February

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January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days, and the only month to have a length of fewer than 30 days, with the other seven months having 31 days. In 2019, February had 28 days.

March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March. Birthday Number the letter "M".

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February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days (the other four months that fall under this category are: April, June, September, and November), and the only month to have a length of fewer than 30 days, with the other seven months having 31 days. In 2019, February had28 days.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 708 AUC (46 BC/BCE), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 709 AUC (45 BC/BCE), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

Contents

February is the third and last month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, February is the third and last month of summer (the seasonal equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, in meteorological reckoning).

Northern Hemisphere Half of Earth that is north of the equator

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North Pole.

Southern Hemisphere part of Earth that lies south of the equator

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.

August eighth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC, giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

Pronunciation

February is pronounced either as /ˈfɛbjuɛri/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) FEB-yoo-err-ee or /ˈfɛbruɛri/ FEB-roo-err-ee. Many people drop the first "r", replacing it with /j/ , as if it were spelled "Febuary". This comes about by analogy with "January" ( /ˈænjuɛri/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), as well as by a dissimilation effect whereby having two "r"s close to each other causes one to change for ease of pronunciation. [1]

In phonology, particularly within historical linguistics, dissimilation is a phenomenon whereby similar consonants or vowels in a word become less similar. For example, when a sound occurs before another in the middle of a word in rhotic dialects of English, the first tends to drop out, as in "beserk" for berserk, "suprise" for surprise, "paticular" for particular, and "govenor" for governor – this does not affect the pronunciation of government, which has only one, but English government tends to be pronounced "goverment", dropping out the first n.

History

February, from the Tres riches heures du Duc de Berry Les Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry fevrier.jpg
February, from the Très riches heures du Duc de Berry
February, Leandro Bassano Februar Leandro Bassano.jpg
February, Leandro Bassano
Chocolates for St. Valentine's Day Valentines Day Chocolates from 2005.jpg
Chocolates for St. Valentine's Day

The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 (full moon) in the old lunar Roman calendar. January and February were the last two months to be added to the Roman calendar, since the Romans originally considered winter a monthless period. They were added by Numa Pompilius about 713 BC. February remained the last month of the calendar year until the time of the decemvirs (c. 450 BC), when it became the second month. At certain intervals February was truncated to 23 or 24 days, and a 27-day intercalary month, Intercalaris, was inserted immediately after February to realign the year with the seasons.

<i>Februarius</i> shortest month of the Roman calendar

Februarius or February, fully the "February month", was the shortest month of the Roman calendar. It was eventually placed second in order, preceded by Ianuarius ("January") and followed by Martius. In the oldest Roman calendar, which the Romans believed to have been instituted by their legendary founder Romulus, March was the first month, and the calendar year had only ten months in all. Ianuarius and Februarius were supposed to have been added by Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, originally at the end of the year. Julius Caesar decided in 46 BC to move the start of the calendar from the beginning of March to the beginning of January.

Roman calendar calendar used by the Roman Kingdom and Roman Republic

The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic. The term often includes the Julian calendar established by the reforms of the dictator Julius Caesar and emperor Augustus in the late 1st century BC and sometimes includes any system dated by inclusive counting towards months' kalends, nones, and ides in the Roman manner. The term usually excludes the Alexandrian calendar of Roman Egypt, which continued the unique months of that land's former calendar; the Byzantine calendar of the later Roman Empire, which usually dated the Roman months in the simple count of the ancient Greek calendars; and the Gregorian calendar, which refined the Julian system to bring it into still closer alignment with the solar year and is the basis of the current international standard.

Numa Pompilius legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus

Numa Pompilius was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus. He was of Sabine origin, and many of Rome's most important religious and political institutions are attributed to him.

February observances in Ancient Rome include Amburbium (precise date unknown), Sementivae (February 2), Februa (February 13–15), Lupercalia (February 13–15), Parentalia (February 13–22), Quirinalia (February 17), Feralia (February 21), Caristia (February 22), Terminalia (February 23), Regifugium (February 24), and Agonium Martiale (February 27). These days do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Amburbium

The Amburbium was an ancient Roman festival for purifying the city; that is, a lustration (lustratio urbis). It took the form of a procession, perhaps along the old Servian Wall, though the length of 10 kilometers would seem impractical to circumambulate. If it was a distinct festival held annually, the most likely month is February, but no date is recorded and the ritual may have been performed as a "crisis rite" when needed.

Sementivae, also known as Feriae Sementivae or Sementina dies, was a Roman festival of sowing.

Under the reforms that instituted the Julian calendar, Intercalaris was abolished, leap years occurred regularly every fourth year, and in leap years February gained a 29th day. Thereafter, it remained the second month of the calendar year, meaning the order that months are displayed (January, February, March, ..., December) within a year-at-a-glance calendar. Even during the Middle Ages, when the numbered Anno Domini year began on March 25 or December 25, the second month was February whenever all twelve months were displayed in order. The Gregorian calendar reforms made slight changes to the system for determining which years were leap years and thus contained a 29-day February.

Historical names for February include the Old English terms Solmonath (mud month) and Kale-monath (named for cabbage) as well as Charlemagne's designation Hornung. In Finnish, the month is called helmikuu, meaning "month of the pearl"; when snow melts on tree branches, it forms droplets, and as these freeze again, they are like pearls of ice. In Polish and Ukrainian, respectively, the month is called luty or лютий, meaning the month of ice or hard frost. In Macedonian the month is sechko (сечко), meaning month of cutting [wood]. In Czech, it is called únor, meaning month of submerging [of river ice].

