April

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April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, the fifth in the early Julian, the first of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the second of five months to have a length of less than 31 days.

Contents

April is commonly associated with the season of autumn in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and spring in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to October in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa.

History

The Romans gave this month the Latin name Aprilis [1] but the derivation of this name is uncertain. The traditional etymology is from the verb aperire, "to open", in allusion to its being the season when trees and flowers begin to "open", which is supported by comparison with the modern Greek use of άνοιξη (ánixi) (opening) for spring. Since some of the Roman months were named in honor of divinities, and as April was sacred to the goddess Venus, her Veneralia being held on the first day, it has been suggested that Aprilis was originally her month Aphrilis, from her equivalent Greek goddess name Aphrodite (Aphros), or from the Etruscan name Apru . Jacob Grimm suggests the name of a hypothetical god or hero, Aper or Aprus. [2]

April was the second month of the earliest Roman calendar, [3] before Ianuarius and Februarius were added by King Numa Pompilius about 700 BC. It became the fourth month of the calendar year (the year when twelve months are displayed in order) during the time of the decemvirs about 450 BC, when it also was given 29 days. The 30th day was added during the reform of the calendar undertaken by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s BC, which produced the Julian calendar.

The Anglo-Saxons called April ēastre-monaþ. The Venerable Bede says in The Reckoning of Time that this month ēastre is the root of the word Easter. He further states that the month was named after a goddess Eostre whose feast was in that month. It is also attested by Einhard in his work, Vita Karoli Magni.

St George's day is the twenty-third of the month; and St Mark's Eve, with its superstition that the ghosts of those who are doomed to die within the year will be seen to pass into the church, falls on the twenty-fourth. [3]

In China the symbolic ploughing of the earth by the emperor and princes of the blood took place in their third month, which frequently corresponds to April. [3] In Finnish April is huhtikuu, meaning slash-and-burn moon, when gymnosperms for beat and burn clearing of farmland were felled.

In Slovene, the most established traditional name is mali traven, meaning the month when plants start growing. It was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. [4]

The month Aprilis had 30 days; Numa Pompilius made it 29 days long; finally Julius Caesar’s calendar reform made it again 30 days long, which was not changed in the calendar revision of Augustus Caesar in 8 BC. Additionally in the Spanish colony, Las Islas Filipinas (now known as the Philippines), the month Aprilis had a significant meaning to the life of the natives as it was associated to the influence of the Chinese during the Spanish colonial period. The importance of this aspect to the lives of the natives was formerly associated to an event called "Abril na Ikaw" as it is closely linked to the famous trader, April Yu.

In Ancient Rome, the festival of Cerealia was held for seven days from mid-to-late April, but exact dates are uncertain. Feriae Latinae was also held in April, with the date varying. Other ancient Roman observances include Veneralia (April 1), Megalesia (April 10–16), Fordicidia (April 15), Parilia (April 21), Vinalia Urbana, Robigalia, and Serapia were celebrated on (April 25). Floralia was held April 27 during the Republican era, or April 28 on the Julian calendar, and lasted until May 3. However, these dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

The Lyrids meteor shower appears on April 16 – April 26 each year, with the peak generally occurring on April 22. Eta Aquariids meteor shower also appears in April. It is visible from about April 21 to about May 20 each year with peak activity on or around May 6. The Pi Puppids appear on April 23, but only in years around the parent comet's perihelion date. The Virginids also shower at various dates in April.

The "Days of April" (journées d'avril) is a name appropriated in French history to a series of insurrections at Lyons, Paris and elsewhere, against the government of Louis Philippe in 1834, which led to violent repressive measures, and to a famous trial known as the procès d'avril. [3]

April symbols

April observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.

Month-long observances

Buddha's Birthday is celebrated in April (here is pictured the Tian Tan Buddha in Hong Kong) Hong Kong Budha.jpg
Buddha's Birthday is celebrated in April (here is pictured the Tian Tan Buddha in Hong Kong)

United States

United States Food months

Non-Gregorian observances: 2020

(All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

Movable observances, 2020 dates

First Wednesday: April 1

First Saturday: April 4

First Sunday: April 5

First full week: April 5-11

Second Wednesday: April 8
Second Thursday: April 9
Second Friday of April: April 10

Second Sunday: April 12

Week of April 14: April 12-18

Third Wednesday: April 15

Third Thursday: April 16

Third Saturday: April 18

Last full week of April: April 19-25

Week of April 23: April 19-25

Week of the New Moon: April 19-25

Third Monday: April 20

Wednesday of last full week of April: April 22

First Thursday after April 18: April 23

Fourth Thursday: April 23
Last Friday: April 24

Last Friday in April to first Sunday in May: April 24-May 3

Last Saturday: April 25
Last Sunday: April 26
April 27 (moves to April 26 if April 27 is on a Sunday): April 27
Last Monday: April 27
Last Wednesday: April 29

Fixed observances

See also

Related Research Articles

August eighth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, and the fifth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was originally named Sextilis in Latin because it was the sixth month in the original ten-month Roman calendar under Romulus in 753 BC, with March being the first month of the year. About 700 BC, it became the eighth month when January and February were added to the year before March by King Numa Pompilius, who also gave it 29 days. Julius Caesar added two days when he created the Julian calendar in 46 BC, giving it its modern length of 31 days. In 8 BC, it was renamed in honor of Augustus. According to a Senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, he chose this month because it was the time of several of his great triumphs, including the conquest of Egypt.

