Turkic peoples

Last updated

Map-TurkicLanguages.png
The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority.
Total population
Approx. 140–160 million [1] [2] or over 170 million [3]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 57,500,000–61,500,000 [4] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 25,200,000 [5] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran 15,000,000 [6]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 12,751,502[ citation needed ]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 12,300,000 [7] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 11,647,000 [8] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 10,000,000 [9] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Europe.svg European Union 5,876,318[ citation needed ]
Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 4,500,000 [10] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 4,500,000 [11] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan 3,500,000 [12] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1,500,000 [13] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Tajikistan.svg  Tajikistan 1,200,000 [14] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 1,000,000+ [15]
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 800,000–1,000,000+ [16]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 590,661[ citation needed ]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 398,600 [17]
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg North Cyprus 313,626 [18]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 293,500[ citation needed ]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 224,460 [ citation needed ]
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia 202,086 [19] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon 200,000 [20] [21] [22] [23]
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova 154,461 [24] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of North Macedonia.svg  North Macedonia 81,900 [25] [ additional citation(s) needed ]
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 49,000 (official estimate)–130,000 g[] [26] [27] [28] [29]
Languages
Turkic languages
Religion
Islam

(Sunni  · Nondenominational Muslims  · Cultural Muslim  · Quranist Muslim  · Alevi  · Twelver Shia  · Ja'fari)
Christianity
(Eastern Orthodox Christianity)
Judaism
(Djudios Turkos  · Sabbataists  · Karaites)
Irreligion
(Agnosticism  · Atheism)

Contents

Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, Mani

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family. [30] They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, acculturation, intermixing, adoption and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, therefore, most Turkic groups differ significantly in origins from one group to the next. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics, including certain cultural traits, some ancestry from a common gene pool, and historical experiences. The most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Turkmen and Kyrgyz people.

Central Asia core region of the Asian continent

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".

East Asia Subregion of Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.

North Asia subregion of Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes also referred to as Siberia or Eurasia, is partly a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East. The region is sometimes also known as Asian Russia. North Asia is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the west by Eastern Europe, to the south by Central and East Asia and to the east by the Pacific Ocean and North America. North Asia covers an area of approximately 13,100,000 square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi) or 8.8% of the earth's land area, or 1.5 times the size of Brazil. It is the largest subregion of Asia by area, but is also the least populated, with an approximate total population of only 33 million people or 0.74% of Asia’s population. North Asia is solely administrated by Russia, and makes up more than 75% of the territory of the country, but only 22% of its population, at a density of 2.5 people per km2. The region of Western Siberia and occasionally Kazakhstan is usually called Northwestern Asia or Northwest Asia;, although the name sometimes refers to Caucasus or nearby provinces.

Etymology

Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. Kashgari map.jpg
Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.

The first known mention of the term Turk (Old Turkic: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük [31] [32] [33] or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 Kök Türük [31] [32] Chinese :突厥, Old Tibetan: duruggu/durgu (meaning "origin"), [34] [35] Pinyin: Tūjué, Middle Chinese (Guangyun): [tʰuot-küot]) applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." [36] The Orhun inscriptions (735 CE) use the terms Turk and Turuk.

Chinese language family of languages

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases not mutually intelligible, language varieties, forming the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the ethnic Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in China. About 1.2 billion people speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Old Tibetan refers to the period of Tibetan language reflected in documents from the adoption of writing by the Tibetan Empire in the mid-7th century to works of the early 11th century.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi. [37] During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, and Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku and so on. But the information gap is so substantial that we cannot firmly connect these ancient people to the modern Turks. [46] [47] [48] Turkologist András Róna-Tas posits that the term Turk could be rooted in the East Iranian Saka language [49] or in Turkic. [50] However, it is generally accepted that the term "Türk" is ultimately derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term [51] 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Türük/Törük, [52] [53] which means "created", "born", [54] or "strong", [55] from the Old Turkic word root *türi-/töri- ("tribal root, (mythic) ancestry; take shape, to be born, be created, arise, spring up") and conjugated with Old Turkic suffix 𐰰 (-ik), perhaps from Proto-Turkic *türi-k ("lineage, ancestry"), [52] from the Proto-Turkic word root *töŕ ("foundation, root; origin, ancestors"). [56] [57]

<i>Spring and Autumn Annals</i> official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 BCE to 481 BCE

The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times. The Annals is the official chronicle of the State of Lu, and covers a 241-year period from 722 to 481 BC. It is the earliest surviving Chinese historical text to be arranged in annals form. Because it was traditionally regarded as having been compiled by Confucius, it was included as one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature.

Beidi Ethnic group in ancient Chinese texts; one of the "Four Barbarians"

The Di or Beidi were various ethnic groups who lived north of the Chinese (Huaxia) realms during the Zhou dynasty. Although initially described as nomadic, they seem to have practiced a mixed pastoral, agricultural, and hunting economy and were distinguished from the nomads of the Eurasian steppe (Hu) who lived to their north. Chinese historical accounts describe the Di inhabiting the upper Ordos Loop and gradually migrating eastward to northern Shanxi and Hebei, where they eventually created their own states like Zhongshan and Dai. Other groups of Di seem to have lived interspersed between the Chinese states before their eventual conquest or assimilation.

Pomponius Mela geographer

Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera and died c. AD 45.

The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun (Jiankun), and Xinli, located in South Siberia. [58] [59] The Chinese Book of Zhou (7th century) presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains. [60] According to Persian tradition, as reported by 11th-century ethnographer Mahmud of Kashgar and various other traditional Islamic scholars and historians, the name "Turk" stems from Tur, one of the sons of Japheth (see Turan).

The Book of Zhou records the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. Compiled by the Tang Dynasty historian Linghu Defen, the work was completed in 636 CE and consists of 50 chapters, some of which have been lost and replaced from other sources.

Altai Mountains Mountains in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia

The Altai Mountains, also spelled Altay Mountains, are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The massif merges with the Sayan Mountains in the northwest, and gradually becomes lower in the southeast, where it and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert. It spans from about 45° to 52° N and from about 84° to 99° E.

Mahmud al-Kashgari Medieval Arab scholar

Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.

During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the identity of the "Scythians". [61] Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι (Skuthai) in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples. [61]

Scythians historical ethnical group

The Scythians, also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were Eurasian nomads, probably mostly using Eastern Iranian languages, who were mentioned by the literate peoples to their south as inhabiting large areas of the western and central Eurasian Steppe from about the 9th century BC up until the 4th century AD. The "classical Scythians" known to ancient Greek historians, agreed to be mainly Iranian in origin, were located in the northern Black Sea and fore-Caucasus region. Other Scythian groups documented by Assyrian, Achaemenid and Chinese sources show that they also existed in Central Asia, where they were referred to as the Iskuzai/Askuzai, Saka, and Sai, respectively.

