914

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
914 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 914
CMXIV
Ab urbe condita 1667
Armenian calendar 363
ԹՎ ՅԿԳ
Assyrian calendar 5664
Balinese saka calendar 835–836
Bengali calendar 321
Berber calendar 1864
Buddhist calendar 1458
Burmese calendar 276
Byzantine calendar 6422–6423
Chinese calendar 癸酉(Water  Rooster)
3610 or 3550
     to 
甲戌年 (Wood  Dog)
3611 or 3551
Coptic calendar 630–631
Discordian calendar 2080
Ethiopian calendar 906–907
Hebrew calendar 4674–4675
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 970–971
 - Shaka Samvat 835–836
 - Kali Yuga 4014–4015
Holocene calendar 10914
Iranian calendar 292–293
Islamic calendar 301–302
Japanese calendar Engi 14
(延喜14年)
Javanese calendar 813–814
Julian calendar 914
CMXIV
Korean calendar 3247
Minguo calendar 998 before ROC
民前998年
Nanakshahi calendar −554
Seleucid era 1225/1226 AG
Thai solar calendar 1456–1457
Tibetan calendar 阴水鸡年
(female Water-Rooster)
1040 or 659 or −113
     to 
阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
1041 or 660 or −112
Pope John X (r. 914-928) Pope John X Illustration.jpg
Pope John X (r. 914–928)

Year 914 ( CMXIV ) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. The most recent year of such kind was 2011 and the next one will be 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

Zoe Karbonopsina Byzantine Emperors wife

Zoe Karbonopsina, also Karvounopsina or Carbonopsina, i.e., "with the Coal-Black Eyes", was an empress consort and regent of the Byzantine empire. She was the fourth spouse of the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise and the mother of Constantine VII, serving as his regent from 914 until 919.

Constantinople capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire

Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Byzantine Empire, and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923). It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330. The city was located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

John Eladas was a senior member of the Byzantine court and regent in the early 10th century.

Europe

January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 346 days remaining until the end of the year.

García I of León King of Leon

García I was the King of León from 910 until his death and eldest of three succeeding sons of Alfonso III the Great by his wife Jimena.

Zamora, Spain Municipality in Castile and León, Spain

Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal and crossed by the Duero river, which is some 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream as it reaches the Portuguese border. With its 24 characteristic Romanesque style churches of the 12th and 13th centuries it has been called a "museum of Romanesque art". Zamora is the city with the most Romanesque churches in all of Europe. The most important celebration in Zamora is the Holy Week.

Britain

Vikings Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates

Vikings were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland. The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.

Wales Country in northwest Europe, part of the United Kingdom

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

River Severn River in the United Kingdom

The River Severn is the longest river in Great Britain at a length of 220 miles (354 km), and the second longest in the British Isles after the River Shannon in Ireland. It rises at an altitude of 2,001 feet (610 m) on Plynlimon, close to the Ceredigion/Powys border near Llanidloes, in the Cambrian Mountains of mid Wales. It then flows through Shropshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire, with the county towns of Shrewsbury, Worcester and Gloucester on its banks. With an average discharge of 107 m3/s (3,800 cu ft/s) at Apperley, Gloucestershire, the Severn is by far the greatest river in terms of water flow in England and Wales.

Africa

  • January 24 The Fatimid general, Hubasa ibn Yusuf of the Kutama Berber tribe, marches out with his troops to invade Egypt. He follows the coastline, and takes possession of the only two towns of any size Syrte and Ajdabiya, without a struggle. The garrisons of the two towns—the westernmost outposts of the Abbasid Caliphate—have already fled. [9]
  • February 6 Hubasa takes Barqah (modern-day Benghazi), the ancient capital of Cyrenaica. The Abbasid governor withdraws to Egypt, before the superior strength of the Fatimids. With this rich, fertile province fallen into his hands, it provides Hubāsa with 24,000 gold dinars in annual revenues from taxes, as well as 15,000 dinars paid by Christians. [9]
  • July 11 Al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah, son of the Fatimid caliph Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, leaves Raqqada at the head of an army, which is composed of Kutama warriors and the Arab jund (personal guard) in an attempt to conquer Egypt. He send orders to Hubāsa to wait for him, but driven by ambition Hubāsa is already on his way to Alexandria. [9]
  • August 27 Hubasa captures Alexandria, after a victorious encounter with Egyptian troops near al-Hanniyya (modern-day El Alamein). The Abbasid governor Takin al-Khazari refuses to surrender and asks for reinforcements, which reach him in September. Shortly after al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah enters Alexandria, with the rest of his army. [9]
  • December The Fatimid army under Hubasa leaves Alexandria, followed by al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah. The Abbassid troops hold Fustat and begin a counter-offensive against the invaders. The Kutama cavalry suffers heavy losses to the Turkish archers. [9]

January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 341 days remaining until the end of the year.

Fatimid Caliphate Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was a Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.

The Kutama were a major Berber tribe in northern Algeria classified among the Berber confederation of the Bavares. The Kutama are attested much earlier, in the form Koidamousii by the Greek geographer Ptolemy.

