Jasmine

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Jasmine
Common Jasmine.jpg
Jasminum officinale, common jasmine
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Tribe: Jasmineae
Genus: Jasminum
L.
Type species
Jasminum officinale
L.
Species

More than 200, see List of Jasminum species [1] [2] [3]

Contents

Synonyms [4]
  • Jacksonia hort. ex Schltdl
  • Jasminium Dumort.
  • Menodora Humb. & Bonpl.
  • Mogorium Juss.
  • Noldeanthus Knobl.
Common jasmine Jasmine .jpg
Common jasmine

Jasmine (taxonomic name Jasminum /ˈjæsmɪnəm/ YASS-min-əm [5] ) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae). It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Eurasia and Oceania. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers. A number of unrelated plants contain the word "jasmine" in their common names (see Other plants called "jasmine").

Description

Jasmine can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (green all year round), and can be erect, spreading, or climbing shrubs and vines. Their leaves are borne in opposing or alternating arrangement and can be of simple, trifoliate, or pinnate formation. The flowers are typically around 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in diameter. They are white or yellow in color, although in rare instances they can be slightly reddish. The flowers are borne in cymose clusters with a minimum of three flowers, though they can also be solitary on the ends of branchlets. Each flower has about four to nine petals, two locules, and one to four ovules. They have two stamens with very short filaments. The bracts are linear or ovate. The calyx is bell-shaped. They are usually very fragrant. The fruits of jasmines are berries that turn black when ripe. The basic chromosome number of the genus is 13, and most species are diploid (2n=26). However, natural polyploidy exists, particularly in Jasminum sambac (triploid 3n=39), Jasminum flexile (tetraploid 4n=52), Jasminum mesnyi (triploid 3n=39), and Jasminum angustifolium (tetraploid 4n=52). [6]

Distribution and habitat

Jasmines are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eurasia, Australasia and Oceania, although only one of the 200 species is native to Europe. [7] [8] Their center of diversity is in South Asia and Southeast Asia. [9]

A number of jasmine species have become naturalized in Mediterranean Europe. For example, the so-called Spanish jasmine ( Jasminum grandiflorum ) was originally from West Asia and the Indian subcontinent, and is now naturalized in the Iberian peninsula. [6]

Jasminum fluminense (which is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine") and Jasminum dichotomum (Gold Coast Jasmine) are invasive species in Hawaii and Florida. [10] [11] Jasminum polyanthum , also known as White Jasmine, is an invasive weed in Australia. [12]

Taxonomy

Species belonging to genus Jasminum are classified under the tribe Jasmineae of the olive family (Oleaceae). [6] Jasminum is divided into five sectionsAlternifolia, Jasminum, Primulina, Trifoliolata, and Unifoliolata. [4]

Etymology

The genus name is derived from the Persian Yasameen ("gift from God") through Arabic and Latin. [13] [14] [15]

Selected species

Species include: [16]

Cultivation and uses

Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a houseplant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in South and South East Asia.

Jasmine tea

Green tea with jasmine flowers Jasmine tea2 close-up.jpg
Green tea with jasmine flowers

Jasmine tea is traditionally consumed in China, where it is called jasmine-flower tea (茉莉花茶; pinyin: mò lì huā chá). Jasminum sambac flowers are also used to make jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea or white tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. The flowers are put in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes about four hours for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms. For the highest grades of jasmine tea, this process may be repeated up to seven times. As the tea absorbs moisture from the fresh Jasmine flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The used flowers may be removed from the final product, as the flowers contain no more aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves.

In Okinawa, Japan, jasmine tea is known as sanpin cha.

Jasmonates

Jasmine gave name to the jasmonate plant hormones, as methyl jasmonate isolated from the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates. [17] Jasmonates occur ubiquitously across the plant kingdom, having key roles in responses to environmental cues, such as heat or cold stress, and participate in the signal transduction pathways of many plants. [18]

Plantation

Jasmine plantation is usually done using the stem of an existing plant, or one having roots. In rare occasions, the flowers bear dark purple fruits with seeds. The seeds will germinate when sowed and nurtured properly. The flowering shrubs are usually trimmed pre-summer, as fresh branches grow and bear flowers during the summer.