In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri). However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for Türk or vice versa. [62]

Turkish language Turkic language (possibly Altaic)

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Turkic languages Language family

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia and East Asia. The Turkic languages originated in a region of East Asia spanning Western China to Mongolia, where Proto-Turkic is thought to have been spoken, according to one estimate, around 2,500 years ago, from where they expanded to Central Asia and farther west during the first millennium.

History

Origins and early expansion

History of the Turkic peoples Hunting Party with the Sultan Jean Baptiste Vanmour 18th century.JPG
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Türgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek confederation
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [63] [64] [65] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE East-Hem 500bc.jpg
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE

Origin and early homeland

It is generally agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from eastern Central Asia to Siberia, with the majority of them living in today China. A ethnolinguistic study (Robbeets et al. 2017) claims that the Turkic people originated somewhere in northwestern Manchuria and later adopted a nomadic lifestyle and started a migration to the west. [66] Another study, based on genetic data of ancient Turkic samples, suggest and origin and homeland somewhere in Northeastern China.

Historical expansion

Historically they were established after the 6th century BCE. [67]

The earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE [67] (contemporaneous with the Chinese Han Dynasty). [68] Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu, Dingling and Tiele people. According to the Book of Wei , the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi (赤狄), the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. [69] Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century. These were herdsmen and nobles who were searching for new pastures and wealth. The first mention of Turks was in a Chinese text that mentioned trade between Turk tribes and the Sogdians along the Silk Road. [70] The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name appears as a 6th-century reference to the word pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue . The Ashina clan migrated from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from the prevalent dynasty. The tribe were famed metalsmiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥 (tūjué). A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and established the Gök Empire. [71]

Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiforms, and later the Uyghur alphabet. Traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include wolves in Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Turquoise blue (the word turquoise comes from the French word meaning "Turkish") is the color of the stone turquoise still used in jewelry and as a protection against the evil eye.

It has often been suggested that the Xiongnu, mentioned in Han Dynasty records, were Proto-Turkic speakers. [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] Although little is known for certain about the Xiongnu language(s), it seems likely that at least a considerable part of Xiongnu tribes spoke a Turkic language. [77] Some scholars believe they were probably a confederation of various ethnic and linguistic groups. [78] [79] A genetic research in 2003, on skeletons from a 2000 year old Xiongnu necropolis in Mongolia, found individuals with similar DNA sequences as modern Turkic groups, supporting the view that at least parts of the Xiongu were of Turkic origin. [80]

Analysis of skeletal remains from sites attributed to the Xiongnu show predominantly Mongoloid phenotypes, similar to present day Kazakhs, Mongols and Han Chinese. [81]

Xiongnu writing, older than Turkic, is agreed to have the earliest known Turkic alphabet, the Orkhon script. This has been argued recently using the only extant possibly Xiongu writings, the rock art of the Yinshan and Helan Mountains. [82] It dates from the 9th millennium BCE to the 19th century, and consists mainly of engraved signs (petroglyphs) and few painted images. [83] Excavations done during 1924–1925 in Noin-Ula kurgans located in the Selenga River in the northern Mongolian hills north of Ulaanbaatar produced objects with over 20 carved characters, which were either identical or very similar to the runic letters of the Turkic Orkhon script discovered in the Orkhon Valley. [84]

The Hun hordes ruled by Attila, who invaded and conquered much of Europe in the 5th century, might have been, at least partially, Turkic and descendants of the Xiongnu. [68] [85] [86] Some scholars regard the Huns as one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others view them as Proto-Mongolian or Yeniseian in origin. [87] [88] Linguistic studies by Otto Maenchen-Helfen and others have suggested that the language used by the Huns in Europe was too little documented to be classified. Nevertheless, many of the proper names used by Huns appear to be Turkic in origin. [89] [90]

In the 6th century, 400 years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in Inner Asia, the Göktürks assumed leadership of the Turkic peoples. Formerly in the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership united the nomadic Turkic tribes into the Göktürk Empire on Mongolia and Cental Asia. The name derives from gok, "blue" or "celestial". Unlike its Xiongnu predecessor, the Göktürk Khaganate had its temporary Khagan s from the Ashina clan, who were subordinate to a sovereign authority controlled by a council of tribal chiefs. The Khaganate retained elements of its original animistic- shamanistic religion, that later envolved into Tengriism, although it received missionaries of Buddhist monks and practiced a syncretic religion. The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write Old Turkic in a runic script, the Orkhon script. The Khaganate was also the first state known as "Turk". It eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts, but many states and peoples later used the name "Turk".[ citation needed ]

Turkic peoples and related groups migrated west from Northeastern China, present-day Mongolia and the Turkestan-region towards Eastern Europe, the Iranian plateau and Anatolia (modern Turkey) in many waves. The date of the initial expansion remains unknown. After many battles, the western Oghuz Turks established their own state and later constructed the Ottoman Empire. The main migration of the Oghuz Turks occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East. [71] They also took part in the military encounters of the Crusades. [91]

Middle Ages

Al-Mu'tasim Byzantine emissaries to the Caliph.jpg
Al-Mu'tasim

Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the 10th century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire. [71]

Meanwhile, the Yenisei Kyrgyz allied with China to destroy the Uyghur Khaganate in 840. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan. The Bulgars established themselves in between the Caspian and Black Seas in the 5th and 6th centuries, followed by their conquerors, the Khazars who converted to Judaism in the 8th or 9th century. After them came the Pechenegs who created a large confederacy, which was subsequently taken over by the Cumans and the Kipchaks. One group of Bulgars settled in the Volga region and mixed with local Volga Finns to become the Volga Bulgars in what is today Tatarstan. These Bulgars were conquered by the Mongols following their westward sweep under Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Other Bulgars settled in Southeastern Europe in the 7th and 8th centuries, and mixed with the Slavic population, adopting what eventually became the Slavic Bulgarian language. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees. [71] In 1090–91, the Turkic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army. [92]

Islamic empires

Hunername 264.jpg
Suleiman I taking control of Moldova.
Babur and Humayun.jpg
Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire and Mughal emperor Humayun.
Timur.jpeg
Tamerlane and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.
A Mamluk from Aleppo.jpg
A Mamluk nobleman from Aleppo.

As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa. [71]

The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi-based kingdoms three of which were of Turkic origin in medieval India. These Turkic dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90); the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320); and the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414). Southern India, also saw many Turkic origin dynasties like Bahmani Sultanate, Adil Shahi dynasty, Bidar Sultanate, Qutb Shahi dynasty, collectively known as Deccan sultanates.

In Eastern Europe, Volga Bulgaria became an Islamic state in 922 and influenced the region as it controlled many trade routes. In the 13th century, Mongols invaded Europe and established the Golden Horde in Eastern Europe, western & northern Central Asia, and even western Siberia. The Cuman-Kipchak Confederation and Islamic Volga Bulgaria were absorbed by the Golden Horde in the 13th century; in the 14th century, Islam became the official religion under Uzbeg Khan where the general population (Turks) as well as the aristocracy (Mongols) came to speak the Kipchak language and were collectively known as "Tatars" by Russians and Westerners. This country was also known as the Kipchak Khanate and covered most of what is today Ukraine, as well as the entirety of modern-day southern and eastern Russia (the European section). The Golden Horde disintegrated into several khanates and hordes in the 15th and 16th century including the Crimean Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, and Kazakh Khanate (among others), which were one by one conquered and annexed by the Russian Empire in the 16th through 19th centuries.

