January

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January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere (where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Contents

January starts on the same day of the week as October in common years and April and July in leap years. It ends on the same day of the week as October in common years and July in leap years. In common years preceding leap years or leap years preceding common years, it begins on the same day of the week as September and December of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year. In common years preceding common years, January begins on the same day of the week as April and July of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. January also begins and ends on the same day of the week as May of the previous year.

Ancient Roman observances during this month include Cervula and Juvenalia, celebrated January 1, as well as one of three Agonalia, celebrated January 9, and Carmentalia, celebrated January 11. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

History

January, from the Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Les Tres Riches Heures du duc de Berry Janvier.jpg
January, from the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

January (in Latin, Ianuarius ) is named after Janus, the god of beginnings and transitions in Roman mythology. [1]

Traditionally, the original Roman calendar consisted of 10 months totaling 304 days, winter being considered a month-less period. Around 713 BC, the semi-mythical successor of Romulus, King Numa Pompilius, is supposed to have added the months of January and February, so that the calendar covered a standard lunar year (354 days). Although March was originally the first month in the old Roman calendar, January became the first month of the calendar year either under Numa or under the Decemvirs about 450 BC (Roman writers differ). In contrast, each specific calendar year was identified by the names of the two consuls, who entered office on May 1[ citation needed ] or March 15 until 153 BC, from when they entered office on January 1.

Various Christian feast dates were used for the New Year in Europe during the Middle Ages, including March 25 (Feast of the Annunciation) and December 25. However, medieval calendars were still displayed in the Roman fashion with twelve columns from January to December. Beginning in the 16th century, European countries began officially making January 1 the start of the New Year once again—sometimes called Circumcision Style because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, being the seventh day after December 25.

Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the Saxon term Wulf-monath (meaning "wolf month") and Charlemagne's designation Wintarmanoth ("winter / cold month"). In Slovene, it is traditionally called prosinec. The name, associated with millet bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. [2]

According to Theodor Mommsen, [3] 1 January became the first day of the year in 600 AUC of the Roman calendar (153 BC), due to disasters in the Lusitanian War. A Lusitanian chief called Punicus invaded the Roman territory, defeated two Roman governors, and killed their troops. The Romans resolved to send a consul to Hispania, and in order to accelerate the dispatch of aid, "they even made the new consuls enter into office two months and a half before the legal time" (March 15).

January symbols

Snow in the Northern Hemisphere in the month of January Sneeuw1.jpg
Snow in the Northern Hemisphere in the month of January

January observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Month-long observances

January, painting by Leandro Bassano Januar Leandro Bassano.jpg
January, painting by Leandro Bassano

Food months in the United States

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

Non-Gregorian observances, 2020 dates

All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown on the date in question.

Moveable observances, 2020 dates

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.

January 2 unless that day is a Sunday, in which case January 3: January 2

First Friday: January 4

Second Saturday: January 11

Second Monday: January 13

Friday before third Monday: January 17

Third Friday: January 17

Sunday closest to January 22: January 19

Third full week of January: January 19–25

Last full week of January: January 19–25

Third Monday: January 20

Wednesday of the third full week of January: January 22

Friday between January 19–25: January 24

Last Saturday: January 25

Last Sunday: January 26

January 30 or the nearest Sunday: January 26

Last Monday in January: January 27

Fourth Monday: January 27

Monday Closest to January 29:

Fixed observances

Related Research Articles

April Fourth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

August Eighth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC, giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

December Twelfth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

December is the twelfth and final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendar. It is also the last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The month has 28 days in common years or 29 in leap years, with the 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have fewer than 31 days and the only one to have fewer than 30 days. Seven months have 31 days, leaving the four previously mentioned months to have exactly 30 days. This means the other eleven months have at least 30 days.

A holiday is a day set aside by custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays are intended to allow individuals to celebrate or commemorate an event or tradition of cultural or religious significance. Holidays may be designated by governments, religious institutions, or other groups or organizations. The degree to which normal activities are reduced by a holiday may depend on local laws, customs, the type of job held or personal choices.

June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the second of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the third of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. June contains the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours, and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours. June in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to December in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern Hemisphere, the beginning of the traditional astronomical summer is 21 June. In the Southern Hemisphere, meteorological winter begins on 1 June.

