16th century

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The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent and a yet undetermined Terra Australis. Mercator World Map.jpg
The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent and a yet undetermined Terra Australis .

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC) (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). [1]

Contents

The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century which saw the rise of Western civilization and the Islamic gunpowder empires. The Renaissance in Italy and Europe saw the emergence of important artists, authors and scientists, and led to the foundation of important subjects which include accounting and political science. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Galileo Galilei became a champion of the new sciences, invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the fields of physics and astronomy, becoming a major figure in the Scientific Revolution.

Spain and Portugal colonized large parts of Central and South America, followed by France and England in Northern America and the Lesser Antilles. The Portuguese became the masters of trade between Brazil, the coasts of Africa, and their possessions in the Indies, whereas the Spanish came to dominate the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Peru, and opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with the Indies. English and French privateers began to practice persistent theft of Spanish and Portuguese treasures. This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century.

The Reformation in central and northern Europe gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Catholic Church. In England, the British-Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Catholic theology. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by a major popularity of the Shia sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world.

In the Indian subcontinent, following the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate and Vijayanagara Empire, new powers emerged, the Sur Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri, Deccan sultanates, and the Mughal Empire [2] by Emperor Babur, a direct descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan. [3] His successors Humayun and Akbar, enlarged the empire to include most of South Asia. The empire developed a strong and stable economy in the world, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture, which significantly influenced the course of Indian history.

Japan suffered a severe civil war at this time, known as the Sengoku period, and emerged from it as a unified nation. China was ruled by the Ming dynasty and came into conflict with Japan and Japanese piracy over the control of Korea.

Significant events

1501–1509

Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503-06, one of the world's best-known paintings Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg
Mona Lisa , by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06, one of the world's best-known paintings

1510s

Afonso de Albuquerque Retrato de Afonso de Albuquerque (apos 1545) - Autor desconhecido.png
Afonso de Albuquerque

1520s

Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522. Retrato de Hernando de Magallanes.jpg
Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.

1530s

Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex Battle Spanish Otomies Metztitlan.jpg
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex

1540s

Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus

1550s

The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar The Adventures of Akbar artillery.jpg
The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar

1560s

The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567 Akbar shoots Jaimal at the siege of Chitor.jpg
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567

1570s

The Battle of Lepanto Battle of Lepanto 1571.jpg
The Battle of Lepanto

1580s

The fall of Spanish Armada La batalla de Gravelinas, por Nicholas Hilliard.jpg
The fall of Spanish Armada

1590–1600

Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature AbulFazlPresentingAkbarnama.jpg
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature

Undated

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related article: List of 16th century inventions.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">15th century</span> Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian dates from 1 January 1401 (MCDI) to 31 December 1500 (MD).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">17th century</span> Century

The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the early modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis.

The 1520s decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December 31, 1529.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1522</span> Calendar year

Year 1522 (MDXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1522nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 522nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1520s decade.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1510s</span> Decade

The 1510s decade ran from January 1, 1510, to December 31, 1519.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1517</span> Calendar year

Year 1517 (MDXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1516</span> Calendar year

Year 1516 (MDXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Maluku</span> Province of Indonesia

North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean to the north, the Halmahera Sea to the east, the Molucca Sea to the west, and the Seram Sea to the south. The provincial capital is Sofifi on the largest island of Halmahera, while the largest city is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 in the 2010 census, making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia, but by the 2020 Census the population had risen to 1,282,937, and the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 1,299,177.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ternate</span> City in North Maluku, Indonesia

Ternate is a city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was the de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before Sofifi on the nearby coast of Halmahera became the capital in 2010. It is off the west coast of Halmahera, and is composed of eight islands: Ternate, the biggest and main island of the city, and Moti, Hiri, Tifure, Mayau, Makka, Mano, and Gurida. In total, the city has a land area of 162.17 square kilometres and had a total population of 185,705 according to the 2010 census, and 205,001 according to the 2020 census, with a density of 1,264 people per square kilometre. It is the biggest and most densely populated city in the province, is the economic, cultural, and education center of North Maluku, and acts as a hub to neighbouring regions. It was the capital of the Sultanate of Ternate in the 15th and 16th centuries, and fought against the Sultanate of Tidore over control of the spice trade in the Moluccas before becoming a main interest to competing European powers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chronology of European exploration of Asia</span> Timeline of exploration of Asia by Europeans

This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sultanate of Ternate</span> Sultanate