In Siberia, the Siberian Khanate was established in the 1490s by fleeing Tatar aristocrats of the disintegrating Golden Horde who established Islam as the official religion in western Siberia over the partly Islamized native Siberian Tatars and indigenous Uralic peoples. It was the northern-most Islamic state in recorded history and it survived up until 1598 when it was conquered by Russia.

The Chagatai Khanate was the eastern & southern Central Asian section of the Mongol Empire in what is today part or whole of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang ("Uyghurstan"). Like the Moghulistan and Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate became a Muslim state in the 14th century.

The Timurid Empire were an Uzbek-based Turkic empire founded in the late 14th century by Timurlane, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Timur, although a self-proclaimed devout Muslim, brought great slaughter in his conquest of fellow Muslims in neighboring Islamic territory and contributed to the ultimate demise of many Muslim states, including the Golden Horde.

The Mughal Empire was a Turkic-founded Indian empire that, at its greatest territorial extent, ruled most of the South Asia, including Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and parts of Uzbekistan from the early 16th to the early 18th centuries. The Mughal dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Babur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) on his father's side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. [93] [94] A further distinction was the attempt of the Mughals to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state. [93] [95] [96] [97]

The Safavid dynasty of Persia were of mixed ancestry (Kurdish [98] and Azerbaijani, [99] which included intermarriages with Georgian, [100] Circassian, [101] [102] and Pontic Greek [103] dignitaries). Through intermarriage and other political considerations, the Safavids spoke Persian and Turkish, [104] [105] and some of the Shahs composed poems in their native Turkish language. Concurrently, the Shahs themselves also supported Persian literature, poetry and art projects including the grand Shahnama of Shah Tahmasp. [106] [107] The Safavid dynasty ruled parts of Greater Iran for more than two centuries. [108] [109] [110] [111] and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam [112] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history

The Afsharid dynasty was named after the Turkic Afshar tribe to which they belonged. The Afshars had migrated from Turkestan to Azerbaijan in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded in 1736 by the military commander Nader Shah who deposed the last member of the Safavid dynasty and proclaimed himself King of Iran. Nader belonged to the Qereqlu branch of the Afshars. [113] During Nader's reign, Iran reached its greatest extent since the Sassanid Empire.

Turkic peoples like the Karluks (mainly 8th century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Turkmens later came into contact with Muslims, and most of them gradually adopted Islam. Small groups of Turkic people practice other religions, including their original animistic-shamanistic religion, Christianity, Jews (Khazars), Buddhism and a small number of Zoroastrians.

Muslim Turks and non-Muslim Turks

Uyghur king from Turpan region attended by servants Dunhuang Uighur king.jpg
Uyghur king from Turpan region attended by servants

The Muslim Kara-Khanid Turks performed a mass conversion campaign against the Buddhist Uyghur Turks during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang.

The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them – The Infidels – May God destroy them! [114] [115]

The Basmil, Yabāḳu and Uyghur states were among the Turkic peoples who fought against the Kara-Khanid's spread of Islam, the Islamic Kara-khanids were made out of Tukhai, Yaghma, Çiğil and Karluk. [116]

Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu. [117] The Yabaqu were a Turkic people. [118]

The Muslim Kara-Khanid Turk Mahmud Kashgari insulted the Uyghur Buddhists as "Uighur dogs" and called them "Tats", which referred to the "Uighur infidels" according to the Tuxsi and Taghma, while other Turks called Persians "tat". [119] [120] While Kashgari displayed a different attitude towards the Turks diviners beliefs and "national customs", he expressed towards Buddhism a hatred in his Diwan where he wrote the verse cycle on the war against Uighur Buddhists. Buddhist origin words like toyin (a cleric or priest) and Burxān or Furxan (meaning Buddha, acquiring the generic meaning of "idol" in the Turkic language of Kashgari) had negative connotations to Muslim Turks. [121] [115]

Murals and statues of medieval Turks

Gokturk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century) Tyurki.jpg
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
An Uyghur Khagan Uighur Prince.jpg
An Uyghur Khagan

Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as phenotypically Mongoloid until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original, Caucasoid inhabitants, such as the Tocharians and eastern Iranian peoples. [122]

The Uyghurs of the Qocho and Turfan – whose ancestors had adopted the Buddhism of the Tocharians when they settled in the Tarim – were forcibly converted to Islam during a ghazat (holy war) by the Chagatai khan Khizr Khwaja. [123] After they had converted to Islam, subsequent generations of Uyghurs came to believe, falsely, that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) had built Buddhist monuments in the area. [124] [125] The Buddhist murals at the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves were damaged by local Muslim population whose religion proscribed figurative images of sentient beings; the eyes and mouths in particular were often gouged out. Pieces of some murals were broken off for use as fertilizer by the locals. [126]

Turks in Arabic texts

The Arab Muslim Umayyads and Abbasids fought against the pagan Turks in the Turgesh Khaganate in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana in addition to the still dominant Iranian peoples in the region. The Muslims built ribats (military fortifications) against the non-Muslim Turks in Transoxiana.

The Medieval Arabs recorded that Medieval Turks looked strange from their perspective and were extremely physically different from the Arabs, calling them "broad faced people with small eyes". [127] [128]

Medieval Muslim writers noted that Tibetans and Turks resembled each other and often were not able to tell the difference between Turks and Tibetans. [129]

Modern history

Independent Turkic states shown in red Map of independent Turkic countries..png
Independent Turkic states shown in red

The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of poor administration, repeated wars with Russia and Austro-Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day Republic of Turkey. [71] Ethnic nationalism also developed in Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, taking the form of Pan-Turkism or Turanism.

The Turkic peoples of Central Asia were not organized in nation-states during most of the 20th century, after the collapse of the Russian Empire living either in the Soviet Union or (after a short-lived First East Turkestan Republic) in the Chinese Republic.

In 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, five Turkic states gained their independence. These were Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Other Turkic regions such as Tatarstan, Tuva, and Yakutia remained in the Russian Federation. Chinese Turkestan remained part of the People's Republic of China.

Immediately after the independence of the Turkic states, Turkey began seeking diplomatic relations with them. Over time political meetings between the Turkic countries increased and led to the establishment of TÜRKSOY in 1993 and later the Turkic Council in 2009.

Ethnic groups

Turkic ethnic groups are prominent in the world today and there have been Turkic nations in the past.

The modern list includes:

The historical list includes:

The origins of the Huns, Tuoba, and Xiongnu are unknown but may be of Turkic ancestry. [30] [130] [131] [132] [133]

Geographical distribution

Descriptive map of Turkic peoples. Carte peuples turcs.png
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority. Map-TurkicLanguages.png
Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority.

