Asterids

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Asterids
Potapsco fg13.jpg
Impatiens capensis (Ericales)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superasterids
Clade: Asterids
Clades
Oregano from Lamiales Origanum vulgare - harilik pune.jpg
Oregano from Lamiales

In the APG IV system (2016) for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade (a monophyletic group). [1] Common examples include the forget-me-nots, nightshades (including potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, peppers and tobacco), the common sunflower, petunias, morning glory and sweet potato, coffee, lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, honeysuckle, ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary, and rainforest trees such as Brazil nut.

Contents

Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system (1981) and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems.[ citation needed ] The name asterids (not necessarily capitalised) resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN .

History

Genetic analysis carried out after APG II maintains that the sister to all other asterids are the Cornales. A second order that split from the base of the asterids are the Ericales. The remaining orders cluster into two clades, the lamiids and the campanulids. The structure of both of these clades has changed in APG III. [2] [3]

In the APG III system, the following clades were renamed:

euasterids I → lamiids
euasterids II → campanulids [2] [3]

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic tree presented hereinafter has been proposed by the APG IV project. [1]

asterids 

  Cornales

  Ericales

euasterids
campanulids

Aquifoliales

Asterales

Escalloniales

Bruniales

Apiales

Dipsacales

Paracryphiales

lamiids

Icacinales

Metteniusales

Garryales

Boraginales

Gentianales

Vahliales

Lamiales

Solanales

Subdivision

lamiids

The lamiid subclade consists of about 40,000 species and account for about 15% of angiosperm diversity, characterized in general by superior ovaries and corollas with any fusion of the petals (sympetaly) occurring late in the process of development. The major part of lamiid diversity occurs in the group of five orders from Boraginales to Solanales, referred to informally as "core lamiids" (sometimes called Laminae), although Vahliales consists of the single small genus Vahlia. The remainder of the lamiids are referred to as "basal lamiids", in which Garryales is the sister group to the core lamiids. It has been suggested that the core lamiids radiated from an ancestral line of tropical trees in which the flowers were inconspicuous and the fruit large, drupaceous and often single-seeded. [4]

Related Research Articles

Apiales order of plants

The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system. This is typical of the newer classifications, though there is some slight variation and in particular, the Torriceliaceae may be divided.

Magnoliales order of plants

The Magnoliales are an order of flowering plants.

Solanales Order of dicot flowering plants

The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons. Some older sources used the name Polemoniales for this order.

Canellales botanical name for an order of flowering plants

Canellales is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants, one of the four orders of the magnoliids. It is recognized by the most recent classification of flowering plants, the APG IV system. It is defined to contain two families: Canellaceae and Winteraceae, which comprise 136 species of fragrant trees and shrubs. The Canellaceae are found in tropical America and Africa, and the Winteraceae are part of the Antarctic flora. Although the order was defined based on phylogenetic studies, a number of possible synapomorphies have been suggested, relating to the pollen tube, the seeds, the thickness of the integument, and other aspects of the morphology.

Cornales order of plants

The Cornales are an order of flowering plants, early diverging among the asterids, containing about 600 species. Plants within the Cornales usually have four-parted flowers, drupaceous fruits, and inferior to half-inferior gynoecia topped with disc-shaped nectaries.

Gentianales Order of flowering plants

Gentianales is an order of flowering plants, included within the asterid clade of eudicots. It comprises more than 16,000 species in about 1,138 genera in 5 families. More than 80% of the species in this order belong to the family Rubiaceae.

Piperales order of plants

Piperales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. It necessarily includes the family Piperaceae but otherwise has been treated variously over time. Well-known plants which may be included in this order include black pepper, kava, lizard's tail, birthwort, and wild ginger.

Aquifoliales order of plants

The Aquifoliales are an order of flowering plants, including the Aquifoliaceae (holly) family, and also the Helwingiaceae and the Phyllonomaceae. In 2001, the families Stemonuraceae and Cardiopteridaceae were added to this order. This circumscription of Aquifoliales was recognized by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group when they published the APG II system in 2003. In the Cronquist system, there is no Aquifoliales order: the Aquifoliaceae are placed within the order Celastrales and the others are in other families.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group A collaborative research group for the classification of flowering plants

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, is an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.

Saururaceae family of plants

Saururaceae is a plant family comprising four genera and seven species of herbaceous flowering plants native to eastern and southern Asia and North America. The family has been recognised by most taxonomists, and is sometimes known as the "lizard's-tail family". The APG IV system assigned it to the order Piperales in the clade magnoliids.

Eudicots Clade of flowering plants

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants mainly characterized by having two seed leaves upon germination. The term derives from Dicotyledons.

The APG II system of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system.

Commelinids important clade of plants (In APG II and III)

In plant taxonomy, commelinids is an APG IV system named clade within the monocots within the angiosperms, distinguished by cell walls containing ferulic acid.

Theophrastoideae family of plants

Theophrastoideae is a small subfamily of flowering plants in the family Primulaceae. It was formerly recognized as a separate family Theophrastaceae. As previously circumscribed, the family consisted of seven genera and 95 species of trees or shrubs, native to tropical regions of the Americas.

Escalloniaceae family of plants

Escalloniaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 130 species in seven genera. In the APG II system it is one of eight families in the euasterids II clade (campanulids) that are unplaced as to order. More recent research has provided evidence that two of those families, Eremosynaceae and Tribelaceae, arose from within Escalloniaceae; the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website therefore merges these two families into Escalloniaceae, and also places the family alone in order Escalloniales.

Loasaceae family of plants

Loasaceae is a family of 15–20 genera and about 200–260 species of flowering plants in the order Cornales, native to the Americas and Africa. Members of the family include annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous plants, and a few shrubs and small trees.

Oncotheca is a genus of tree endemic to New Caledonia. There are two species, Oncotheca balansae and Oncotheca humboldtiana.

Bruniales order of plants

Bruniales is a valid botanic name at the rank of order. Until recently it was not in use, but a 2008 study suggested that Bruniaceae and Columelliaceae are sister clades. The latest revision of the APG system, APG III, places both families as the only members of the order Bruniales, which is sister to the Apiales, and one of the asterid taxa.

Tribeles australis, the sole species in the genus Tribeles, is a prostrate shrub native to Chile and Argentina.

Paracryphiaceae family of plants

The Paracryphiaceae are a family of woody shrubs and trees native to Australia, southeast Asia, and New Caledonia. In the APG III system of 2009, the family is placed in its own order, Paracryphiales, in the campanulid clade of the asterids. In the earlier APG II system, the family was unplaced as to order and included only Paracryphia.

References

  1. 1 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi: 10.1111/boj.12385 .
  2. 1 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x .
  3. 1 2 Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x .
  4. Stull et al 2015.

Bibliography