December 31

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December 31 is the 365th day of the year(366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. It is known by a collection of names including: Saint Sylvester's Day, New Year's Eve or Old Years Day/Night, as the following day is New Year's Day. It is the last day of the year; the following day is January 1 , the first day of the following year.

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Saint Sylvesters Day the day celebrated on 31 December (Roman Catholic Church) or 2 January (Eastern Orthodox Churches)

Saint Sylvester's Day, also known as Silvester or the Feast of Saint Sylvester, is the day of the feast of Pope Sylvester I, a saint who served as Pope of the Western Church from 314 to 335 and is considered by tradition as overseeing both the First Council of Nicaea and Roman Emperor Constantine I's conversion to Christianity. Among the Western Christian Churches, the feast day is held on the anniversary of Saint Sylvester's death, 31 December, a date that, since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, has coincided with New Year's Eve. For these Christian denominations, Saint Silvester's Day liturgically marks the seventh day of Christmastide. Eastern Orthodox Churches celebrate Sylvester's feast on a different day from the Western Churches, i.e. on 2 January. Saint Sylvester's Day celebrations are marked by church attendance at Midnight Mass or a Watchnight service, as well as fireworks, partying, and feasting.

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Events

406 Year

Year 406 (CDVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Arcadius and Probus. The denomination 406 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Vandals East Germanic tribe

The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland. Some later moved in large numbers, including most notably the group which successively established Vandal kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula, on western Mediterranean islands and in North Africa in the 5th century.

The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

Births

695 Year

Year 695 (DCXCV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 695 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Muhammad bin Qasim Umayyad general

‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad bin Qāsim ath-Thaqafī was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh till Multan from Raja Dahir along the Indus River and then controlled for a short period of 4 years for the Umayyad Caliphate.

Year 1378 (MCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

Year 45 BC was either a common year starting on Thursday, Friday or Saturday or a leap year starting on Friday or Saturday and the first year of the Julian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar without Colleague. The denomination 45 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Quintus Fabius Maximus was a general and politician of the late Roman Republic who became suffect consul in 45 BC.

Year 192 (CXCII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Aelius and Pertinax. The denomination 192 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Holidays and observances

Calendar of saints Christian liturgical calendar celebrating saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".

Pope Sylvester I pope and saint

Pope Sylvester I, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 314 to his death in 335. He succeeded Pope Miltiades as the 33rd Pope. He filled the See of Rome at an important era in the history of the Western Church, yet very little is known of him. The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber Pontificalis contain little more than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Church by Constantine I, although it does say that he was the son of a Roman named Rufinus. His feast is celebrated as Saint Sylvester's Day in Western Christianity on December 31, while Eastern Christianity commemorates it on January 2.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

See also

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References

  1. "Death toll rises to 39 in Russian apartment block collapse". The Guardian. 2019-01-03. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  2. "About Jennifer Higdon". jenniferhigdon.com. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  3. Yusofi, G. H. (1984). "Aḥmad Maymandī". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 6. pp. 650–652.