Today most of the Turkic peoples have their homelands in Central Asia, where the Turkic peoples settled from China. According to historian John Foster, "The Turks emerge from among the Huns in the middle of [the] fifth century. They were living in Liang territory when it began to be overrun by the greater principality of Wei. Preferring to remain under the rule of their own kind, they moved westward into what is now the province of Kansu. This was the territory of kindred Huns, who were called the Rouran. The Turks were a small tribe of only five hundred families, and they became serfs to the Rouran, who used them as iron-workers. It is thought that the original meaning of "Turk" is "helmet", and that they may have taken this name because of the shape of one of the hills near which they worked. As their numbers and power grew, their chief made bold to ask for the hand of a Rouran princess in marriage. The demand was refused, and war followed. In 546, the iron-workers defeated their overlords." [134] Since then Turkic languages have spread, through migrations and conquests, to other locations including present-day Turkey. While the term "Turk" may refer to a member of any Turkic people, the term Turkish usually refers specifically to the people and language of the modern country of Turkey.

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, to Siberia and Western China, and through to the Middle East.

Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language; [135] an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers. [136] More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman-dominated areas of Eastern Europe and West Asia; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus, China, and northern Iraq.

At present, there are six independent Turkic countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan; There are also several Turkic national subdivisions [137] in the Russian Federation including Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya. Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language (in addition to Russian).

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China and the autonomous region of Gagauzia, located within eastern Moldova and bordering Ukraine to the north, are two major autonomous Turkic regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine is a home of Crimean Tatars. In addition, there are several communities found in Iraq, Georgia, Bulgaria, the Republic of North Macedonia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and western Mongolia.

The Turks in Turkey are over 60 million [138] to 70 million worldwide, while the second largest Turkic people are the Azerbaijanis, numbering 22 to 38 million worldwide; most of them live in Azerbaijan and Iran.

Turks in India are very small in number. There are barely 150 Turkish people from Turkey in India. These are recent immigrants. Descendants of Turkish rulers also exist in Northern India. Mughals who are part Turkic people also live in India in significant numbers. They are descendants of the Mughal rulers of India. Karlugh Turks are also found in the Haraza region and in smaller number in Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan. Small amount of Uyghurs are also present in India. Turks also exist in Pakistan in similar proportions. One of the tribe in Hazara region of Pakistan is Karlugh Turks which is direct descendant of Turks of Central Asia. Turkish influence in Pakistan can be seen through the national language, Urdu, which comes from a Turkish word meaning "horde" or "army".

The Western Yugur at Gansu in China, Salar at Qinghai in China, the Dolgan at Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia, and the Nogai at Dagestan in Russia are the Turk minorities in the respective regions.

International organizations

Map of TURKSOY members. Map-TurksoyMembers.png
Map of TÜRKSOY members.

There are several international organizations created with the purpose of furthering cooperation between countries with Turkic-speaking populations, such as the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture (TÜRKSOY) and the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking Countries (TÜRKPA).

The newly established Turkic Council, founded on November 3, 2009 by the Nakhchivan Agreement confederation, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey, aims to integrate these organizations into a tighter geopolitical framework.

The TAKM – Organization of the Eurasian Law Enforcement Agencies with Military Status, established on 25 January 2013.

Demographics

Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris Bashkir in Paris.jpg
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris

The distribution of people of Turkic cultural background ranges from Siberia, across Central Asia, to Eastern Europe. As of 2011 the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan, in addition to Turkey and Iran. Additionally, Turkic people are found within Crimea, Altishahr region of western China, northern Iraq, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, and the Balkans: Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania, and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. Small numbers inhabit eastern Poland and the south-eastern part of Finland. [139] There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the 20th century.

Sometimes ethnographers group Turkic people into six branches: the Oghuz Turks, Kipchak, Karluk, Siberian, Chuvash, and Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks.

Much of the Turkic population of Central Asia has significant Caucasoid and Mongoloid ancestry. The genetic distances between the different populations of Uzbeks scattered across Uzbekistan is no greater than the distance between many of them and the Karakalpaks. This suggests that Karakalpaks and Uzbeks have very similar origins. The Karakalpaks have a somewhat greater bias towards the eastern markers than the Uzbeks. [140]

Historical population:

YearPopulation
1 AD2–2.5 million?
2013150–200 million

The Turkic people display a great variety of ethnic types. [141] They possess physical features ranging from Caucasoid to Northern Mongoloid. Mongoloid and Caucasoid facial structure is common among many Turkic groups, such as Chuvash people, Tatars, Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Bashkirs.

The following incomplete list of Turkic people shows the respective groups' core areas of settlement and their estimated sizes (in millions):

PeoplePrimary homelandPopulationModern languagePredominant religion and sect
Turks Turkey 70 M Turkish Sunni Islam
Azerbaijanis Iranian Azerbaijan, Republic of Azerbaijan 30–35 M Azerbaijani Shia Islam
Uzbeks Uzbekistan 28.3 M Uzbek Sunni Islam
Kazakhs Kazakhstan 13.8 M Kazakh Sunni Islam
Uyghurs Altishahr (China) 9 M Uyghur Sunni Islam
Turkmens Turkmenistan 8 M Turkmen Sunni Islam
Tatars Tatarstan 7 M Tatar Sunni Islam
Kyrgyzs Kyrgyzstan 4.5 M Kyrgyz Sunni Islam
Bashkirs Bashkortostan (Russia) 2 M Bashkir Sunni Islam
Crimean Tatars Crimea (Russia/Ukraine) 0.5 to 2 M Crimean Tatar Sunni Islam
Qashqai Southern Iran 1.7 M Qashqai Shia Islam
Chuvashes Chuvashia 1.7 M Chuvash Orthodox Christianity
Karakalpaks Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.6 M Karakalpak Sunni Islam
Yakuts Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 M Sakha Orthodox Christianity
Kumyks Dagestan (Russia) 0.4 M Kumyk Sunni Islam
Karachays and Balkars Karachay-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.4 M Karachay-Balkar Sunni Islam
Tuvans Tuva (Russia) 0.3 M Tuvan Tibetan Buddhism
Gagauzs Gagauzia (Moldova) 0.2 M Gagauz Orthodox Christianity
Turkic Karaites and Krymchaks Ukraine 0.2 M Karaim and Krymchak Judaism

Minorities in Turkic countries

Azerbaijan

Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan

Turkey

Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan

Past and future population

RankCountryArea1950200020502100
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 783,56221,122,00065,970,00089,291,00087,983,000
2Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 447,4006,293,00025,042,00035,117,00032,077,000
3Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2,724,9006,694,00015,688,00022,238,00024,712,000
4Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 86,6002,886,0008,464,00011,210,0009,636,000
5Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 199,9001,739,0004,938,0007,064,0009,046,000
6Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 488,1001,205,0004,386,0006,608,0005,606,000
Total4,730,46239,939,000124,488,000171,528,000169,060,000

Land and water area (excluding Caspian Sea)

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

RankCountryAreaEEZShelfEEZ+TIA
1Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 783,562261,65456,0931,045,216
2Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 447,40000447,400
3Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan 2,724,900002,724,900
4Flag of Azerbaijan.svg  Azerbaijan 86,6000086,600
5Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan 199,90000199,900
6Flag of Turkmenistan.svg  Turkmenistan 488,10000488,100
Total4,730,462261,65456,0934,992,116

Language

A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans. Codex Cumanicus 58.jpg
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.

