Lamiaceae

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Mint family
Lamium purpureum jamestown1.jpg
Lamium purpureum L.
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Martinov [1] [2]
Type genus
Lamium
L.
Genera

See text

Lamium purpureum, showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower Lamium purpureum Closeup.jpg
Lamium purpureum , showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower
Tetradenia riparia Tetradenia riparia 03.jpg
Tetradenia riparia

The Lamiaceae ( /ˌlmiˈsi,-/ LAY-mee-AY-see-e(y)e [3] ) or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle or sage family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs like basil, mentha, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Some species are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or, rarely, vines. Many members of the family are widely cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities, but also their ease of cultivation, since they are readily propagated by stem cuttings.[ citation needed ] Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage. Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia hispanica (chia), or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus edulis , Plectranthus esculentus , Plectranthus rotundifolius , and Stachys affinis (Chinese artichoke).

Contents

The family has a cosmopolitan distribution. [4] The enlarged Lamiaceae contain about 236 genera [5] and have been stated to contain 6,900 [4] to 7,200 [5] species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534. [6] The largest genera are Salvia (900), Scutellaria (360), Stachys (300), Plectranthus (300), Hyptis (280), Teucrium (250), Vitex (250), Thymus (220), and Nepeta (200). [5] Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, [5] but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150. [7]

The family has traditionally been considered closely related to the Verbenaceae; [5] in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in the Verbenaceae should be classified in the Lamiaceae [8] [9] or to other families in the order Lamiales. [1]

Salvia jurisicii Salvia jurisicii in its native habitat.jpg
Salvia jurisicii

The alternative family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip (labia in Latin). The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with five united petals and five united sepals. They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate (a flower cluster that looks like a whorl of flowers, but actually consists of two crowded clusters). Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae in referring to this family. The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the previous one (decussate) or whorled. The stems are frequently square in cross section, [10] but this is not found in all members of the family, and is sometimes found in other plant families.

Genera

Leucas aspera in Hyderabad, India Leucas aspera at Gandipet, Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9054.jpg
Leucas aspera in Hyderabad, India
Orthosiphon thymiflorus flower Orthosiphon pallidus (Jyoti) in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8284.jpg
Orthosiphon thymiflorus flower
Oregano Origanum vulgare - harilik pune.jpg
Oregano

The last revision of the entire family was published in 2004. [5] It described and provided keys to 236 genera. These are marked with an asterisk (*) in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004. These are marked with a plus sign (+). The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation. [11] Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family.

Kew Gardens provides a list of genera that includes additional information. [12] A list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is frequently updated. [13]

Recent changes

The circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Tsoongia, Paravitex, and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex. [14] Huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria. [7] Kalaharia, Volkameria, Ovieda, and Tetraclea have been segregated from a formerly polyphyletic Clerodendrum. [7] Rydingia has been separated from Leucas. [15] The remaining Leucas is paraphyletic over four other genera. [16]

Subfamilies and tribes

In 2004, the Lamiaceae were divided into seven subfamilies with 10 genera not placed in any of the subfamilies. [5] The unplaced genera are: Tectona , Callicarpa , Hymenopyramis , Petraeovitex , Peronema , Garrettia , Cymaria , Acrymia , Holocheila , and Ombrocharis . The subfamilies are the Symphorematoideae, Viticoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae, Scutellarioideae, and Lamioideae. The subfamily Viticoideae is probably not monophyletic. [14] The Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes. These are shown in the phylogenetic tree below.

Phylogeny

Most of the genera of Lamiaceae have never been sampled for DNA for molecular phylogenetic studies. Most of those that have been are included in the following phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny depicted below is based on seven different sources. [5] [9] [7] [14] [17] [18] [19]

Lamiaceae 

Callicarpa

Tectona

Viticoideae  (pro parte) 

Gmelina

Premna

Viticoideae  (pro parte) 

