Myrtales

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Myrtales
Lumnitzera littorea.jpg
Lumnitzera littorea
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Clade: Malvids
Order: Myrtales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl [1]
Families
Blue Eyes Fuchsia flower and buds, from order Myrtales and family Onagraceae Blue Eyes Fuchsia.JPG
Blue Eyes Fuchsia flower and buds, from order Myrtales and family Onagraceae

The Myrtales are an order of flowering plants placed as a sister to the eurosids II clade as of the publishing of the Eucalyptus grandis genome in June 2014. [2]

Contents

The APG III system of classification for angiosperms still places it within the eurosids. This finding is corroborated by the placement of the Myrtales in the Malvid clade by the One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative. [3] The following families are included as of APG III: [1]

The Cronquist system gives essentially the same composition, except the Vochysiaceae are removed to the order Polygalales, and the Thymelaeaceae are included. The families Sonneratiaceae, Trapaceae, and Punicaceae are removed from the Lythraceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Myrtales were in the superorder Myrtiflorae (also called Myrtanae). The APG III system agrees with the older Cronquist circumscriptions of treating Psiloxylaceae and Heteropyxidaceae within Myrtaceae, and Memecyclaceae within Melastomataceae.

Ellagitannins are reported in dicotyledoneous angiospermes, and notably in species in the order Myrtales. [4]

Origins

Myrtales is dated to have begun 89–99 million years ago (mya) in Australasia. There is some contention as to that date however, which was obtained using nuclear DNA. When looking at chloroplast DNA, the myrtales ancestor is instead considered to have evolved in the mid-Cretaceous period (100 mya) in Southeast Africa, rather than in Australasia. [5] Although the APG system classifies myrtales as within the eurosids, the recently published genome of Eucalyptus grandis places the order myrtales as a sister to the eurosids rather than inside them. The discrepancy is thought to have arisen due to the difference between using numerous taxa versus using various genes for constructing a phylogeny. [2]

Related Research Articles

Asparagales Order of monocot flowering plants

Asparagales is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web. The order takes its name from the type family Asparagaceae and is placed in the monocots amongst the lilioid monocots. The order has only recently been recognized in classification systems. It was first put forward by Huber in 1977 and later taken up in the Dahlgren system of 1985 and then the APG in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Before this, many of its families were assigned to the old order Liliales, a very large order containing almost all monocots with colorful tepals and lacking starch in their endosperm. DNA sequence analysis indicated that many of the taxa previously included in Liliales should actually be redistributed over three orders, Liliales, Asparagales, and Dioscoreales. The boundaries of the Asparagales and of its families have undergone a series of changes in recent years; future research may lead to further changes and ultimately greater stability. In the APG circumscription, Asparagales is the largest order of monocots with 14 families, 1,122 genera, and about 36,000 species.

Hamamelidales is an order of flowering plants formerly accepted in a number of systems of plant taxonomy, including the Cronquist system published in 1968 and 1988. The order is not currently accepted in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III system of plant taxonomy, the most widely accepted system as molecular systematic studies have suggested that these families are not closely related to each other. The APG II system (2003) assigns them to several different orders: Hamamelidaceae and Cercidiphyllaceae to Saxifragales, Eupteleaceae to Ranunculales, Platanaceae to Proteales, and Myrothamnaceae to Gunnerales. Additional studies of the chloroplast genome have since confirmed that the families moved into the Saxigragales are closely related.

Austrobaileyales order of plants

Austrobaileyales is an order of flowering plants consisting of about 100 species of woody plants growing as trees, shrubs and lianas. Perhaps the most familiar species is Illicium verum, from which comes the spice star anise. The order belongs to the group of basal angiosperms, the ANA grade, which diverged earlier from the remaining flowering plants. Austrobaileyales is sister to all remaining extant angiosperms outside the ANA grade.

Myrtaceae Myrtle family of plants

Myrtaceae or the myrtle family is a family of dicotyledonous plants placed within the order Myrtales. Myrtle, pohutukawa, bay rum tree, clove, guava, acca (feijoa), allspice, and eucalyptus are some notable members of this group. All species are woody, contain essential oils, and have flower parts in multiples of four or five. The leaves are evergreen, alternate to mostly opposite, simple, and usually entire. The flowers have a base number of five petals, though in several genera the petals are minute or absent. The stamens are usually very conspicuous, brightly coloured and numerous.

