
Chloantheae  

Chloanthes

Westringieae

Prostanthera

Westringia

Nepetoideae  
Ocimeae  

Lavandula

Siphocranion

Isodon

Hanceola

Hyptis

Orthosiphon

Ocimum

Plectranthus

Solenostemon

Elsholtzieae  

Elsholtzia

Perilla

Mentheae  

Lepechinia

Salvia

Rosmarinus

Prunella

Nepeta

Dracocephalum

Agastache

Origanum

Thymus

Mentha

Satureja

Clinopodium

Bystropogon

Pycnanthemum

Monarda

Dicerandra

Conradina

Scutellarioideae  

Holmskioldia

Scutellaria

Lamioideae  

Pogostemon

Phlomis

Lamium

Stachys

Sideritis

Haplostachys

Stenogyne

Phyllostegia

Leonurus

Marrubium

Moluccella

Rydingia

Leucas

Leonotis

Related Research Articles

Lamiales order of plants

The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes about 23,810 species, 1,059 genera, and is divided into about 24 families. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.

<i>Leonotis</i> genus of plants

Leonotis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. One species, Leonotis nepetifolia, is native to tropical Africa and southern India. It is naturalized throughout most of the tropics. The other species are endemic to southern + eastern Africa.

<i>Stachys</i> genus of plants

Stachys is one of the largest genera in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Estimates of the number of species in the genus vary from about 300, to about 450. The type species for the genus is Stachys sylvatica. Stachys is in the subfamily Lamioideae. Generic limits and relationships in this subfamily are poorly known.

Asphodelaceae family of plants

Asphodelaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Asparagales. Such a family has been recognized by most taxonomists, but the circumscription has varied widely. In its current circumscription in the APG IV system, it includes about 40 genera and 900 known species.

Loganiaceae family of plants

The Loganiaceae are a family of flowering plants classified in order Gentianales. The family includes up to 13 genera, distributed around the world's tropics.

Begoniaceae family of plants

Begoniaceae is a family of flowering plants with two genera and about 1825 species occurring in the subtropics and tropics of both the New World and Old World. All but one of the species are in the genus Begonia. The only other genus in the family, Hillebrandia, is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and has a single species. Phylogenetic work supports Hillebrandia as the sister taxon to the rest of the family. The genus Symbegonia was reduced to a section of Begonia in 2003, as molecular phylogenies had shown it to be derived from within that genus. Members of the genus Begonia are well-known and popular houseplants.

<i>Clinopodium</i> genus of plants

Clinopodium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is in the tribe Mentheae of the subfamily Nepetoideae, but little else can be said with certainty about its phylogenetic position.

Volkameria genus of plants

Volkameria is a genus of flowering plants in the family; Lamiaceae. It is pantropical in distribution. Many of the species are found in coastal habitats.

<i>Vitex</i> genus of plants

Vitex is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. It has about 250 species. Common names include "chaste tree" or "chastetree", traditionally referring to V. agnus-castus but often applied to other species as well.

<i>Clerodendrum</i> genus of plants

Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. Its common names include glorybower, bagflower and bleeding-heart. It is currently classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data.

<i>Oxera</i> genus of plants

Oxera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Labiatae / Lamiaceae native to Vanuatu and New Caledonia in the western Pacific.

Teucrioideae subfamily of plants

Teucrioideae is subfamily of the family Lamiaceae. The subfamily name of Teucrioideae is a synonym of Ajugoideae.

Clerodendrum quadriloculare species of plant

Clerodendrum quadriloculare is a species of flowering plant native to New Guinea and the Philippines. It is one of many species included in the verbena family, Verbenaceae but transferred to the Lamiaceae based on molecular studies.

<i>Salvia</i> genus of plants

Salvia is the largest genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, with nearly 1000 species of shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and annuals. Within the Lamiaceae, Salvia is part of the tribe Mentheae within the subfamily Nepetoideae. One of several genera commonly referred to as sage, it includes the widely produced herb used in cooking, Salvia officinalis.

<i>Rotheca</i> genus of plants

Rotheca is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. Estimates of the number of species in the genus vary from about 35 to as many as 60. Three of the species are native to tropical Asia, with the rest occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa. The type species for the genus is Rotheca serrata. It had originally been named Rotheca ternifolia, but this name is now considered illegitimate.