Vitex

Symphorematoideae  

Congea

Symphorema

Ajugoideae  

Rotheca

Teucrium

Ajuga

Oxera

Faradaya

Kalaharia

Clerodendrum

Volkameria

Ovieda

Aegiphila

Tetraclea

Amasonia

Prostantheroideae  
Chloantheae  

Chloanthes

Westringieae

Prostanthera

Westringia

Nepetoideae  
Ocimeae  

Lavandula

Siphocranion

Isodon

Hanceola

Hyptis

Orthosiphon

Ocimum

Plectranthus

Solenostemon

Elsholtzieae  

Elsholtzia

Perilla

Mentheae  

Lepechinia

Salvia

Rosmarinus

Prunella

Nepeta

Dracocephalum

Agastache

Origanum

Thymus

Mentha

Satureja

Clinopodium

Bystropogon

Pycnanthemum

Monarda

Dicerandra

Conradina

Scutellarioideae  

Holmskioldia

Scutellaria

Lamioideae  

Pogostemon

Phlomis

Lamium

Stachys

Sideritis

Haplostachys

Stenogyne

Phyllostegia

Leonurus

Marrubium

Moluccella

Rydingia

Leucas

Leonotis

Related Research Articles

Lamiales Order of dicot flowering plants

The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It includes about 23,810 species, 1,059 genera, and is divided into about 24 families. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.

Malpighiales Eudicot order of flowering plants

The Malpighiales comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about 36 families and more than 16,000 species, about 7.8% of the eudicots. The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, poinsettia, and coca plant, and are hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems based only on plant morphology. Molecular clock calculations estimate the origin of stem group Malpighiales at around 100 million years ago (Mya) and the origin of crown group Malpighiales at about 90 Mya.

Polygonaceae The knotweed family of flowering plants

The Polygonaceae are a family of flowering plants known informally as the knotweed family or smartweed—buckwheat family in the United States. The name is based on the genus Polygonum, and was first used by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789 in his book, Genera Plantarum. The name may refer to the many swollen nodes the stems of some species have, being derived from Greek, poly meaning 'many' and gony meaning 'knee' or 'joint'. Alternatively, it may have a different derivation, meaning 'many seeds'.

Araliaceae family of plants

The Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of 55 genera and 1500 species consisting of primarily woody plants and some herbaceous plants. The morphology of Araliaceae varies widely, but it is predominantly distinguishable based on its woody habit, tropical distribution, and the presence of simple umbels.

<i>Leonotis</i> genus of plants

Leonotis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. One species, Leonotis nepetifolia, is native to tropical Africa and southern India. It is naturalized throughout most of the tropics. The other species are endemic to southern + eastern Africa.

Verbenaceae Family of flowering plants comprising vervains

The Verbenaceae are a family — the verbena family or vervain family — of mainly tropical flowering plants. It contains trees, shrubs, and herbs notable for heads, spikes, or clusters of small flowers, many of which have an aromatic smell.

<i>Stachys</i> Genus of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Stachys is one of the largest genera in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae. Estimates of the number of species in the genus vary from about 300, to about 450. The type species for the genus is Stachys sylvatica. Stachys is in the subfamily Lamioideae. Generic limits and relationships in this subfamily are poorly known.

<i>Clinopodium</i> genus of plants

Clinopodium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is in the tribe Mentheae of the subfamily Nepetoideae, but little else can be said with certainty about its phylogenetic position.

<i>Volkameria</i> genus of plants

Volkameria is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is pantropical in distribution. Many of the species are found in coastal habitats.

<i>Vitex</i> genus of plants

Vitex is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. It has about 250 species. Common names include "chaste tree" or "chastetree", traditionally referring to V. agnus-castus but often applied to other species as well.

<i>Clerodendrum</i> genus of plants

Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. Its common names include glorybower, bagflower and bleeding-heart. It is currently classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data.

<i>Oxera</i> genus of plants

Oxera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae native to Vanuatu and New Caledonia in the western Pacific.

Ajugoideae Subfamily of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Ajugoideae is subfamily of the family Lamiaceae. The subfamily name of Teucrioideae is a synonym of Ajugoideae.

<i>Clerodendrum quadriloculare</i> species of plant

Clerodendrum quadriloculare is a species of flowering plant native to New Guinea and the Philippines. It is one of many species previously included in the verbena family, Verbenaceae, but transferred to the Lamiaceae based on molecular studies.

<i>Rotheca</i> genus of plants

Rotheca is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. Estimates of the number of species in the genus vary from about 35 to as many as 60. Three of the species are native to tropical Asia, with the rest occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa. The type species for the genus is Rotheca serrata. It had originally been named Rotheca ternifolia, but this name is now considered illegitimate.