The Sultanate of Ternate, previously also known as the Kingdom of Gapi is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia besides Tidore, Jailolo, and Bacan. The Ternate kingdom was established by Momole Cico, the first leader of Ternate, with the title Baab Mashur Malamo, traditionally in 1257. It reached its Golden Age during the reign of Sultan Baabullah (1570–1583) and encompassed most of the eastern part of Indonesia and a part of southern Philippines. Ternate was a major producer of cloves and a regional power from the 15th to 17th centuries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sultanate of Tidore</span>

The Sultanate of Tidore was a sultanate in Southeast Asia, centered on Tidore in the Maluku Islands. It was also known as Duko, its ruler carrying the title Kië ma-kolano. Tidore was a rival of the Sultanate of Ternate for control of the spice trade, and had an important historical role as binding the archipelagic civilizations of Indonesia to the Papuan world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sultanate of Bacan</span>

The Sultanate of Bacan was a state in Maluku Islands, present-day Indonesia that arose with the expansion of the spice trade in late medieval times. It mainly consisted of the Bacan Islands but had periodical influence in Ceram and the Papuan Islands. It fell under the colonial influence of Portugal in the 16th century and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) after 1609. Bacan was one of the four kingdoms of Maluku together with Ternate, Tidore and Jailolo, but tended to be overshadowed by Ternate. After the independence of Indonesia in 1949, the governing functions of the sultan were gradually replaced by a modern administrative structure. However, the sultanate has been revived as a cultural entity in present times.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gunpowder empires</span> Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires from the 16th to 18th centuries

The gunpowder empires, or Islamic gunpowder empires, is a collective term referring to three Turco-Persianate Muslim empires: the Ottoman Empire, Safavid Iran and the Mughal Empire, in the period they flourished from the 16th to the 18th century. These three empires were among the strongest and most stable economies of the early modern period, leading to commercial expansion, and greater patronage of culture, while their political and legal institutions were consolidated with an increasing degree of centralization. The empires underwent a significant increase in per capita income and population, and a sustained pace of technological innovation. They stretched from Central Europe and North Africa in the west to Bengal and Arakan in the east.

This is a timeline of the 17th century.

Mole Majimun was the seventh Sultan of Tidore in Maluku Islands, who reigned from 1599 to 1627. He was also known as Sultan Jumaldin or Kaicili Mole. In his time the transition to the hegemony of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) began in eastern Indonesia, though Tidore held on to its traditional alliance with the Spanish Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Portuguese–Ternate wars</span> Colonial war in South Eastern Asia

The Portuguese–Ternate wars were a series of conflicts in the Spice Islands in eastern Indonesia between the Portuguese colonizers and their allies on one hand, and the Sultanate of Ternate and its allies, on the other. Hostilities broke out from time to time after the establishment of Portugal in Maluku in 1522, and culminated in an open war from 1570 to 1575, resulting in the expulsion of the Portuguese from Ternate and most of the Spice Islands. The strongly Catholic and Muslim identities of the combatants gave the struggle elements of a war of religion, although this aspect was frequently blurred by cross-faith alliances. It was also an economic war since the Portuguese aim was to control export of the profitable trade in cloves. Portuguese-Ternatan rivalry later merged with attempts of expansion by the Spanish in the Philippines. The Portuguese were eventually defeated in 1605 by an alliance between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and Ternate, ending their active involvement in Maluku affairs. However, they were soon replaced by the Spanish who maintained an Iberian presence in the region up to 1663.

References

  1. Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar for the sake of clarity; thus NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles.
  2. Singh, Sarina; Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway. Vol. 7, illustrated. Lonely Planet. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-74104-542-0 . Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  3. Babur (2006). Babur Nama. Penguin Books. p. vii. ISBN   978-0-14-400149-1.
  4. "16th Century Timeline (1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.
  5. "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
  6. Ricklefs (1991), p.23
  7. "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348–1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  8. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 24
  9. The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03.
  10. Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Ricklefs (1991), page 25
  12. "La Terra De Hochelaga – Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  13. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library . 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  14. Schwieger, Peter (2014). The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: a political history of the Tibetan institution of reincarnation. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231538602. OCLC   905914446.
  15. Miller, George, ed. (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv. ISBN   967-65-3099-9.
  16. Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). " Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective ". PUQ. p.308. ISBN   2-7605-1588-5
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ricklefs (1991), page 27
  18. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  19. Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.

Further reading