December twelfth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

December is the twelfth and last/final month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and is the seventh and last of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

February is the second month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have fewer than 31 days and the only of these to have a length of fewer than 30 days. The other seven months have 31 days. In 2020, February has 29 days.

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the second of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the third of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. June contains the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, the day with the most daylight hours, and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, the day with the fewest daylight hours. June in the Northern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent to December in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. In the Northern Hemisphere, the beginning of the traditional astronomical summer is 21 June. In the Southern Hemisphere, meteorological winter begins on 1 June.

July is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March.

May fifth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the third of seven months to have a length of 31 days.

November is the eleventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars, the fourth and last of four months to have a length of 30 days and the fifth and last of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days. November was the ninth month of the calendar of Romulus c. 750 BC. November retained its name when January and February were added to the Roman calendar. November is a month of late spring in the Southern Hemisphere and late autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, November in the Southern Hemisphere is the seasonal equivalent of May in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa. In Ancient Rome, Ludi Plebeii was held from November 4–17, Epulum Jovis was held on November 13 and Brumalia celebrations began on November 24. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

October tenth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old calendar of Romulus c. 750 BC, October retained its name after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.

September ninth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

September is the ninth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the third of four months to have a length of 30 days, and the fourth of five months to have a length of less than 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere September is the seasonal equivalent of March in the Southern Hemisphere.

Summer the warmest season of the year, in the northern hemisphere from June to August and in the southern hemisphere from December to February.

Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At the summer solstice, there is earliest sunrise and latest sunset, and the days are longest and the nights are shortest, with day length decreasing as the season progresses after the solstice. The date of the beginning of summer varies according to climate, tradition, and culture. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

Vesak Buddhist festival marking the birth of the Buddha

Vesak, also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, and in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world. The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment (Buddhahood), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha in the Theravada or southern tradition.

Public holidays in Thailand are regulated by the government, and most are observed by both the public and private sectors. There are usually nineteen public holidays in a year, but more may be declared by the cabinet. Other observances, both official and non-official, local and international, are observed to varying degrees throughout the country.

Yom HaShoah Israels day of commemoration for the Jews who perished in the Holocaust

Yom Hazikaron laShoah ve-laG'vurah, known colloquially in Israel and abroad as Yom HaShoah and in English as Holocaust Remembrance Day, or Holocaust Day, is observed as Israel's day of commemoration for the approximately six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust as a result of the actions carried out by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, and for the Jewish resistance in that period. In Israel, it is a national memorial day. The first official commemorations took place in 1951, and the observance of the day was anchored in a law passed by the Knesset in 1959. It is held on the 27th of Nisan, unless the 27th would be adjacent to the Jewish Sabbath, in which case the date is shifted by a day.

The United States has many observances.

Lists of holidays by various categorizations.

United States federal observances

United States federal observances are days, weeks, months, or other periods designated by the United States Congress for the commemoration or other observance of various events, activities, or topics. These observances differ from Federal holidays in that Federal employees only receive a day free from work on holidays, not observances. Federal observances that are designated by Congress appear in Title 36 of the United States Code. Below is a list of all observances so designated. Note that not all of the laws below require that the observance be declared, in some cases, such as 36 U.S.C. § 114, Congress simply requested the President to issue a proclamation of the observance. They are published at Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1256.; Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1261.; Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1262.; Pub. L. 107–89, § 1, Dec. 18, 2001, 115 Stat. 876.; and Pub. L. 114–240, § 2(a), Oct. 7, 2016, 130 Stat. 974..

References

  1. "April" in Chambers's Encyclopædia . London: George Newnes, 1961, Vol. 1, p. 497.
  2. Jacob Grim Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Cap. "Monate"
  3. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "April". Encyclopædia Britannica . 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 230.
  4. "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec](PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2013.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. Kipfer, Barbara Ann (1997) The Order of Things. New York: Random House
  6. "U101 College Search". Archived from the original on September 11, 2012.
  7. webmaster@governor.virginia.gov. "Virginia Governor - Ralph Northam - Proclamation". www.governor.virginia.gov. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  8. "Autism Awareness Month – Michael J. Dunleavy". gov.alaska.gov. April 1, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  9. "World Autism Month". Autism Speaks. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  10. https://headandneck.org/oral-head-neck-cancer-awareness-week-early-registration-now-open/
  11. https://ovc.ncjrs.gov/ncvrw/
  12. 1 2 Seol Song Ah (December 7, 2015). "Kim Jong Un's birthday still not a holiday". Daily NK. Retrieved January 13, 2017.