Zygophyllales order of plants

The Zygophyllales are an order of dicotyledonous plants, comprising the following two families:

Buxales order of plants

The Buxales are a small order of eudicot flowering plants, recognized by the APG IV system of 2016. The order includes the family Buxaceae; the families Didymelaceae and Haptanthaceae may also be recognized or may be included in the Buxaceae. Many members of the order are evergreen shrubs or trees, although some are herbaceous perennials. They have separate "male" (staminate) and "female" (carpellate) flowers, mostly on the same plant. Some species are of economic importance either for the wood they produce or as ornamental plants.

Lythraceae family of plants

Lythraceae is a family of flowering plants, including 32 genera with about 620 species of herbs, shrubs and trees. The larger genera include Cuphea, Lagerstroemia (56), Nesaea (50), Rotala (45), and Lythrum (35). It also includes the pomegranate and the water caltrop. Lythraceae has a worldwide distribution, with most species in the tropics, but ranging into temperate climate regions as well.

<i>Olinia</i> genus of plants

Olinia is a genus of small trees and shrubs with 10 species in the family Penaeaceae. The species of Olinia are native to Africa, ranging from west Africa to South Africa. It was previously regarded as the sole genus in the family Oliniaceae, but is now included in the expanded Penaeaceae along with Rhynchocalyx under the APG III system of classification.

<i>Rhynchocalyx</i> species of plant

Rhynchocalyx lawsonioides is a small flowering tree, the sole species of the genus Rhynchocalyx. It had also previously been regarded as the only species in the monogeneric family Rhynchocalycaceae but is now included in the expanded Penaeaceae along with Olinia under the APG III system of classification. Rhynchocalyx is endemic to the KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic ecoregion of the Natal and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.

Penaeaceae family of plants

The Penaeaceae are a family of evergreen, leathery-leaved shrubs and small trees, native to South Africa. The family has 29 species in 9 genera. The family Penaeaceae was expanded under the APG III system of classification with the inclusion of the genera Olinia and the single species from the genus Rhynchocalyx.

Alzatea verticillata is a small flowering tree, native to the Neotropics. It inhabits moist submontane forests from Costa Rica and Panama in Central America south to Peru and Bolivia in tropical South America. It is the sole species of genus Alzatea and family Alzateaceae.

Crypteroniaceae family of plants

The Crypteroniaceae are a family of flowering trees and shrubs. The family includes 13 species in three genera, native to Indomalaya.

Rosids Large clade of flowering plants

The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.

Asterids Clade of Eudicot Angiosperms

In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade. Common examples include the forget-me-nots, nightshades, the common sunflower, petunias, morning glory and sweet potato, coffee, lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, honeysuckle, ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary, and rainforest trees such as Brazil nut.

The APG system of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy. Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it was replaced by the improved APG II in 2003, APG III system in 2009 and APG IV system in 2016.

A system of plant taxonomy, the Goldberg system was published in:

A system of plant taxonomy, the Bessey system was published by Charles Bessey in 1915.

<i>Geissoloma</i> species of plant

Geissoloma is a genus of flowering plants in the monotypic family Geissolomataceae, native to the Cape Province of South Africa. The plants are xerophytic evergreen shrubs and are known to accumulate aluminum. It is sometimes called guyalone in English.

The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system.

The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). It was published in 2016, seven years after its predecessor the APG III system was published in 2009, and 18 years after the first APG system was published in 1998. In 2009, a linear arrangement of the system was published separately; the APG IV paper includes such an arrangement, cross-referenced to the 2009 one.

References

  1. 1 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x
  2. 1 2 Myburg AA, Grattapaglia D, Tuskan GA, Hellsten U, Hayes RD, Grimwood J, et al. (June 2014). "The genome of Eucalyptus grandis" (PDF). Nature. 510 (7505): 356–62. Bibcode:2014Natur.510..356M. doi:10.1038/nature13308. PMID   24919147.
  3. Leebens-Mack JH, Barker MS, Carpenter EJ, Deyholos MK, Gitzendanner MA, Graham SW, et al. (One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative) (October 2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants". Nature. 574 (7780): 679–685. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1693-2. PMC   6872490 . PMID   31645766.
  4. Yoshida T, Amakura Y, Yoshimura M (January 2010). "Structural features and biological properties of ellagitannins in some plant families of the order Myrtales". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 11 (1): 79–106. doi:10.3390/ijms11010079. PMC   2820991 . PMID   20162003.
  5. Grattapaglia D, Vaillancourt RE, Shepherd M, Thumma BR, Foley W, Külheim C, Potts BM, Myburg AA (June 2012). "Progress in Myrtaceae genetics and genomics: Eucalyptus as the pivotal genus". Tree Genetics & Genomes. 8 (3): 463–508. doi: 10.1007/s11295-012-0491-x .

Further reading

Wikispecies-logo.svg Data related to Myrtales at Wikispecies