July Seventh month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

July is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March.

May Fifth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

November is the eleventh and penultimate month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars, the fourth and last of four months to have a length of 30 days and the fifth and last of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days. November was the ninth month of the calendar of Romulus c. 750 BC. November retained its name when January and February were added to the Roman calendar. November is a month of late spring in the Southern Hemisphere and late autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, November in the Southern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent of May in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa. In Ancient Rome, Ludi Plebeii was held from November 4–17, Epulum Jovis was held on November 13 and Brumalia celebrations began on November 24. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

New Year First day of a calendar year, in particular, January 1 in the Julian and Gregorian calendar

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

October Tenth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old calendar of Romulus c. 750 BC, October retained its name after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.

The Revised Julian calendar, also known as the Milanković calendar, or, less formally, new calendar, is a calendar proposed by the Serbian scientist Milutin Milanković in 1923, which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between the naming of dates sanctioned by those Eastern Orthodox churches adopting it and the Gregorian calendar that has come to predominate worldwide. This calendar was intended to replace the ecclesiastical calendar based on the Julian calendar hitherto in use by all of the Eastern Orthodox Church. From 1 March 1600 through 28 February 2800, the Revised Julian calendar aligns its dates with the Gregorian calendar, which was proclaimed in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII for adoption by the Christian world. The calendar has been adopted by the Orthodox churches of Constantinople, Albania, Alexandria, Antioch, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, and Romania.

September Ninth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere September is the seasonal equivalent of March in the Southern Hemisphere.

Liturgical year Annually recurring fixed sequence of Christian feast days

The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be observed, and which portions of Scripture are to be read either in an annual cycle or in a cycle of several years.

Little Christmas, also known as Old Christmas, is one of the traditional names among Irish Christians and Amish Christians for 6 January, which is also known more widely as the Feast of the Epiphany, celebrated after the conclusion of the twelve days of Christmastide. It is the traditional end of the Christmas season and until 2013 was the last day of the Christmas holidays for both primary and secondary schools in Ireland.

Lists of holidays by various categorizations.

Birthday

A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Birthdays of people are celebrated in numerous cultures, often with birthday gifts, birthday cards, a birthday party, or a rite of passage.

References

  1. "Why does the year start on January 1". Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  2. Stabej, Jože (1966). "Ob petstoletnici škofjeloškega zapisa slovenskih imen za mesece" [On the 500th Anniversary of the Škofja Loka Recording of Slovene Month Names]. Loški razgledi (in Slovenian). Muzejsko društvo Škofja Loka [Museum Society of Škofja Loka]. 13. ISSN   0459-8210. Archived from the original on 2014-01-08.
  3. The History of Rome, volume 4, The Revolution, ISBN   1-4353-4597-5, page 4
  4. "January Birth Flower : Flower Meaning". birthflowersguide.com. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06.
  5. The Earth passed the junction of the signs at 14:54 UT/GMT January 20, 2020, and will pass it again at 20:39 UT/GMT January 19, 2021.
  6. "Astrology Calendar", yourzodiacsign. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030.
  7. "January National Codependency Awareness Month". Diane Jellen. Archived from the original on 2015-01-05.
  8. "January is National Healthy Weight Awareness Month : Importance of Physical Fitness". usphs.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15.
  9. "Presidential Proclamation—Stalking Awareness Month". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-02-24.
  10. 1 2 Chase's Calendar of Events 2013. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2013. ISBN   9780071813334. Archived from the original on 2016-09-23. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
  11. "JANUARY 2009, AS "CALIFORNIA DRIED PLUM DIGESTIVE HEALTH MONTH"". Office of the Governor, State of California. November 20, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
  12. Hirsch, J. M. (August 18, 2004). "Food turns eating into stream of holidays". Associated Press via Kentucky New Era.
  13. Rem, Kathryn (March 9, 2010). "Yesterday was National Crabmeat Day and you missed it". The State Journal-Register . Archived from the original on March 4, 2013.
  14. Gavilan, Jessica (February 7, 2006). "Mark your calendar". The Gainesville Sun. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016.
  15. "The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared unconstitutional the day of RS". b92.net. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.