<i>Vitex rotundifolia</i> species of plant

Vitex rotundifolia, the roundleaf chastetree or beach vitex is a species of Vitex that is native to seashores throughout the Pacific. Its range includes continents and islands stretching from India east to Hawaii and from Korea south to Australia. This woody perennial plant typically grows approximately 1 m in height. It has a sprawling growth habit and produces runners that root regularly at nodes. This rooting pattern allows the plant to spread rapidly. At maturity, V. rotundifolia produces blue-purple flowers that are borne in clusters and ultimately yield small brown-black fruits. Its leaves are rounded at the tips with green upper surfaces and silver lower surfaces. While the plant is a seashore obligate, it grows over a wide latitude range. It has been used for medicinal purposes throughout its native range. More recently, it was imported to the eastern United States where it has become a seashore invasive. Control efforts are presently underway to protect the fragile beach dune ecosystem.

Viticoideae Subfamily of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Viticoideae is one of seven subfamilies in the sage family, Lamiaceae.

Ajugeae Tribe of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Ajugeae is a tribe of the subfamily Ajugoideae in the family Lamiaceae. It contains five genera: AcrymiaPrain, AjugaL., CymariaBenth., GarrettiaH. R. Fletcher, and Holocheila(Kudô) S. Chow.

Nepetoideae Subfamily of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Nepetoideae is a subfamily of plants in the family Lamiaceae.

Lamioideae Subfamily of flowering plants in the sage family Lamiaceae

Lamioideae is a subfamily of plants in the family Lamiaceae.

References

  1. 1 2 Stevens, P. F. (July 2012). "Lamiales (Lamiaceae Family)". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-06-26.
  3. "Pronunciation of lamiaceae" . Retrieved 2014-11-25.
  4. 1 2 Heywood, Vernon H.; Brummitt, Richard K.; Seberg, Ole; Culham, Alastair (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN   978-1-55407-206-4.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Raymond M. Harley, Sandy Atkins, Andrey L. Budantsev, Philip D. Cantino, Barry J. Conn, Renée J. Grayer, Madeline M. Harley, Rogier P.J. de Kok, Tatyana V. Krestovskaja, Ramón Morales, Alan J. Paton, and P. Olof Ryding. 2004. "Labiatae" pages 167-275. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN   978-3-540-40593-1
  6. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  7. 1 2 3 4 Yuan, Yao-Wu; Mabberley, David J.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2010). "Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy". Taxon. 59 (1): 125–133. doi:10.1002/tax.591013.
  8. Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In: Raymond M. Harley and Tom Reynolds (editors). Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  9. 1 2 Wagstaff, Steven J.; Hickerson, Laura; Spangler, Russ; Reeves, Patrick A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (1998). "Phylogeny in Labiatae s.l., inferred from cpDNA sequences". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 209 (3–4): 265–274. doi:10.1007/bf00985232.
  10. Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN   978-185918-4783
  11. "List of genera in Lamiaceae". In: "Lamiaceae". In: "List of families". In: "Families and genera in GRIN. (see External links below)
  12. List of Genera in Lamiaceae. At: Vascular Plant Families and Genera. At: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. At: Electronic Plant Information Center. At: Website of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (see External Links below).
  13. APG list of Lamiaceae genera
  14. 1 2 3 Bramley, Gemma L.C.; Forest, Félix; Rogier (2009). "Troublesome tropical mints: re-examining generic limits of Vitex and relations (Lamiaceae) in South East Asia". Taxon. 58 (2): 500–510. doi:10.1002/tax.582014.
  15. Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2007). "Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes within the Leucas clade (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematics and Geography of Plants. 77 (2): 229–238.
  16. Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2009). "Molecular Phylogenetics of the Leucas Group (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematic Botany. 34 (1): 173–181. doi:10.1600/036364409787602366.
  17. Zhong, Jin-Shun; Li, Jie; Li, Lang; Conran, John G.; Hsi-wen, Li (2010). "Phylogeny of Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach (Lamiaceae) and Related Genera Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal ITS, trnL-trnF Region, and rps16 Intron Sequences and Morphology". Systematic Botany. 35 (1): 207–219. doi:10.1600/036364410790862614.
  18. Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2007). "Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia (Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever". Annals of Botany. 100 (2): 375–391. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl176. PMC   2735309 . PMID   16926227.
  19. Ryding, P. Olof (2010). "Pericarp structure and phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae)"". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 285 (3–4): 165–175. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0270-9.