April

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April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian and Julian calendars. Its length is 30 days.

Contents

April is commonly associated with the season of spring in the Northern Hemisphere, and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to October in the Northern Hemisphere and vice versa.

History

April, Brevarium Grimani, fol. 5v (Flemish) Breviarium Grimani - April.jpg
April, Brevarium Grimani, fol. 5v (Flemish)

The Romans gave this month the Latin name Aprilis [1] but the derivation of this name is uncertain. The traditional etymology is from the verb aperire, "to open", in allusion to its being the season when trees and flowers begin to "open", which is supported by comparison with the modern Greek use of άνοιξη (ánixi) (opening) for spring. Since some of the Roman months were named in honor of divinities, and as April was sacred to the goddess Venus, her Veneralia being held on the first day, it has been suggested that Aprilis was originally her month Aphrilis, from her equivalent Greek goddess name Aphrodite (Aphros), or from the Etruscan name Apru . Jacob Grimm suggests the name of a hypothetical god or hero, Aper or Aprus. [2]

April was the second month of the earliest Roman calendar, [3] before Ianuarius and Februarius were added by King Numa Pompilius about 700 BC. It became the fourth month of the calendar year (the year when twelve months are displayed in order) during the time of the decemvirs about 450 BC, when it was 29 days long. The 30th day was added back during the reform of the calendar undertaken by Julius Caesar in the mid-40s BC, which produced the Julian calendar.

The Anglo-Saxons called April ēastre-monaþ. The Venerable Bede says in The Reckoning of Time that this month ēastre is the root of the word Easter. He further states that the month was named after a goddess Eostre whose feast was in that month. It is also attested by Einhard in his work, Vita Karoli Magni .

St George's day is the twenty-third of the month; and St Mark's Eve, with its superstition that the ghosts of those who are doomed to die within the year will be seen to pass into the church, falls on the twenty-fourth. [3]

In China the symbolic ploughing of the earth by the emperor and princes of the blood took place in their third month, which frequently corresponds to April. [3] In Finnish April is huhtikuu, meaning slash-and-burn moon, when gymnosperms for beat and burn clearing of farmland were felled.

In Slovene, the most established traditional name is mali traven, meaning the month when plants start growing. It was first written in 1466 in the Škofja Loka manuscript. [4]

The month Aprilis originally had 30 days; Numa Pompilius made it 29 days long; finally, Julius Caesar's calendar reform made it 30 days long again, which was not changed in the calendar revision of Augustus Caesar in 8 BC.

In Ancient Rome, the festival of Cerealia was held for seven days from mid-to-late April, but exact dates are uncertain. Feriae Latinae was also held in April, with the date varying. Other ancient Roman observances include Veneralia (April 1), Megalesia (April 10–16), Fordicidia (April 15), Parilia (April 21), Vinalia Urbana (April 23), Robigalia (April 25), and Serapia (April 25). Floralia was held April 27 during the Republican era, or April 28 on the Julian calendar, and lasted until May 3. However, these dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

The Lyrids meteor shower appears on April 16 – April 26 each year, with the peak generally occurring on April 22. The Eta Aquariids meteor shower also appears in April. It is visible from about April 21 to about May 20 each year with peak activity on or around May 6. The Pi Puppids appear on April 23, but only in years around the parent comet's perihelion date. The Virginids also shower at various dates in April.

The "Days of April" (journées d'avril) is a name assigned in French history to a series of insurrections at Lyons, Paris and elsewhere, against the government of Louis Philippe in 1834, which led to violent repressive measures, and to a famous trial known as the procès d'avril. [3]

Symbols

Faceted diamond Diamond.jpg
Faceted diamond

April's birthstone is the diamond. The birth flower is the common daisy (Bellis perennis) or the sweet pea. [5] [6] The zodiac signs are Aries (until April 19) and Taurus (April 20 onward). [7] [8]

Daisy flower Daisy ntgr.JPG
Daisy flower
Sweet pea Sweet Pea (27711557850).jpg
Sweet pea

Observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.

Month-long

A fresco in a Catholic church in Switzerland representing the Resurrection of the Lord Kobelwald Kirche Bild Chor.JPG
A fresco in a Catholic church in Switzerland representing the Resurrection of the Lord

United States

United States food months

  • Fresh Florida Tomato Month
  • National Food Month
  • National Grilled Cheese Month
  • National Pecan Month
  • National Soft Pretzel Month
  • National Soyfoods Month

Non-Gregorian

(All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.)

Movable

Variable; 2021 dates shown

First Wednesday

First Saturday

First Sunday

First full week

Second Wednesday
Second Thursday
Second Friday

Second Sunday

Week of April 14

Third Wednesday

Third Thursday

Third Saturday

Last full week of April

Week of April 23

Week of the New Moon

Third Monday

Wednesday of last full week of April

First Thursday after April 18

Fourth Thursday
Last Friday

Last Friday in April to first Sunday in May

Last Saturday
Last Sunday
April 27 (April 26 if April 27 is a Sunday)
Last Monday
Last Wednesday

Fixed

See also

Related Research Articles

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Lists of holidays by various categorizations.

The following are public holidays in Ukraine.

References

  1. "April" in Chambers's Encyclopædia . London: George Newnes, 1961, Vol. 1, p. 497.
  2. Jacob Grimm Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Cap. "Monate"
  3. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "April". Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 230.
  4. "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec](PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 2, 2013.
  5. Kipfer, Barbara Ann (1997) The Order of Things. New York: Random House
  6. "U101 College Search". Archived from the original on September 11, 2012.
  7. The Earth passed the junction of the signs at 14:45 UT/GMT April 19, 2020, and will pass it again at 20:33 UT/GMT April 19, 2021.
  8. "Astrology Calendar". yourzodiacsign. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030.
  9. "Virginia Governor - Ralph Northam - Proclamation". www.governor.virginia.gov. Archived from the original on June 9, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  10. "Autism Awareness Month – Michael J. Dunleavy". gov.alaska.gov. April 1, 2019. Archived from the original on June 9, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  11. "World Autism Month". Autism Speaks. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  12. "The Month of the Military Child". Department of Defense Education Activity. DoDEA. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  13. "Month of the Military Child". Department of Defense. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  14. "Occupational Therapy Month". American Occupational Therapy Association. AOTA. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  15. "National Rosacea Society designates April as "Rosacea Awareness Month"". Practical Dermatology. April 3, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  16. "Rosacea Awareness Month Focuses on Management Options". Pharmacy Times. April 1, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  17. [ dead link ]
  18. "National Crime Victims' Rights Week". United States Department of Justice Office for Victims of Crime. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  19. 1 2 Seol Song Ah (December 7, 2015). "Kim Jong Un's birthday still not a holiday". Daily NK. Retrieved January 13, 2017.