16th century

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The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent (which was purported to have been discovered by Admiral Richard E. Byrd in 1947) and a yet undetermined Terra Australis. Mercator World Map.jpg
The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent (which was purported to have been discovered by Admiral Richard E. Byrd in 1947) and a yet undetermined Terra Australis .
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503-06, one of the world's most well-known paintings Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg
Mona Lisa , by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06, one of the world's most well-known paintings
The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar the Great The Adventures of Akbar artillery.jpg
The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar the Great

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). [1]

Contents

The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of Western civilization and the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders occurred. During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal, explored the Indian Ocean and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes, and Vasco Da Gama was given permission by the Indian Sultans to settle in the wealthy Bengal Sultanate. [2] [3] [4] Large parts of the New World became Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and while the Portuguese became the masters of Asia's and Africa's Indian Ocean trade, the Spanish opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with India.

This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century.

The Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century. In Italy, various contributions made by renaissance leading figures led to the foundation of important subjects which include accounting and political science. Galileo Galilei invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the field of Scientific Revolution. In England, the British-Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world.

In the Indian subcontinent, following the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate, new powers emerged, the Suri Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri and the Mughal Empire [5] by Babur, a direct descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan. [6] His successors Humayun and Akbar, enlarged the empire to include most of South Asia. The empire developed a strong and stable economy in the world, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture, which significantly influenced the course of Indian history.

China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period.

Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.

Events

Undated

1500s

Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Galileo Galilei, father of modern science, and the Pope. Galileo before the Holy Office.jpg
Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Galileo Galilei, father of modern science, and the Pope.
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature AbulFazlPresentingAkbarnama.jpg
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature
Dr Alberico Gentili, The Father of international law. Alberico Gentili.jpg
Dr Alberico Gentili, The Father of international law.
Battle of Cerignola: El Gran Capitan finds the corpse of Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours Elgrancapitantrasbatalladecerinola.jpg
Battle of Cerignola: El Gran Capitan finds the corpse of Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours
Afonso de Albuquerque Retrato de Afonso de Albuquerque (apos 1545) - Autor desconhecido.png
Afonso de Albuquerque
Vasily III, Grand Duke of Moscow by Andre Thevet. Vasili III of Russia.jpg
Vasily III, Grand Duke of Moscow by André Thévet.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex Battle Spanish Otomies Metztitlan.jpg
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex

1510s

Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522. Retrato de Hernando de Magallanes.jpg
Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.
Hernan Cortes Cortes.jpg
Hernán Cortés

1520s

Francis I of France Francois Ier Louvre.jpg
Francis I of France
Sack of Rome by Charles V forces. Sack of Rome of 1527 by Johannes Lingelbach 17th century.jpg
Sack of Rome by Charles V forces.

1530s

Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536 - 1537, Henry VIII, King of England and Ireland. Hans Holbein, the Younger, Around 1497-1543 - Portrait of Henry VIII of England - Google Art Project.jpg
Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536 – 1537, Henry VIII, King of England and Ireland.
Portrait of Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV by anonim (18th c., GIM).jpg
Portrait of Ivan the Terrible

1540s

Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus
Scenes of everyday life in Ming China, by Qiu Ying Along the River During the Qingming Festival (Suzhou Imitation) 12.jpg
Scenes of everyday life in Ming China, by Qiu Ying

1550s

Akbar the Great Akbar1.jpg
Akbar the Great
Philip II of Spain Philip II, King of Spain from NPG.jpg
Philip II of Spain

1560s

Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo Tizian 060.jpg
Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567 Akbar shoots Jaimal at the siege of Chitor.jpg
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567
Siege of Valenciennes during the Dutch War of Independence in 1567 Famien Strada Histoire-Taking of Valenciennes-ppn087811480 MG 8902T2p025.tif
Siege of Valenciennes during the Dutch War of Independence in 1567
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants La masacre de San Bartolome, por Francois Dubois.jpg
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants

1570s

Oda Nobunaga. Odanobunaga.jpg
Oda Nobunaga.
The Battle of Lepanto. Battle of Lepanto 1571.jpg
The Battle of Lepanto.
Sir Francis Drake. 1590 or later Marcus Gheeraerts, Sir Francis Drake Buckland Abbey, Devon.jpg
Sir Francis Drake.