The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters (formerly known as runes), used for writing mostly Turkic languages. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in Mongolia. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE.

The earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, and the alphabets were generally replaced by the Old Uyghur alphabet in the Central Asia, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia, Cyrillic in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, and Latin alphabet in Central Europe. The latest recorded use of Turkic alphabet was recorded in Central Europe's Hungary in 1699 CE.

The Turkic runiform scripts, unlike other typologically close scripts of the world, do not have a uniform palaeography as, for example, have the Gothic runes, noted for the exceptional uniformity of its language and paleography. [142] The Turkic alphabets are divided into four groups, the best known of them is the Orkhon version of the Enisei group. The Orkhon script is the alphabet used by the Göktürks from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic language. It was later used by the Uyghur Empire; a Yenisei variant is known from 9th-century Kyrgyz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian script of the 10th century.

The Turkic language family is traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. [136] [143] [144] [145]

The various Turkic languages are usually considered in geographical groupings: the Oghuz (or Southwestern) languages, the Kypchak (or Northwestern) languages, the Eastern languages (like Uygur), the Northern languages (like Altay and Yakut), and one existing Oghur language: Chuvash (the other Oghur languages, like Volga Bulgarian, are now extinct). The high mobility and intermixing of Turkic peoples in history makes an exact classification extremely difficult.

The Turkish language belongs to the Oghuz subfamily of Turkic. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with the other Oghuz languages, which include Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Turkmen and Urum, and to a varying extent with the other Turkic languages.

Cuisine

Markets in the steppe region had a limited range of foodstuffs available—mostly grains, dried fruits, spices, and tea. Turks mostly herded sheep, goats and horses. Dairy was a staple of the nomadic diet and there are many Turkic words for various dairy products such as süt (milk), yagh (butter), ayran, qaymaq (similar to clotted cream), qi̅mi̅z (fermented mare's milk) and qurut (dried yoghurt). During the Middle Ages Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Tatars, who were historically part of the Turkic nomadic group known as the Golden Horde, continued to develop new variations of dairy products. [146]

Nomadic Turks cooked their meals in a qazan , a pot similar to a cauldron; a wooden rack called a qasqan can be used to prepare certain steamed foods, like the traditional meat dumplings called manti . They also used a saj, a griddle that was traditionally placed on stones over a fire, and shish . In later times, the Persian tava was borrowed from the Persians for frying, but traditionally nomadic Turks did most of their cooking using the qazan, saj and shish. Meals were served in a bowl, called a chanaq, and eaten with a knife (bïchaq) and spoon (qashi̅q). Both bowl and spoon were historically made from wood. Other traditional utensils used in food preparation included a thin rolling pin called oqlaghu, a colander called süzgu̅çh, and a grinding stone called tāgirmān. [146]

Medieval grain dishes included preparations of whole grains, soups, porridges, breads and pastries. Fried or toasted whole grains were called qawïrmach, while köchä was crushed grain that was cooked with dairy products. Salma were broad noodles that could be served with boiled or roasted meat; cut noodles were called tutmaj in the Middle Ages and are called kesme today. [146]

There are many types of bread doughs in Turkic cuisine. Yupqa is the thinnest type of dough, bawi̅rsaq is a type of fried bread dough, and chälpäk is a deep fried flat bread. Qatlama is a fried bread that may be sprinkled with dried fruit or meat, rolled, and sliced like pinwheel sandwiches. Toqach and chöräk are varieties of bread, and böräk is a type of filled pie pastry. [146]

Herd animals were usually slaughtered during the winter months and various types of sausages were prepared to preserve the meats, including a type of sausage called sujuk . Though prohibited by Islamic dietary restrictions, historically Turkic nomads also had a variety of blood sausage. One type of sausage, called qazi̅ , was made from horsemeat and another variety was filled with a mixture of ground meat, offal and rice. Chopped meat was called qïyma and spit-roasted meat was söklünch—from the root sök- meaning "to tear off", the latter dish is known as kebab in modern times. Qawirma is a typical fried meat dish, and kullama is a soup of noodles and lamb. [146]

Religion

A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. Kyzyl Shaman.jpg
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.

Early Turkic mythology and Tengrism

Pre-Islamic Turkic mythology was dominated by Shamanism, Animism and Tengrism. The Turkic animistic traditions were mostly focused on ancestor worship, polytheistic-animism and shamanism. Later this animistic tradition would form the more organized Tengrism. [147] The chief deity was Tengri, a sky god, worshipped by the upper classes of early Turkic society until Manichaeism was introduced as the official religion of the Uyghur Empire in 763.

The wolf symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkic peoples. Asena (Ashina Tuwu) is the wolf mother of Tumen Il-Qağan, the first Khan of the Göktürks. The horse and predatory birds, such as the eagle or falcon, are also main figures of Turkic mythology.[ citation needed ]

Religious conversions

Mosque in Kazakhstan. Pavlodar-Moschea.JPG
Mosque in Kazakhstan.

Tengri Bögü Khan made the now extinct Manichaeism the state religion of Uyghur Khaganate in 763 and it was also popular in Karluks. It was gradually replaced by the Mahayana Buddhism.[ citation needed ] It existed in the Buddhist Uyghur Gaochang up to the 12th century. [148]

Tibetan Buddhism, or Vajrayana was the main religion after Manichaeism. [149] They worshipped Täŋri Täŋrisi Burxan, [150] Quanšï Im Pusar [151] and Maitri Burxan. [152] Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia. The Sari Uygurs "Yellow Yughurs" of Western China, as well as the Tuvans and Altai of Russia are the only remaining Buddhist Turkic peoples.

The Krymchaks of Eastern Europe (Especially Crimea) are Jewish, and there are Turks of Jewish backgrounds who live in major cities such as Istanbul, Ankara and Baku. The Khazars widely practiced Judaism before their conversion to Islam.[ citation needed ]

Even though many Turkic peoples became Muslims under the influence of Sufis, often of Shī‘ah persuasion, most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims, although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism.

The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash of Chuvashia and the Gagauz (Gökoğuz) of Moldova. The traditional religion of the Chuvash of Russia, while containing many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrianism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam. The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the 19th century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith. [153] Church of the East was popular among Turks such as the Naimans. [154] It even revived in Gaochang and expanded in Xinjiang in the Yuan dynasty period. [155] [156] [157] It disappeared after its collapse. [158] [159]

Today there are several groups that support a revival of the ancient traditions. Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, many in Central Asia converted or openly practice animistic and shamanistic rituals. It is estimated that about 60% of Kyrgyz people practice a form of animistic rituals. In Kazakhstan there are about 54.000 followers of the ancient traditions. [160] [161]

Old sports

Kyz kuu. Catchthegirl.JPG
Kyz kuu.