Arabian Empire

January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 353 days remaining until the end of the year.

Ahmad Samani Amir

Ahmad ibn Ismail was amir of the Samanids (907–914). He was the son of Isma'il. He was known as the "Martyred Amir".

Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire, also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999. The empire was centered in Khorasan and Transoxiana during its existence; at its greatest extent, the empire encompassed all of today's Afghanistan, large parts of Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and parts of Kazakhstan and Pakistan.

Asia

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Religion

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 900s decade ran from January 1, 900, to December 31, 909.

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

1009 Year

Year in topic Year 1009 (MIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

946 Year

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

909 Year

Year 909 (CMIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

932 Year

Year 932 (CMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

902 Year

Year 902 (CMII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

892 Year

Year 892 (DCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

893 Year

Year 893 (DCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah founder of the Fatimid Caliphate

Abdullāh al-Mahdi Billah, was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.

Al-Qaim bi-Amr Allah Ssecond Caliph of the Fatimids in Ifriqiya

Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn al-Mahdi, better known by his regnal name al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah or bi-Amri 'llah, was the second caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946. He is the 12th Imam according to the Isma'ili faith.

Ismail ibn Ahmad Samanid ruler

Abū Ibrāhīm Ismā'īl ibn Aḥmad, better simply known as Isma'il ibn Ahmad, and also known as Ismail Samani, was the Samanid emir of Transoxiana (892–907) and Khorasan (900–907). His reign saw the emergence of the Samanids as a powerful force. He was the son of Ahmad ibn Asad and a descendant of Saman Khuda, the eponymous ancestor of the Samanid dynasty who renounced Zoroastrianism and embraced Islam.

Abū'l-Ḥasan Mu'nis, also commonly known by the surnames al-Muẓaffar and al-Khadim, was the commander-in-chief of the Abbasid army from 908 to his death in 933 CE, and virtual dictator and king-maker of the Caliphate from 928 on.

Abu Abdallah Muḥammad ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd, also known as al-Da‘ī al-ṣaghīr, was an Alid who succeeded his brother, Hasan, as ruler of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan in 884. Little is known of his early life, before coming to Tabaristan after Hasan established Zaydid rule there in 864. He served his brother as a general and governor, and continued his policies after his accession. His reign was troubled by rebellions and wars, most notably by the invasion of Rafi' ibn Harthama in 889–892, which occupied most of his domains. After Rafi' fell out of favour with the Abbasids, Muhammad recovered his position and secured the allegiance of Rafi', but did not particularly support him against the Saffarids. In 900, following the Saffarids' defeat by the Samanids, he tried to invade Khurasan, but was defeated and died of his wounds, whereupon Tabaristan fell to the Samanids.

Rāfi‘ ibn Harthama was a mercenary soldier who in the turmoils of the late 9th century became ruler of Khurasan from 882 to 892.

The first Fatimid invasion of Egypt occurred in 914–915, soon after the establishment of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya in 909. The Fatimids launched an expedition east, against the Abbasid Caliphate, under the Berber general Habasa ibn Yusuf. Habasa succeeded in subduing the cities on the Libyan coast between Ifriqiya and Egypt, and captured Alexandria. The Fatimid heir-apparent, al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah, then arrived to take over the campaign. The attempts to conquer the capital, Fustat, were beaten back by the Abbasid troops in the province. A risky affair even at the outset, the arrival of Abbasid reinforcements from Syria and Iraq under Mu'nis al-Muzaffar doomed the invasion to failure, and al-Qa'im and the remnants of his army abandoned Alexandria and returned to Ifriqiya in May 915. The failure did not prevent the Fatimids from launching another unsuccessful attempt to capture Egypt four years later. In the event, it was not until 969 that the Fatimids conquered Egypt and made it the centre of their empire.

The second Fatimid invasion of Egypt occurred in 919–921, following the failure of the first attempt in 914–915. The expedition was again commanded by the Fatimid Caliphate's heir-apparent, al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah. As during the previous attempt, the Fatimids captured Alexandria with ease. However, while the Abbasid garrison in Fustat was weaker and mutinous due to lack of pay, al-Qa'im did not exploit it for an immediate attack on the city, such as the one that had failed in 914. Instead, in March 920 the Fatimid navy was destroyed by the Abbasid fleet under Thamal al-Dulafi, and Abbasid reinforcements under Mu'nis al-Muzaffar arrived at Fustat. Nevertheless, in the summer of 920 al-Qa'im was able to capture the Fayyum Oasis, and in the spring of 921 extend his control over much of Upper Egypt as well, while Mu'nis avoided an open confrontation and remained at Fustat. During that time, both sides were engaged in a diplomatic and propaganda battle, with the Fatimids' in particular trying to sway the Muslim populace on their side, without success. The Fatimid expedition was condemned to failure when Thamal's fleet took Alexandria in May/June 921; when the Abbasid forces moved on Fayyum, al-Qa'im was forced to abandon it and flee west over the desert.

References

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  8. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. M. Swanton (Dent, London 1997), s.a. 911–918.
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