<i>Vitex rotundifolia</i> species of plant

Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. At maturity, V. rotundifolia produces blue-purple flowers that are borne in clusters and ultimately yield small brown-black fruits. Its leaves are rounded at the tips with green upper surfaces and silver lower surfaces. While the plant is a seashore obligate, it grows over a wide latitude range. It has been used for medicinal purposes throughout its native range. More recently, it was imported to the eastern United States where it has become a seashore invasive. Control efforts are presently underway to protect the fragile beach dune ecosystem.

Viticoideae subfamily of plants

Viticoideae is one of seven subfamilies in the sage family, Lamiaceae.

The Lophiocarpaceae are a family of flowering plants comprising mostly succulent subshrubs and herbaceous species native to tropical to southern sub-Saharan Africa to western India. It includes the genera Corbichonia and Lophiocarpus. The family is newly recognized through research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III system to deal with long-standing phylogenetic difficulties in placing various genera within the Caryophyllales.

<i>Ovieda</i> genus of plants

Ovieda is a genus of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae family, first described for modern science in 1753. It contains only one known species, Ovieda spinosa , endemic to the Island of Hispaniola in the West Indies.

References

  1. 1 2 Stevens, P. F. (July 2012). "Lamiales (Lamiaceae Family)". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
  3. "Pronunciation of lamiaceae" . Retrieved 2014-11-25.
  4. 1 2 Heywood, Vernon H.; Brummitt, Richard K.; Seberg, Ole; Culham, Alastair (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN   978-1-55407-206-4.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raymond M. Harley, Sandy Atkins, Andrey L. Budantsev, Philip D. Cantino, Barry J. Conn, Renée J. Grayer, Madeline M. Harley, Rogier P.J. de Kok, Tatyana V. Krestovskaja, Ramón Morales, Alan J. Paton, and P. Olof Ryding. 2004. "Labiatae" pages 167-275. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN   978-3-540-40593-1
  6. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  7. 1 2 3 4 Yuan, Yao-Wu; Mabberley, David J.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2010). "Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy". Taxon. 59 (1): 125–133. doi:10.1002/tax.591013.
  8. Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In: Raymond M. Harley and Tom Reynolds (editors). Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  9. 1 2 Wagstaff, Steven J.; Hickerson, Laura; Spangler, Russ; Reeves, Patrick A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (1998). "Phylogeny in Labiatae s.l., inferred from cpDNA sequences". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 209 (3–4): 265–274. doi:10.1007/bf00985232.
  10. Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN   978-185918-4783
  11. "List of genera in Lamiaceae". In: "Lamiaceae". In: "List of families". In: "Families and genera in GRIN. (see External links below)
  12. List of Genera in Lamiaceae. At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera. At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. At: Electronic Plant Information Center. At: Website of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (see External Links below).
  13. APG list of Lamiaceae genera
  14. 1 2 3 Bramley, Gemma L.C.; Forest, Félix; Rogier (2009). "Troublesome tropical mints: re-examining generic limits of Vitex and relations (Lamiaceae) in South East Asia". Taxon. 58 (2): 500–510. doi:10.1002/tax.582014.
  15. Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2007). "Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes within the Leucas clade (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematics and Geography of Plants. 77 (2): 229–238.
  16. Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2009). "Molecular Phylogenetics of the Leucas Group (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematic Botany. 34 (1): 173–181. doi:10.1600/036364409787602366.
  17. Zhong, Jin-Shun; Li, Jie; Li, Lang; Conran, John G.; Hsi-wen, Li (2010). "Phylogeny of Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach (Lamiaceae) and Related Genera Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal ITS, trnL-trnF Region, and rps16 Intron Sequences and Morphology". Systematic Botany. 35 (1): 207–219. doi:10.1600/036364410790862614.
  18. Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2007). "Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever". Annals of Botany. 100 (2): 375–391. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl176. PMC   2735309 . PMID   16926227.
  19. Ryding, P. Olof (2010). "Pericarp structure and phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae)"". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 285 (3–4): 165–175. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0270-9.