Brassicales

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Brassicales
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Alliaria petiolata , garlic mustard (Brassicaceae)
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Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Clade: Malvids
Order: Brassicales
Bromhead [1]
Families

The Brassicales (or Cruciales) are an order of flowering plants, belonging to the eurosids II group of dicotyledons under the APG II system. [2] One character common to many members of the order is the production of glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. Most systems of classification have included this order, although sometimes under the name Capparales (the name chosen depending on which is thought to have priority). [3]

The order typically contains the following families: [4]

Under the Cronquist system, the Brassicales were called the Capparales, and included among the "Dilleniidae". The only families included were the Brassicaceae and Capparaceae (treated as separate families), the Tovariaceae, Resedaceae, and Moringaceae. Other taxa now included here were placed in various other orders.

Cleome hassleriana Cleome (Spider Flower) in Gavi.jpg
Cleome hassleriana

The families Capparaceae and Brassicaceae are closely related. One group, consisting of Cleome and related genera, was traditionally included in the Capparaceae but doing so results in a paraphyletic Capparaceae. [3] Therefore, this group is generally now either included in the Brassicaceae or as its own family, Cleomaceae. [4] [5]

In 20 April 2020, newly described monotypic species from Namibia, namely, Tiganophyton karasenseSwanepoel, F.Forest & A.E. van Wyk is placed under this order as a monotypic member of new family Tiganophytaceae, which is closely related to Bataceae, Salvadoraceae and Koeberliniaceae. [6]

Related Research Articles

Brassicaceae Family of flowering plants

Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. Most are herbaceous plants, some shrubs, with simple, although sometimes deeply incised, alternatingly set leaves without stipules or in leaf rosettes, with terminal inflorescences without bracts, containing flowers with four free sepals, four free alternating petals, two short and four longer free stamens, and a fruit with seeds in rows, divided by a thin wall.

Malvales Order of flowering plants

The Malvales are an order of flowering plants. As circumscribed by APG II-system, the order includes about 6000 species within 9 families. The order is placed in the eurosids II, which are part of the eudicots.

Capparales Order of plants

Capparales is a botanical name of an order of flowering plants. It was used in the Cronquist system for an order in subclass Dilleniidae and in the Kubitzki system, nowadays. In the 1981 version of this system it included :

Nyssaceae

Nyssaceae is a family of flowering trees sometimes included in the dogwood family (Cornaceae). Nyssaceae is composed of 37 known species in the following five genera:

Plumbaginaceae

Plumbaginaceae is a family of flowering plants, with a cosmopolitan distribution. The family is sometimes referred to as the leadwort family or the plumbago family.

Limnanthaceae

The Limnanthaceae are a small family of annual herbs occurring throughout temperate North America. There are eight species and nineteen taxa currently recognized. Members of this family are prominent in vernal pool communities of California. Some taxa have been domesticated for use as an oil seed crop. Some members are listed as threatened or endangered and have been the focus of disputes over development plans

Calycanthaceae

The Calycanthaceae are a small family of flowering plants in the order Laurales. The family contains three genera and only 10 known species, restricted to warm temperate and tropical regions:

Lardizabalaceae

Lardizabalaceae is a family of flowering plants.

Asparagaceae Family of plants

Asparagaceae is a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. Its best known member is Asparagus officinalis, garden asparagus.

Dichapetalaceae

Dichapetalaceae is a family of flowering plants, consisting of 3 genera and about 170 species. Members of this family are trees, shrubs or lianas found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

Dasypogonaceae

Dasypogonaceae is a family of flowering plants, one that has not been commonly recognized by taxonomists; the plants it contains were usually included in the family Xanthorrhoeaceae. If valid, Dasypogonaceae includes four genera with 16 species.

Resedaceae

Resedaceae is a family of mostly herbaceous dicotyledonous plants comprising 107 known species in 8 to 12 genera:

Theophrastoideae

Theophrastoideae is a small subfamily of flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. It was formerly recognized as a separate family Theophrastaceae. As previously circumscribed, the family consisted of seven genera and 95 species of trees or shrubs, native to tropical regions of the Americas.

Philesiaceae

Philesiaceae is a family of flowering plants, including two genera, each with a single species. The members of the family are woody shrubs or vines endemic to southern Chile.

Capparaceae Family of caper flowering plants

The Capparaceae, commonly known as the caper family, are a family of plants in the order Brassicales. As currently circumscribed, the family contains 33 genera and about 700 species. The largest genera are Capparis, Maerua, Boscia and Cadaba.

Cleomaceae

The Cleomaceae are a small family of flowering plants in the order Brassicales, comprising about 300 species in 10 genera, or about 150 species in 17 genera. These genera were previously included in the family Capparaceae, but were raised to a distinct family when DNA evidence suggested the genera included in it are more closely related to the Brassicaceae than they are to the Capparaceae. The APG II system allows for Cleomaceae to be included in Brassicaceae.

Salvadoraceae

Salvadoraceae is a family in the plant order Brassicales, consisting of three genera with a total of 11 known species. They occur in Africa, Southeast Asia, and on Java, suggesting they are probably found in much of Malesia. They are often found in hot, dry areas.

Gyrostemonaceae

Gyrostemonaceae is a family of plants in the order Brassicales. It comprises 4(-6) genera, totalling about 20 known species. All are endemic to temperate parts of Australia. They are shrubs or small trees with small, often narrow leaves, and small flowers. They are wind-pollinated.

The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system.

Calophyllaceae

Calophyllaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales and is recognized by the APG III system of classification. Most of the 14 genera and 475 species included in this family were previously recognized in the tribe Calophylleae of the family Clusiaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group determined that splitting this clade of genera off into their own family was necessary.

References

  1. 1 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
  3. 1 2 Jocelyn C. Hall, Kenneth J. Sytsma & Hugh H. Iltis (2002). "Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data". American Journal of Botany . 89 (11): 1826–1842. doi: 10.3732/ajb.89.11.1826 . PMID   21665611.
  4. 1 2 Elspeth Haston; James E. Richardson; Peter F. Stevens; Mark W. Chase; David J. Harris (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon . 56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731. JSTOR   25065731.
  5. Jocelyn C. Hall, Hugh H. Iltis & Kenneth J. Sytsma (2004). "Molecular phylogenetics of core Brassicales, placement of orphan genera Emblingia, Forchhammeria, Tirania, and character evolution" (PDF). Systematic Botany . 29 (3): 654–669. doi:10.1600/0363644041744491. S2CID   86218316. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
  6. Swanepoel, Wessel; Chase, Mark W.; Christenhusz, Maarten J.M.; Maurin, Olivier; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E. (2020). "From the frying pan: an unusual dwarf shrub from Namibia turns out to be a new brassicalean family". Phytotaxa. 439 (3): 171–185. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.439.3.1 .