Cultural importance

Jasmine is cultivated commercially for domestic and industrial uses, such as the perfume industry. It is used in rituals like marriages, religious ceremonies and festivals. Jasmine flower vendors sell garlands of jasmine, or in the case of the thicker motiyaa (in Hindi) or mograa (in Marathi) varieties, bunches of jasmine are common. They may be found around entrances to temples, on major thoroughfares, and in major business areas.

A change in presidency in Tunisia in 1987 [19] [20] and the Tunisian Revolution of 2011 are both called "Jasmine revolutions" in reference to the flower.

"Jasmine" is a common female given name.

National flower

Several countries and states consider jasmine as a national symbol.

Other plants called "jasmine"

Related Research Articles

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Asimina is a genus of small trees or shrubs described as a genus in 1763.

<i>Senecio</i> genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae

Senecio is a genus of the daisy family (Asteraceae) that includes ragworts and groundsels. The scientific Latin genus name, Senecio, means "old man."

Jasmine tea is tea scented with the aroma of jasmine blossoms. Typically, jasmine tea has green tea as the tea base; however, white tea and black tea are also used. The resulting flavour of jasmine tea is subtly sweet and highly fragrant. It is the most famous scented tea in China.

<i>Nyctanthes arbor-tristis</i> Species of plant

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, the night-flowering jasmine or Parijat or hengra bubar or Shiuli is a species of Nyctanthes native to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

<i>Sapindus</i> Genus of flowering plants in the lychee family Sapindaceae

Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the lychee family, Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the world. The genus includes both deciduous and evergreen species. Members of the genus are commonly known as soapberries or soapnuts because the fruit pulp is used to make soap. The generic name is derived from the Latin words sapo, meaning "soap", and indicus, meaning "of India".

Spartium Species of broom native to the Mediterranean

Spartium junceum is the sole species in the genus Spartium. Known as the Spanish broom, rush broom or weaver's broom, it is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae. It is closely related to the other brooms. There are many binomials in Spartium that are of dubious validity.

<i>Acanthus</i> (plant) Flowering plant genus in the Acanthaceae

Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean Basin and Asia. This flowering plant is nectar producing and is susceptible to predation by butterflies, such as Anartia fatima, and other nectar feeding organisms. Common names include Acanthus and Bear's breeches. The generic name derives from the Greek term ἄκανθος (akanthos) for Acanthus mollis, a plant that was commonly imitated in Corinthian capitals.

<i>Jasminum sambac</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminum sambac is a species of jasmine native to tropical Asia, from the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia. It is cultivated in many places, especially across much of South and Southeast Asia. It is naturalised in many scattered locales: Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Christmas Island, Chiapas, Central America, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles.

<i>Jasminum nudiflorum</i> Species of shrub

Jasminum nudiflorum, the winter jasmine, is a slender, deciduous shrub native to China. The flower's blossoming peaks right after winter, which is why it is also named Yingchun (迎春) in Chinese, which means "the flower that welcomes Spring". It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and is reportedly naturalized in France and in scattered locations in the United States.

<i>Jasminum polyanthum</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminum polyanthum, the many-flowered jasmine or pink jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to China and Myanmar. A strong evergreen twining climber, it is especially noted for its abundant, highly fragrant pink to white flowers.

<i>Jasminum dichotomum</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminium dichotomum, the Gold Coast jasmine, is a species of jasmine, in the family Oleaceae. It is an evergreen climber which grows as a rambling shrub or woody vine. The flowers are quite fragrant and open at night, coloured pink when budding then white; these appear at the leaf axils in cluster. It blooms year round. The leaves are opposite. The fleshy fruit is small.

<i>Jasminum grandiflorum</i> Species of plant

Jasminum grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalan jasmine, among others, is a species of jasmine native to South Asia, the Arabian peninsula, East and Northeast Africa and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China. The species is widely cultivated and is reportedly naturalized in Guinea, the Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Réunion, Java, the Cook Islands, Chiapas, Central America, and the Caribbean.It is closely related to, and sometimes treated as merely a form of, Jasminum officinale. The plant is known as "saman pichcha" or "pichcha" in Sri Lanka.