In Slovene, February is traditionally called svečan, related to icicles or Candlemas. [2] This name originates from sičan, [3] written as svičan in the New Carniolan Almanac from 1775 and changed to its final form by Franc Metelko in his New Almanac from 1824. The name was also spelled sečan, meaning "the month of cutting down of trees". [2]

In 1848, a proposal was put forward in Kmetijske in rokodelske novice by the Slovene Society of Ljubljana to call this month talnik (related to ice melting), but it did not stick. The idea was proposed by a priest, Blaž Potočnik. [4] Another name of February in Slovene was vesnar, after the mythological character Vesna. [5]

Patterns

Having only 28 days in common years, February is the only month of the year that can pass without a single full moon. Using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis for determining the date and time of a full moon, this last happened in 2018 and will next happen in 2037. [6] [7] The same is true regarding a new moon: again using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis, this last happened in 2014 and will next happen in 2033. [8] [9]

February is also the only month of the calendar that, once every six years and twice every 11 years consecutively, either back into the past or forward into the future, has four full 7-day weeks. In countries that start their week on a Monday, it occurs as part of a common year starting on Friday, in which February 1st is a Monday and the 28th is a Sunday; this occurred in 1965, 1971, 1982, 1993, 1999 and 2010, and occur will again in 2021. In countries that start their week on a Sunday, it occurs in a common year starting on Thursday, with the next occurrence in 2026, and previous occurrences in 1987, 1998, 2009 and 2015. The pattern is broken by a skipped leap year, but no leap year has been skipped since 1900 and no others will be skipped until 2100.

Astronomy

February meteor showers include the Alpha Centaurids (appearing in early February), the Beta Leonids, also known as the March Virginids (lasting from February 14 to April 25, peaking around March 20), the Delta Cancrids (appearing December 14 to February 14, peaking on January 17), the Omicron Centaurids (late January through February, peaking in mid-February), Theta Centaurids (January 23 – March 12, only visible in the southern hemisphere), Eta Virginids (February 24 and March 27, peaking around March 18), and Pi Virginids (February 13 and April 8, peaking between March 3 and March 9).

Astrology

The western zodiac signs of February are Aquarius (until February 19) and Pisces (February 20 onwards). [10]

February symbols

The violet 1760 - Salzburg - Stiftskirche St Peter - Viola.JPG
The violet

Observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.

Month-long observances

Non-Gregorian observances, 2019

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance. Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.

Movable observances, 2019 dates

First Friday: February 1

First Saturday: February 2

First Sunday: February 3

First Monday: February 4

First Week of February (first Monday, ending on Sunday): February 4–10

Second Saturday: February 9

Second Sunday: February 10

11th Sunday before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 10

Second Monday: February 11

Second Tuesday: February 12

Third Friday: February 15

63 days before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 16 [17]

10th Sunday before Pascha in Eastern Christianity: February 17

Week of February 22: February 17–23

Third Monday: February 18

2nd Monday before Clean Monday in Eastern Christianity and the following three days: February 18–21

Third Thursday: February 21

Last Friday: February 22

Last Saturday: February 23

2nd Sunday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 24

9th Sunday before Easter in Western Christianity: February 24

Sunday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 24

9th Sunday before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 24 [19]

Monday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 25

Tuesday before Ash Wednesday: February 26

Last Tuesday: February 26

Last Thursday before Lent (Western Christianity): February 28

Thursday of the 8th week before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 28 [20]

Last day of February: February 28

Fixed observances

Related Research Articles

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July is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

May fifth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

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Vesak Buddhist festival marking the birth of the Buddha

Vesak, also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, and in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world. The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment (Buddhahood), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha in the Theravada or southern tradition.

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Lists of holidays by various categorization.

The World Council of Churches proposed a reform of the method of determining the date of Easter at a summit in Aleppo, Syria, in 1997:

References

  1. "February | Definition of February by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  2. 1 2 "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec](PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02.
  3. Vasmer, Max, ed. (1972). "Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie". 36–37. Markert&Petters: 115.
  4. "Slovenska imena mesecev" [Slovene Names of Months]. Kmetijske in rokodelske novice. 6 (37). 13 September 1848.
  5. Bogataj, Janez (2005). "Slovenska mitologija – Vesna" [Slovene Mythology – Vesna]. Bilten; poštne znamke [Bulletin: Postage Stamps] (in Slovenian, English, and German) (56). ISSN   1318-6280.
  6. https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2018
  7. https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2037
  8. https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2014
  9. https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2033
  10. "Zodiac Signs". Mistupid.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  11. "Birth Month Flowers". Babiesonline.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  12. https://www.1stinflowers.com/fom_february.html
  13. "February Birthstone | Amethyst". Americangemsociety.org. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  14. "National Children's Dental Health Month". American Dental Association. 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  15. https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/safer-internet-day/2019
  16. "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05.
  17. https://anydayguide.com/calendar/16-02-2019
  18. http://suscopts.org/coptic-orthodox/fasts-and-feasts/2019/
  19. "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org.
  20. https://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/armenia/saint-vartan-feast

Further reading