The Kyz kuu (chase the girl) – it has been played by Turkic people at festivals since time immemorial. [162]

The Jereed – Horses have been essential and even sacred animals for Turks living as nomadic tribes in the Central Asian steppes. Turks were born, grew up, lived, fought and died on horseback. So became jereed the most important sporting and ceremonial game of Turkish people. [163]

The kokpar began with the nomadic Turkic peoples who have come from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries. [164]

The jigit which is used in the Caucasus and Central Asia to describe a skillful and brave equestrian, or a brave person in general. [165]

Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes

Images of Buddhist and Manichean Turkic Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes.

Medieval times

Modern times

See also

Related Research Articles

Göktürks nomadic people of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia

The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan and his sons, succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the main power in the region and established the Turkic Khaganate, one of several nomadic dynasties which would shape the future geolocation, culture, and dominant beliefs of Turkic peoples.

The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia and China. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.

Turkestan region; land of the Turks

Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan, refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.

Kara-Khanid Khanate Turkic dynasty

The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids or Ilek Khanids. Both the dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Kağan being the most important Turkish title up till the end of the dynasty.

Kazakhs Turkic people of Eastern Europe and the northern parts of Central Asia

The Kazakhs are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia, the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family. In the 8th century, they formed a tribal confederation conventionally named the Oghuz Yabgu State in central Asia. The name Oghuz is a Common Turkic word for "tribe". Byzantine sources call the Oghuz the Uzes. By the 10th century, Islamic sources were calling them Muslim Turkmens, as opposed to shamanist or Buddhist. By the 12th century this term had passed into Byzantine usage and the Oghuzes were overwhelmingly Muslim.

The proto-Mongols emerged from an area that had been inhabited by humans and predecessor hominin species as far back as the Stone Age over 800,000 years ago. The people there went through the Bronze and Iron Ages, forming tribal alliances, peopling, and coming into conflict with early China.

Turkmens ethnic group

Turkmens are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan. Smaller communities are also found in Iran, Afghanistan and North Caucasus. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. Examples of other Oghuz languages are Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai, Gagauz, Khorasani, and Salar.

History of Central Asia aspect of history

The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people has been determined primarily by the area's climate and geography. The aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppe dominated the area for millennia.

The Karluks were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia. They were also known as the Gelolu. They were closely related to the Uyghurs. Karluks gave their name to the distinct Karluk group of the Turkic languages, which also includes the Uyghur, Uzbek, and Ili Turki languages.

Sart

Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia and the Middle East, which has had shifting meanings over the centuries. Sarts, known sometimes as Ak-Sart in ancient times, did not have any particular ethnic identification, and were usually town-dwellers.

Turkic migration

Turkic migration refers to the expansion of the Turkic tribes and Turkic languages into Central Asia, Eastern Europe and West Asia, mainly between the 6th and 11th centuries. The region of origin of the Turkic peoples is suggested to be somewhere in Siberia, Mongolia or northwestern Manchuria.

History of Xinjiang

The recorded history of the area now known as Xinjiang dates to the 2nd millennium BC. There have been many empires, primarily Han Chinese, Turkic, and Mongol, that have ruled over the region, including the Yuezhi, Xiongnu, Han dynasty, Gaochang, Kingdom of Khotan, Sixteen Kingdoms of the Jin dynasty, Turkic Khaganate, Tang dynasty, Tibetan Empire, Uyghur Khaganate, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Kingdom of Qocho, Qara Khitai, Mongol Empire, Yuan dynasty, Chagatai Khanate, Yarkent Khanate, Dzungar Khanate, and Qing dynasty. Xinjiang was previously known as "Xiyu", under the Han dynasty, which drove the Xiongnu empire out of the region in 60 BCE in an effort to secure the profitable Silk Road, but was renamed Xinjiang when the region was reconquered by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in 1759. Xinjiang is now a part of the People's Republic of China, having been so since its founding year of 1949.

Eastern Turkic Khaganate Former empire in the 6th and 7th centuries

The Eastern Turkic Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the Göktürk Khaganate had splintered into two polities – Eastern and Western. Finally, the Eastern Turkic power was absorbed by the Chinese Tang Empire.

Turkic Khaganate khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia

The Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history.

History of the Uyghur people Ethnic history

Uyghur nationalist historians in the People's Republic of China and the United States posit that the Uyghur people is millennia-old, and can be divided into four distinct phases: Pre-Imperial, Imperial, Idiqut, and Mongol, with perhaps a fifth modern phase running from the death of the Silk Road in AD 1600 until the present. In brief, Uyghur history is the story of a small nomadic tribe from the Altai Mountains competing with rival powers in Central Asia, including other Altaic tribes, Indo-European empires from the south and west, and Sino-Tibetan empires to the east. After the collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate in AD 840, ancient Uyghur resettled from Mongolia to the Tarim Basin, assimilating the Indo-European population, which had previously been driven out of the region by the Xiongnu. Ultimately, the Uyghurs became civil servants administering the Mongol Empire.

Islamization of Xinjiang Historical process

The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was populated by Indo-European Tocharians and Saka peoples, who practiced Buddhism. They came under Chinese rule in the Han dynasty as the Protectorate of the Western Regions due to wars between the Han dynasty and the Xiongnu and again in the Tang dynasty as the Protectorate General to Pacify the West due to wars between the Tang dynasty and the Turkic Khaganates. The Tang dynasty withdrew its control of Xinjiang in the Protectorate General to Pacify the West and the Four Garrisons of Anxi after the An Lushan Rebellion, after which the Turkic peoples living in the area converted to Islam.

History of the central steppe

This is a short History of the central steppe, an area roughly equivalent to modern Kazakhstan. Because the history is complex it is mainly an outline and index to the more detailed articles given in the links. It is a companion to History of the western steppe and History of the eastern steppe and is parallel to the History of Kazakhstan and the History of central Asia.

