16th century

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The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent and a yet undetermined Terra Australis. Mercator World Map.jpg
The world map by the Italian Amerigo Vespucci (from whose name the word America is derived) and Belgian Gerardus Mercator shows (besides the classical continents Europe, Africa, and Asia) the Americas as America sive India Nova, New Guinea, and other islands of Southeast Asia, as well as a hypothetical Arctic continent and a yet undetermined Terra Australis .
Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503-06, one of the world's best-known paintings Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, from C2RMF retouched.jpg
Mona Lisa , by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06, one of the world's best-known paintings
The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar the Great The Adventures of Akbar artillery.jpg
The Islamic gunpowder empires: Mughal Army artillerymen during the reign of Jalaluddin Akbar the Great

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 (MDI) and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600 (MDC) (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October 1582). [1] The term is often used to refer to the 1500s, the century between January 1, 1500 and December 31, 1599.

Contents

The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of Western civilization and the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders occurred. The Renaissance in Italy and Europe saw the emergence of important artists, authors and scientists, and led to the foundation of important subjects which include accounting and political science. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universe, which was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the 1572 appearance of a Milky Way supernova. These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotle, and led to major revolutions in astronomy and science. Galileo Galilei became a champion of the new sciences, invented the first thermometer and made substantial contributions in the fields of physics and astronomy, becoming a major figure in the Scientific Revolution.

Spain and Portugal colonized large parts of Central and South America, followed by France and England in northern America and the lesser Antilles. The Portuguese became the masters of trade between Brazil, the coasts of Africa, their possessions in the Indies and the Moluccas in Oceania, whereas the Spanish came to dominate the greater Antilles, Mexico, Peru, and opened trade across the Pacific Ocean, linking the Americas with the Indies. English and French corsaires began to practice persistent theft of Spanish and Portuguese treasures. This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another. The mercantilist doctrine encouraged the many intra-European wars of the period and arguably fueled European expansion and imperialism throughout the world until the 19th century or early 20th century.

The Protestant Reformation in central and northern Europe gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Catholic Church. In England, the British-Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Catholic theology. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century.

In the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliph, while dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by a major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority-Sunni Muslim world.

In the Indian subcontinent, following the defeat of the Delhi Sultanate empire, new powers emerged, the Suri Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri and the Mughal Empire [2] by Emperor Babur of Mughal Dynasty, a direct descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan. [3] His successors Humayun and Akbar, enlarged the empire to include most of South Asia. The empire developed a strong and stable economy in the world, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture, which significantly influenced the course of Indian history.

Japan suffered a severe civil war at this time, known as the Sengoku period, and emerged out of it as a unified nation. China was ruled by the Ming dinasty and came into conflict with Japan and Japanese piracy over the control of Korea.

Significant events

Undated

1500s

Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Galileo Galilei, father of modern science, and the Pope Galileo before the Holy Office.jpg
Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury, Galileo Galilei, father of modern science, and the Pope
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature AbulFazlPresentingAkbarnama.jpg
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Mughal Azam Akbar, Mughal miniature
Dr Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law Alberico Gentili.jpg
Dr Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law
Battle of Cerignola: El Gran Capitan finds the corpse of Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours Elgrancapitantrasbatalladecerinola.jpg
Battle of Cerignola: El Gran Capitan finds the corpse of Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours
Afonso de Albuquerque Retrato de Afonso de Albuquerque (apos 1545) - Autor desconhecido.png
Afonso de Albuquerque
Vasily III, Grand Duke of Moscow by Andre Thevet Vasili III of Russia.jpg
Vasily III, Grand Duke of Moscow by André Thévet
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex Battle Spanish Otomies Metztitlan.jpg
Spanish conquistadors with their Tlaxcallan allies fighting against the Otomies of Metztitlan in present-day Mexico, a 16th-century codex

1510s

Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517. Luther 95 Thesen.png
Martin Luther initiated the Reformation with his Ninety-five Theses in 1517.
Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519-1522. Retrato de Hernando de Magallanes.jpg
Ferdinand Magellan led the first expedition that circumnavigated the globe in 1519–1522.
Hernan Cortes Hernan Cortes anonimo.jpg
Hernán Cortés

1520s

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John at the siege of Rhodes in 1522, from an Ottoman manuscript
Francis I of France Francois Ier Louvre.jpg
Francis I of France
Sack of Rome by Charles V forces Sack of Rome of 1527 by Johannes Lingelbach 17th century.jpg
Sack of Rome by Charles V forces

1530s

Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536 - 1537, Henry VIII, King of England and Ireland. Hans Holbein, the Younger, Around 1497-1543 - Portrait of Henry VIII of England - Google Art Project.jpg
Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1536 – 1537, Henry VIII, King of England and Ireland.
Portrait of Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV by anonim (18th c., GIM).jpg
Portrait of Ivan the Terrible

1540s

Nicolaus Copernicus Copernicus.jpg
Nicolaus Copernicus
Scenes of everyday life in Ming China, by Qiu Ying Along the River During the Qingming Festival (Suzhou Imitation) 12.jpg
Scenes of everyday life in Ming China, by Qiu Ying

1550s

Akbar the Great Akbar1.jpg
Akbar the Great
Philip II of Spain Philip II, King of Spain from NPG.jpg
Philip II of Spain

1560s

Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo Tizian 060.jpg
Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567 Akbar shoots Jaimal at the siege of Chitor.jpg
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567
Siege of Valenciennes during the Dutch War of Independence in 1567 Famien Strada Histoire-Taking of Valenciennes-ppn087811480 MG 8902T2p025.tif
Siege of Valenciennes during the Dutch War of Independence in 1567
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants La masacre de San Bartolome, por Francois Dubois.jpg
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants

1570s

Oda Nobunaga Odanobunaga.jpg
Oda Nobunaga
The Battle of Lepanto Battle of Lepanto 1571.jpg
The Battle of Lepanto
Sir Francis Drake 1590 or later Marcus Gheeraerts, Sir Francis Drake Buckland Abbey, Devon.jpg
Sir Francis Drake

1580s

The Irish Gaelic chieftain's feast, from The Image of Ireland The Image of Irelande - plate03.jpg
The Irish Gaelic chieftain's feast, from The Image of Ireland
The fall of Spanish Armada La batalla de Gravelinas, por Nicholas Hilliard.jpg
The fall of Spanish Armada
Portuguese fusta in India from a book by Jan Huygen van Linschoten Fusta by Jan Huygen van Linschoten.jpg
Portuguese fusta in India from a book by Jan Huygen van Linschoten

1590s

Edo period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara Sekigaharascreen.jpg
Edo period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara
Siege of Filakovo castle during the Long Turkish War Fulek megvetele 1593-ban.jpg
Siege of Fiľakovo castle during the Long Turkish War

Significant people

Charles V Emperor charles v.png
Charles V
Suleiman the Magnificent EmperorSuleiman.jpg
Suleiman the Magnificent
Elizabeth I of England English School, circa 1560s, Elizabeth I of England.jpg
Elizabeth I of England
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius Loyola by Francisco Zurbaran.jpg
Ignatius of Loyola
Martin Luther Martin Luther, 1529.jpg
Martin Luther
John Calvin MCC-31320 Portret van Johannes Calvijn (1509-1564)-uitsnede.jpg
John Calvin

Politics

Consorts of rulers

Military

Jurisprudence

Theology

Mysticism

Exploration

Vasco de Gama Lisboa-Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga-Retrato dito de Vasco da Gama-20140917.jpg
Vasco de Gama
Francisco Pizarro Francisco-Pizarro-um1540.png
Francisco Pizarro

Visual artists

Michelangelo Buonarroti Miguel Angel, por Daniele da Volterra (detalle).jpg
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Raphael Raffaello Sanzio.jpg
Raphael
Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer - 1500 self-portrait (High resolution and detail).jpg
Albrecht Dürer
Andrea Palladio Andrea Palladio2.jpeg
Andrea Palladio
Titian Tizian 090.jpg
Titian
El Greco El Greco - Portrait of a Man - WGA10554.jpg
El Greco

Musicians and composers

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina.jpg
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

Literature

Miguel de Cervantes Cervantes Jauregui.jpg
Miguel de Cervantes
William Shakespeare Shakespeare.jpg
William Shakespeare
Michel de Montaigne Michel-eyquem-de-montaigne 1.jpg
Michel de Montaigne

Science and philosophy

Niccolo Machiavelli Santi di Tito - Niccolo Machiavelli's portrait headcrop.jpg
Niccolò Machiavelli
Erasmus of Rotterdam Holbein-erasmus.jpg
Erasmus of Rotterdam
Sir Thomas More Hans Holbein, the Younger - Sir Thomas More - Google Art Project.jpg
Sir Thomas More
Paracelsus Paracelsus.jpg
Paracelsus

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Related article: List of 16th century inventions.

