Tribe (biology)

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The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. Biological classification L Pengo vflip.svg DomainKingdomClassOrderFamily
The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily. [1] [2] It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes. By convention, all taxonomic ranks from genus upwards are capitalized, including both tribe and subtribe.

Contents

In zoology, the standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". Examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini (hominins), Bombini (bumblebees), and Thunnini (tunas). The tribe Hominini is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina".

In botany, the standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". Examples include the tribes Acalypheae and Hyacintheae. The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical subtribe is "-inae".

In bacteriology, the form of tribe names is as in botany, e.g., Pseudomonadeae, based on the genus name Pseudomonas . [3]

Rank recognition

An unfamiliar taxonomic rank cannot necessarily be identified as a tribe merely by the presence of one of the standard suffixes: [note 1]

Accordingly, working within animals alone, subfamily -inae, tribe -ini, and subtribe -ina are unique suffixes to their specific taxonomic ranks. [4] At the other extreme, working within algae alone, -eae suffixes class -phyceae, suborder -ineae, family -aceae, subfamily -oideae, and tribe -eae. The longer suffixes themselves suffixed with -eae must first be eliminated before recognizing an unfamiliar -eae designation as belonging to rank tribe. [5] [6]

See also

Notes

  1. Italics in section "Rank recognition" indicate lexical rather than taxonomic distinctions.

Related Research Articles

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Subgenus Taxonomic rank

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In biology, trinomial nomenclature refers to names for taxa below the rank of species. These names have three parts. The usage is different in zoology and botany.

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Type genus Term in biological taxonomy

In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name.

In taxonomy, a nomen nudum is a designation which looks exactly like a scientific name of an organism, and may have originally been intended to be a scientific name, but fails to be one because it has not been published with an adequate description. This makes it a "bare" or "naked" name, one which cannot be accepted as it stands. A largely equivalent but much less frequently used term is nomen tantum.

In biological nomenclature, a syntype is any one of two or more biological types that is listed in a description of a taxon where no holotype was designated. Precise definitions of this and related terms for types have been established as part of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

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When the same name, based on the same type, has been published independently at different times by different authors, then only the earliest of these "isonyms" has nomenclatural status. The name is always to be cited from its original place of valid publication, and later isonyms may be disregarded.

<i>Peridictyon</i> Genus of grasses

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References

  1. McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011, Regnum Vegetabile 154, A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG, ISBN   978-3-87429-425-6 Article 4
  2. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999). International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth ed.). International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, XXIX. pp.  306. ISBN   9780853010067.
  3. "Chapter 3: Rules of Nomenclature with Recommendations", International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria: Bacteriological Code, 1990 Revision, ASM Press, 1992
  4. 1 2 3 4 Turland, N. J.; Wiersema, J. H.; Barrie, F.R.; Greuter, W. (2011), Best practice in the use of the scientific names of animals: Support for editors of technical journals. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 68(4): 313-322. Article 29
  5. 1 2 Turland, N. J.; Wiersema, J. H.; Barrie, F.R.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Kusber, W.-H.; Li, D.-Z.; Marhold, K.; May, T. W.; McNeill, J.; Monro, A. M.; Prado, J.; Price, M. J.; Smith, G. F. (2017), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017, Regnum Vegetabile, Regnum Vegetabile 159, Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books, doi:10.12705/Code.2018, ISBN   9783946583165, S2CID   83550499 Article 16
  6. 1 2 Turland, N. J.; Wiersema, J. H.; Barrie, F.R.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Kusber, W.-H.; Li, D.-Z.; Marhold, K.; May, T. W.; McNeill, J.; Monro, A. M.; Prado, J.; Price, M. J.; Smith, G. F. (2017), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017, Regnum Vegetabile, Regnum Vegetabile 159, Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books, doi:10.12705/Code.2018, ISBN   9783946583165, S2CID   83550499 Article 19