References

  1. Brigitte Moser, Michael Wilhelm Weithmann, Landeskunde Türkei: Geschichte, Gesellschaft und Kultur, Buske Publishing, 2008, p. 173
  2. Deutsches Orient-Institut, Orient, Vol. 41, Alfred Röper Publushing, 2000, p. 611
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405460/
  4. "Turkey". The World Factbook. Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Population: 81,619,392 (July 2014 est.)" "Ethnic groups: Turkish 70–75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7–12% (2008 est.)" 70% of 81.6m = 57.1m, 75% of 81.6m = 61.2m
  5. "Uzbekistan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Population: 28,929,716 (July 2014 est.)" "Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)" Assuming Uzbek, Kazakh, Karakalpak and Tartar are included as Turks, 80% + 3% + 2.5% + 1.5% = 87%. 87% of 28.9m = 25.2m
  6. "Azerbaijani (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  7. "Kazakhstan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 21 December 2014. "Population: 17,948,816 (July 2014 est.)" "Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 63.1%, Russian 23.7%, Uzbek 2.9%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Uighur 1.4%, Tatar 1.3%, German 1.1%, other 4.4% (2009 est.)" Assuming Kazakh, Uzbek, Uighur and Tatar are included as Turks, 63.1% + 2.9% + 1.4% + 1.3% = 68.7%. 68.7% of 17.9m = 12.3m
  8. "China". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  9. "Azerbaijan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 30 July 2016. "Population: 9,780,780 (July 2015 est.)"
  10. "Turkmenistan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  11. "Kyrgyzstan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  12. "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  13. "Iraq". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  14. "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  15. "Obama, recognize us". St. Louis American. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  16. Nahost-Informationsdienst ( ISSN   0949-1856): Presseausschnitte zu Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Nordafrika und dem Nahen und Mittleren Osten. Autors: Deutsches Orient–Institut; Deutsches Übersee–Institut. Hamburg: Deutsches Orient–Institut, 1996, seite 33.
  17. "All-Ukrainian population census 2001 – General results of the census – National composition of population". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. 2003. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  18. TRNC SPO, Economic and Social Indicators 2014, pages=2–3
  19. "Mongolia". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  20. Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition" . Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  21. "Tension adds to existing wounds in Lebanon". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  22. Ahmed, Yusra (2015), Syrian Turkmen refugees face double suffering in Lebanon, Zaman Al Wasl, retrieved 11 October 2016
  23. Syrian Observer (2015). "Syria's Turkmen Refugees Face Cruel Reality in Lebanon" . Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  24. "Moldova". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  25. "North Macedonia". The World Factbook. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  26. "GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR". Minelres.lv. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
  27. "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  28. "Destroying Ethnic Identity: The Turks of Greece" (PDF). Human Rights Watch . Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  29. "Turks Of Western Thrace". Human Rights Watch . Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  30. 1 2 Turkic people, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2010
  31. 1 2 Kultegin's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments
  32. 1 2 Bilge Kagan's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments
  33. Tonyukuk's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Bain Tsokto Monument
  34. Tarihte Türk devletleri, Volume 1. Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, 1987. p. 1.
  35. Moše Weinfeld. Social Justice in Ancient Israel and in the Ancient Near East. 1995. p. 66: "For the concept of durgu | duruggu and its connection to piY (in its meaning "origin"), see H. Tadmor, (above n. 25), p. 28"
  36. "新亞研究所 – 典籍資料庫". Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  37. The Turkmen Archived 2011-03-18 at the Wayback Machine
  38. Pliny, Natural History – Harvard University Press, vol. II (Libri III-VII); reprinted 1961, p. 351
  39. Pomponius Mela's Description of the World, Pomponius Mela, University of Michigan Press, 1998, p. 67
  40. Sevan Nişanyan, Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimolojik Sözlüğü, İstanbul, 2009 ISBN   9789752896369
  41. Abdulkadir İnan, Urartu yazıtında ve Romalı Plinius'un tarihinde «Türk Adı» var mı? Belleten, TTK, Cilt. XlI, p. 45, 1948, pp. 277–278
  42. dile Ayda, Une Theorle Sur L'Orlglne Du Mot «Türk», «Türk» kelimesinin Menşei Hakkında Bir Nazariye, TTK, Belleten. Cilt. XL., No. 158, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, Nisan 1976, s. 229 – 247
  43. Hamit Koşay, ldil – Ural bölgesindeki Türkler'In Menşei Hakkında, V. Türk Tarih Kongresi: 12–17 Nisan 1956, TTK. Basımevi. Ankara 1960. s. 232–243
  44. Laszlo Rasonyi, Dünya'da Türklük, Türk Kültürünü Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayınları. Ayyıldız Matbaası, Ankara 1974
  45. Prof. Dr. Ercümend Kuran, Türk Adı ve Türklük Kavramı, Türk Kültürü Dergisi, Yıl, XV, S. 174, Nisan 1977. s. 18–20.
  46. Boris Altschüler. Die Aschkenasim: Letzte Skythen, erste Europäer – von den zehn verschollenen Stämmen Israels zu den Awaren und Khasaren / Boris Altschüler, Volume 1. 2006. p. 192: "Das Ethnonym "Turk" wird mit dem von Herodot überlieferten Namen des ersten skythischen Königs [Targitaos] oder auch mit dem Namen des Ahnherrn "Togarma" aus dem Alten Testament, mit "Turukha/Turuska" aus indischen Quellen und "Turukku" aus assyrischen Dokumenten und anderen schriftlichen Denkmälern in Verbindung gebracht." (P. Golden)
  47. Peter B. Golden, Introduction to the History of the Turkic People, p. 12: "... source (Herod.IV.22) and other authors of antiquity, Togarma of the Old Testament, Turukha/Turuska of Indic sources, Turukku of Assyrian..."
  48. German Archaeological Institute. Department Teheran, Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran, Vol. 19, Dietrich Reimer, 1986, p. 90
  49. András Róna-Tas, Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 281: "We can now reconstruct the history of the ethnic name Turk as follows. The word is of East Iranian, most probably Saka, origin, and is the name of a ruling tribe whose leading clan Ashina conquered the Turks, reorganized them, but itself became rapidly Turkified."
  50. Golden, Peter B. "Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples". (2006) In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 143: "Subsequently, "Tùrk" would find a suirable Turkic etymology, being conflated with the word tùrk, which means one in the prime of youth, powerful, mighty (Rona-Tas 1991,10–13)."
  51. (Bŭlgarska akademii︠a︡ na naukite. Otdelenie za ezikoznanie/ izkustvoznanie/ literatura, Linguistique balkanique, Vol. 27–28, 1984, p. 17
  52. 1 2 “Türk” in Turkish Etymological Dictionary, Sevan Nişanyan.
  53. Murat Ocak, The Turks: Early ages, Yeni Türkiye, 2002
  54. Faruk Suümer, Oghuzes (Turkmens): History, Tribal organization, Sagas, Turkish World Research Foundation, 1992, p. 16)
  55. American Heritage Dictionary (2000). "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition – "Turk"". bartleby.com. Retrieved 2006-12-07.
  56. “türe-” in Turkish Etymological Dictionary, Sevan Nişanyan.
  57. “*töŕ” in Sergei Starostin, Vladimir Dybo, Oleg Mudrak (2003), Etymological Dictionary of the Altaic Languages, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.
  58. The Peoples of the Steppe Frontier in Early Chinese Sources, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, page 35
  59. Studies on the Peoples and Cultures of the Eurasian Steppes, Peter B. Golden, page 27, https://www.academia.edu/9609971/Studies_on_the_Peoples_and_Cultures_of_the_Eurasian_Steppes
  60. Sinor, Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Page 295
  61. 1 2 G. Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica II, p. 236–39