See also

Related Research Articles

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 (MCDI) to 1500 (MD). The term is often used to refer to the 1400s, the century between January 1, 1400 and December 31, 1499.

17th century Century

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). The term is often used to refer to the 1600s, the century between January 1, 1600, and December 31, 1699. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War, Mughal–Safavid War ), Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the Dutch–Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.

1490s

The 1490s decade ran from January 1, 1490, to December 31, 1499.

1620s

The 1620s decade ran from January 1, 1621, to December 31, 1630.

1520s

The 1520s decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December 31, 1529.

1522 Calendar year

Year 1522 (MDXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1522nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 522nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 22nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1520s decade.

1500 Calendar year

Year 1500 (MD) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The year 1500 was not a leap year in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

1612 Calendar year

1612 (MDCXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1612th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 612th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1612, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1500s (decade) Decade

The 1500s ran from January 1, 1500, to December 31, 1509.

1510s

The 1510s decade ran from January 1, 1510, to December 31, 1519.

1493 Calendar year

Year 1493 (MCDXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1517 Calendar year

Year 1517 (MDXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1516 Calendar year

Year 1516 (MDXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1515 Calendar year

Year 1515 (MDXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1510 Calendar year

Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1502 Calendar year

Year 1506 (MDII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Simon I of Kartli King of Kartli

Simon I the Great also known as Svimon (1537–1611), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a Georgian king of Kartli from 1556 to 1569 and again from 1578 to 1599. His first tenure was marked by war against the Persian domination of Georgia. In 1569 he was captured by the Persians, and spent nine years in captivity. In 1578 he was released and reinstalled in Kartli. During this period, he fought as a Persian subject against the Ottoman domination of Georgia. In 1599 Simon I was captured by the Ottomans and died in captivity. During 1557 to 1569 he was known as Mahmud Khan and from 1578 to 1599 as Shahnavaz Khan

References

  1. Modern reference works on the period tend to follow the introduction of the Gregorian calendar for the sake of clarity; thus NASA's lunar eclipse catalogue states "The Gregorian calendar is used for all dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used." For dates after 15 October 1582, care must be taken to avoid confusion of the two styles.
  2. Singh, Sarina; Lindsay Brown; Paul Clammer; Rodney Cocks; John Mock (2008). Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway. 7, illustrated. Lonely Planet. p. 137. ISBN   978-1-74104-542-0 . Retrieved 23 August 2010.
  3. Babur (2006). Babur Nama. Penguin Books. p. vii. ISBN   978-0-14-400149-1.
  4. Polybius: "The Rise Of The Roman Empire", Page 36, Penguin, 1979.
  5. "16th Century Timeline (1501 to 1600)". fsmitha.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009.
  6. "History of Smallpox – Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services.
  7. Ricklefs (1991), p.23
  8. "A LIST OF NATIONAL EPIDEMICS OF PLAGUE IN ENGLAND 1348–1665". Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
  9. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 24
  10. The Sweating Sickness. Story of London.. Accessed 2009-04-25. Archived 2009-05-03.
  11. Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman the Magnificent 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Ricklefs (1991), page 25
  13. "La Terra De Hochelaga – Jaques Cartier a Hochelaga". jacquescarter.org. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  14. "The Lusiads". World Digital Library . 1800–1882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.
  15. Schwieger, Peter (2014). The Dalai Lama and the Emperor of China: a political history of the Tibetan institution of reincarnation. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN   9780231538602. OCLC   905914446.
  16. Miller, George, ed. (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. xv. ISBN   967-65-3099-9.
  17. Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). " Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective ". PUQ. p.308. ISBN   2-7605-1588-5
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ricklefs (1991), page 27
  19. 1 2 Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  20. Stoica, Vasile (1919). The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Printing Company. p. 18.
  21. Drake (1978, p.1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.


Further reading