1580s

The Irish Gaelic chieftain's feast, from The Image of Ireland. The Image of Irelande - plate03.jpg
The Irish Gaelic chieftain's feast, from The Image of Ireland .
Portuguese fusta in India from a book by Jan Huygen van Linschoten Fusta by Jan Huygen van Linschoten.jpg
Portuguese fusta in India from a book by Jan Huygen van Linschoten
The fall of Spanish Armada La batalla de Gravelinas, por Nicholas Hilliard.jpg
The fall of Spanish Armada

1590s

Significant people

Charles V Emperor charles v.png
Charles V
Suleiman the Magnificent EmperorSuleiman.jpg
Suleiman the Magnificent
Elizabeth I of England English School, circa 1560s, Elizabeth I of England.jpg
Elizabeth I of England
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius Loyola by Francisco Zurbaran.jpg
Ignatius of Loyola
Martin Luther Martin Luther, 1529.jpg
Martin Luther
John Calvin MCC-31320 Portret van Johannes Calvijn (1509-1564)-uitsnede.jpg
John Calvin

Exploration

Vasco de Gama Lisboa-Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga-Retrato dito de Vasco da Gama-20140917.jpg
Vasco de Gama
Francisco Pizarro Francisco-Pizarro-um1540.png
Francisco Pizarro

Visual artists

Michelangelo Buonarroti Miguel Angel, por Daniele da Volterra (detalle).jpg
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Raphael Raffaello Sanzio.jpg
Raphael
Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer - 1500 self-portrait (High resolution and detail).jpg
Albrecht Dürer
Andrea Palladio Andrea Palladio2.jpeg
Andrea Palladio
Titian Tizian 090.jpg
Titian
El Greco El Greco - Portrait of a Man - WGA10554.jpg
El Greco

Musicians and composers

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.jpg
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Literature

Miguel de Cervantes Cervantes Jauregui.jpg
Miguel de Cervantes
William Shakespeare Shakespeare.jpg
William Shakespeare
Michel de Montaigne Michel-eyquem-de-montaigne 1.jpg
Michel de Montaigne

Science and philosophy

Niccolo Machiavelli Santi di Tito - Niccolo Machiavelli's portrait headcrop.jpg
Niccolò Machiavelli
Erasmus of Rotterdam Holbein-erasmus.jpg
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Sir Thomas More Hans Holbein, the Younger - Sir Thomas More - Google Art Project.jpg
Sir Thomas More
Paracelsus Paracelsus.jpg
Paracelsus

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related article: List of 16th century inventions.

See also

References

  1. Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar for the sake of clarity; thus NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles.
  2. Vadime Elisseeff (1998). The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. ISBN   978-1-57181-221-6.
  3. Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN   978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  4. "Portuguese, The - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017.
  5. Singh, Sarina; Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway. 7, illustrated. Lonely Planet. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-74104-542-0 . Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  6. Babur (2006). Babur Nama. Penguin Books. p. vii. ISBN   978-0-14-400149-1.
  7. Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.
  8. "16th Century Timeline (1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.
  9. "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
  10. Ricklefs (1991), p.23
  11. "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348–1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  12. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 24
  13. The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03.
  14. Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Ricklefs (1991), page 25
  16. "La Terra De Hochelaga – Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  17. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library . 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  18. Schwieger, Peter (2014). The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: a political history of the Tibetan institution of reincarnation. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231538602. OCLC   905914446.
  19. Miller, George, ed. (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv. ISBN   967-65-3099-9.
  20. Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). " Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective ". PUQ. p.308. ISBN   2-7605-1588-5
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ricklefs (1991), page 27
  22. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  23. Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 18.
  24. Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.