  62. Jean-Paul Roux, Historie des Turks – Deux mille ans du Pacifique á la Méditerranée. Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2000.
  63. Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.
  64. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
  65. Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.
  66. "(PDF) Transeurasian theory: A case of farming/language dispersal". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-03-13.
  67. 1 2 Peter Zieme: The Old Turkish Empires in Mongolia. In: Genghis Khan and his heirs. The Empire of the Mongols. Special tape for Exhibition 2005/2006, p. 64
  68. 1 2 Findley (2005), p. 29.
  69. "丁零—铁勒的西迁及其所建西域政权". Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  70. "Etienne de la Vaissiere", Encyclopædia Iranica article:Sogdian Trade Archived 2009-12-20 at the Wayback Machine , 1 December 2004.
  71. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History (Oxford University Press, October 2004) ISBN   0-19-517726-6
  72. Silk-Road:Xiongnu
  73. "Yeni Turkiye Research and Publishing Center" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  74. "An Introduction to the Turkic Tribes" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  75. "Early Turkish History". Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2015-02-05.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  76. "An outline of Turkish History until 1923" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  77. Lebedynsky (2006), p. 59.
  78. Nicola di Cosmo, Ancient China and its Enemies, S. 163ff.
  79. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2010). The Cambridge Illustrated History of China (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN   978-0-521-12433-1.
  80. Keyser-Tracqui C., Crubezy E., Ludes B. (2003). "Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2,000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia". American Journal of Human Genetics. 73 (2): 247–260. doi:10.1086/377005. PMC   1180365 . PMID   12858290.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  81. Psarras, Sophia-Karin (2003). "Han and Xiongnu: A Reexamination of Cultural and Political Relations (I)". Monumenta Serica. 51: 55–236. JSTOR   40727370.
  82. MA Li-qing On the new evidence on Xiongnu's writings. Archived 2007-10-19 at the Wayback Machine (Wanfang Data: Digital Periodicals, 2004)
  83. Paola Demattè Writing the Landscape: the Petroglyphs of Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Province (China). (Paper presented at the First International Conference of Eurasian Archaeology, University of Chicago, 3–4 May 2002.)
  84. N. Ishjatms, "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", in the "History of civilizations of Central Asia", Volume 2, Fig 6, p. 166, UNESCO Publishing, 1996, ISBN   92-3-102846-4
  85. Ulrich Theobald. "Chinese History – Xiongnu 匈奴 (www.chinaknowledge.de)" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  86. G. Pulleyblank, "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II", Asia Major n.s. 9 (1963) 206–65
  87. "The Origins of the Huns" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  88. VAJDA, Edward J. (2008). "Yeniseic" a chapter in the book Language isolates and microfamilies of Asia, Routledge, to be co-authored with Bernard Comrie; 53 pages).
  89. Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen. The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press, 1973
  90. "Otto Maenchen-Helfen, Language of Huns" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  91. Moses Parkson, "Ottoman Empire and its past life" p. 98
  92. "The Pechenegs". Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Steven Lowe and Dmitriy V. Ryaboy
  93. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica Article:Mughal Dynasty
  94. Encyclopædia Britannica Article:Babur
  95. "the Mughal dynasty" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  96. "Kamat's Potpourri" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  97. Babur: Encyclopædia Britannica Article
  98. RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopædia Iranica
  99. "Peoples of Iran" Encyclopædia Iranica. RN Frye.
  100. Aptin Khanbaghi (2006) The Fire, the Star and the Cross: Minority Religions in Medieval and Early. London & New York. IB Tauris. ISBN   1-84511-056-0, pp. 130–1
  101. Yarshater 2001, p. 493.
  102. Khanbaghi 2006, p. 130.
  103. Anthony Bryer. "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29 (1975), Appendix II "Genealogy of the Muslim Marriages of the Princesses of Trebizond"
  104. Savory, Roger (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN   978-0-521-04251-2. qizilbash normally spoke Azari brand of Turkish at court, as did the Safavid shahs themselves; lack of familiarity with the Persian language may have contributed to the decline from the pure classical standards of former times
  105. E. Yarshater, "Iran", . Encyclopædia Iranica. "The origins of the Safavids are clouded in obscurity. They may have been of Kurdish origin (see R. Savory, Iran Under the Safavids, 1980, p. 2; R. Matthee, "Safavid Dynasty" at iranica.com), but for all practical purposes they were Turkish-speaking and Turkified. "
  106. John L. Esposito, The Oxford History of Islam, Oxford University Press US, 1999. pp 364: "To support their legitimacy, the Safavid dynasty of Iran (1501–1732) devoted a cultural policy to establish their regime as the reconstruction of the historic Iranian monarchy. To the end, they commissioned elaborate copies of the Shahnameh, the Iranian national epic, such as this one made for Tahmasp in the 1520s."
  107. Ira Marvin Lapidus, A history of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2002, 2nd edition. pg 445: To bolster the prestige of the state, the Safavid dynasty sponsored an Iran-Islamic style of culture concentrating on court poetry, painting, and monumental architecture that symbolized not only the Islamic credentials of the state but also the glory of the ancient Persian traditions."
  108. Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313.
  109. Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145.
  110. Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77.
  111. Andrew J. Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006).
  112. RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam , 2nd ed.
  113. Cambridge History of Iran Volume 7, pp. 2–4
  114. Robert Dankoff (2008). From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi. Isis Press. p. 81. ISBN   978-975-428-366-2.
  115. 1 2 Dankoff, Robert (Jan–Mar 1975). "Kāšġarī on the Beliefs and Superstitions of the Turks". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 95 (1): 68–80. doi:10.2307/599159. JSTOR   599159.
  116. Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 689.
  117. Robert Dankoff (2008). From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi. Isis Press. p. 79. ISBN   978-975-428-366-2.
  118. Mehmet Fuat Köprülü; Gary Leiser; Robert Dankoff (2006). Early Mystics in Turkish Literature. Psychology Press. pp. 147–. ISBN   978-0-415-36686-1.
  119. https://web.archive.org/web/20151118063834/http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/huri/files/viii-iv_1979-1980_part1.pdf p. 160.
  120. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute (1980). Harvard Ukrainian studies. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. p. 160.
  121. Robert Dankoff (2008). From Mahmud Kaşgari to Evliya Çelebi. Isis Press. p. 79. ISBN   978-975-428-366-2.
  122. Millward, James A. (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN   978-0231139243 . Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  123. James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. pp. 69–. ISBN   978-0-231-13924-3.
  124. Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Bernard Lewis; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 677.
  125. Whitfield, Susan (2010). "A place of safekeeping? The vicissitudes of the Bezeklik murals" (PDF). In Agnew, Neville (ed.). Conservation of ancient sites on the Silk Road: proceedings of the second International Conference on the Conservation of Grotto Sites, Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, People's Republic of China. Getty Publications. pp. 95–106. ISBN   978-1-60606-013-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-30.
  126. The Turks of the Eurasian Steppes in Medieval Arabic Writing, R. Amitai, M. Biran, eds., Mongols, Turks and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World. Leyde, Brill, 2005, pp. 222–3.
  127. