1542

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1542 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1542
MDXLII
Ab urbe condita 2295
Armenian calendar 991
ԹՎ ՋՂԱ
Assyrian calendar 6292
Balinese saka calendar 1463–1464
Bengali calendar 949
Berber calendar 2492
English Regnal year 33  Hen. 8   34  Hen. 8
Buddhist calendar 2086
Burmese calendar 904
Byzantine calendar 7050–7051
Chinese calendar 辛丑(Metal  Ox)
4238 or 4178
     to 
壬寅年 (Water  Tiger)
4239 or 4179
Coptic calendar 1258–1259
Discordian calendar 2708
Ethiopian calendar 1534–1535
Hebrew calendar 5302–5303
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1598–1599
 - Shaka Samvat 1463–1464
 - Kali Yuga 4642–4643
Holocene calendar 11542
Igbo calendar 542–543
Iranian calendar 920–921
Islamic calendar 948–949
Japanese calendar Tenbun 11
(天文11年)
Javanese calendar 1460–1461
Julian calendar 1542
MDXLII
Korean calendar 3875
Minguo calendar 370 before ROC
民前370年
Nanakshahi calendar 74
Thai solar calendar 2084–2085
Tibetan calendar 阴金牛年
(female Iron-Ox)
1668 or 1287 or 515
     to 
阳水虎年
(male Water-Tiger)
1669 or 1288 or 516
Portuguese battles in Ethiopia. Ethiopia in its region.svg
Portuguese battles in Ethiopia.

Year 1542 ( MDXLII ) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

JanuaryJune

February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 332 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Battle of Baçente was fought on February 2, 1542 when a Portuguese army under Cristóvão da Gama took a hillfort held by Adalite forces in northern Ethiopia. The Portuguese suffered minimal casualties, while the defenders were reportedly all killed.

Portuguese Empire global empire centered in Portugal

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.

JulyDecember

July 12 is the 193rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor (1519–1556), King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish Empire, Archduke of Austria, and ruler of the Habsburg Netherlands (1506–1555). The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas, and the German colonisation of Venezuela both occurred during his reign. Charles V revitalized the medieval concept of the universal monarchy of Charlemagne and travelled from city to city, with no single fixed capital: overall he spent 28 years in the Habsburg Netherlands, 18 years in Spain and 9 years in Germany. After four decades of incessant warfare with the Kingdom of France, the Ottoman Empire, and the Protestants, Charles V abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556 in favor of his son Philip II of Spain and brother Ferdinand I of Austria. The personal union of his European and American territories, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms to be defined as "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Francis I of France King of France

Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

Date unknown

Japan Constitutional monarchy in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Fernão Mendes Pinto Portuguese explorer and writer

Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His voyages are recorded in Pilgrimage (1614), his autobiographical memoir. The historical accuracy of the work is debatable due to the many events which seem far fetched or at least exaggerated, earning him the nickname "Fernão Mentes Minto". Some aspects of the work can be verified, particularly through Pinto's service to the Portuguese Crown and by his association with Jesuit missionaries.

António Mota

António da Mota was a Portuguese trader and explorer, who in 1543 became one of the first Europeans to set foot in Japan.

Births

Isabella de' Medici Isabella de' Medici, by Alessandro Allori.jpg
Isabella de' Medici
Henriette of Cleves Henriette de Nevers.jpg
Henriette of Cleves

February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 333 days remaining until the end of the year.

John Scudamore (courtier) English politician

John Scudamore, was the eldest son of William Scudamore (d.1560) and Ursula Pakington (d.1558), the daughter of Sir John Pakington, but due to his father's early death was a ward of Sir James Croft of Croft Castle, Herefordshire, whose daughter Eleanor Croft (d.1569) he had married by 1563.

1623 Year

1623 (MDCXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1623rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 623rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 23rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1623, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Deaths

James V of Scotland James V of Scotland2.jpg
James V of Scotland

Related Research Articles

16th century Century

The 16th century begins with the Julian year 1501 and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year 1600.

The 1540s decade ran from January 1, 1540, to December 31, 1549.

1543 Year

Year 1543 (MDXLIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. It is one of the years sometimes referred to as an "Annus mirabilis" because of its significant publications in science, considered the start of the scientific revolution.

1503 Year

Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

1522 Year

Year 1522 (MDXXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1540 Year

Year 1540 (MDXL) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1521 Year

Year 1521 (MDXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1536 Year

Year 1536 (MDXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1578 Year

Year 1578 (MDLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1541 Year

Year 1541 (MDXLI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1508 Year

Year 1508 (MDVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1499 (MCDXCIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1494 (MCDXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1491 (MCDXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1490 (MCDXC) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1460 (MCDLX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi "the Conqueror" was a Somali Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors. With the help of an army mainly composed of Somalis, the Harla people, Afars, Hararis and a small number of Arabs and Ottoman Turks, Imam Ahmad, embarked on a conquest which brought three-quarters of Abyssinia under the power of the Muslim Sultanate of Adal during the Abyssinian-Adal War from 1529-43.

The Battle of the Hill of the Jews was a battle fought in Ethiopia in August 1542 between the Portuguese forces of Cristóvão da Gama and the Adal Muslim followers of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. The Portuguese won the battle, capturing many horses that they could have used to exploit their victory in the previous battle of Jarte.

Cristóvão da Gama Portuguese soldier in Ethiopia

Cristóvão da Gama, anglicised as Christopher da Gama, was a Portuguese military commander who led a Portuguese army of 400 musketeers on a crusade in Ethiopia and Somalia (1541–1543) against the far larger Adal Muslim army of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi aided by the Ottoman Empire. He was victorious against larger forces in four battles, but was seriously wounded in his last battle, after which he was captured and eventually executed. Sir Richard Burton, in his First Footsteps in East Africa, referred to him as "the most chivalrous soldier of a chivalrous age."

The Ottoman-Portuguese conflicts of 1538 to 1559 were a series of armed military encounters between the Portuguese Empire, the Kingdom of Hormuz and the Ethiopian Empire against the Ottoman Empire and Adal Sultanate, in the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and in East Africa. This is a period of battles in The Ottoman-Portuguese War.

References

  1. "Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II". World Digital Library . 1620. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  2. Ewan, Elizabeth (2006). The biographical dictionary of Scottish women : from the earliest times to 2004 (Reprinted. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press. p. 400. ISBN   0-7486-1713-2.
  3. Lynch, Michael (ed.). The Oxford companion to Scottish history. Oxford University Press. p. 354. ISBN   9780199693054.