<i>Mandevilla sanderi</i> Species of vine

Mandevilla sanderi, the Brazilian jasmine, is a vine belonging to the genus Mandevilla. Grown as an ornamental plant, the species is endemic to the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It is a rapidly growing, creeping, perennial plant, pruning shoots about 60 cm per year.

Jasmine in Karnataka

Jasmine is considered the queen of flowers and is called the "Belle of India" or the "Queen of fragrance" as it is exquisitely scented to soothe and refresh. In different parts of India it is called by different names—Mogra, Motia, Chameli, Malli puvvu, Jaati, Mallige, Juhi, Mogra or Moonlight in the grove. It is reported that there are 300 varieties of jasmine. It is also stated that jasmine crossed the seas—from Asia to Europe, landing first along the Mediterranean Sea, conquering Greece and Turkey, reaching Western Europe through Spain, then France and Italy and finally landing in England in the latter part of the 17th century..

<i>Jasminum officinale</i> Species of shrub

Jasminum officinale, known as the common jasmine or simply jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae. It is native to the Caucasus, northern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Himalayas, Tajikistan, India, Nepal and western China. The species is also widely cultivated in many places, and is reportedly naturalized in Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Algeria, Florida and the West Indies.

<i>Jasminum multiflorum</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminum multiflorum, commonly known as star jasmine, is a species of jasmine, in the family Oleaceae.

<i>Jasminum tortuosum</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminum tortuosum is a species of jasmine native to South Africa. It is generally found twining high into the trees of forests in southwestern part of Cape Province, but also may scramble where there is little vertical space. It has angular branches off its main stem, and its flowers usually have five white petals each. The specific epithet (tortuosum) is from Latin, describing something that is winding or very twisted.

<i>Jasminum mesnyi</i> Species of jasmine

Jasminum mesnyi, the primrose jasmine or Japanese jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the family Oleaceae, native to Vietnam and southern China. It is also reportedly naturalized in Mexico, Honduras and parts of the southern United States.

<i>Jasminum angustifolium</i> Species of shrub

Jasminum angustifolium, the wild jasmine, is a species of jasmine native to India, Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands. It is a climbing shrub with a smooth stem and minutely pubescent branchlets. The flowers are approximately 1 inch in diameter, and resemble a star with 7 or 8 narrow petals, flowering between June and August.

References

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  2. "10. Jasminum Linnaeus". Chinese Plant Names. 15: 307. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  3. UniProt. "Jasminum" . Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  4. 1 2 USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "Jasminum L." Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
  6. 1 2 3 A.K. Singh (2006). Flower Crops: Cultivation and Management. New India Publishing. pp. 193–205. ISBN   978-81-89422-35-6.
  7. Ernst Schmidt; Mervyn Lötter; Warren McCleland (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Jacana Media. p. 530. ISBN   978-1-919777-30-6.
  8. Jasminum @ EFloras.org.
  9. H. Panda (2005). Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 220. ISBN   978-81-7833-027-3.
  10. "Jasminum fluminense". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
  11. "Jasminum dichotomum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA.
  12. "Weeds of the Blue Mountains Bushland – Jasminum polyanthum". Archived from the original on 2014-02-04.
  13. "jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED
  14. "jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  15. Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
  16. GRIN. "Jasminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  17. Demole E; Lederer, E.; Mercier, D. (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta. 45 (2): 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
  18. Sharma, M; Laxmi, A (2016). "Jasmonates: Emerging Players in Controlling Temperature Stress Tolerance". Frontiers in Plant Science. 6: 1129. doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01129. PMC   4701901 . PMID   26779205.
  19. Michael, Ayari; Vincent Geisser (2011). "Tunisie : la Révolution des "Nouzouh"* n'a pas l'odeur du jasmin" (in French). Témoignage chrétien. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  20. "La révolution par le feu et par un clic" (in French). Le Quotidien d'Oran/moofid.com. 2011-02-25. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  21. Anabel Bachour (23 February 2017). "Damascus, the City of Jasmine". Peacock Plume, Student Media, The American University of Paris, France. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  22. Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993 Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
  23. "Symbolic and spiritual meaning of jasmine flowers". Gardening Tips | Flower Wiki. 2017-01-03. Retrieved 2019-04-25.

Further reading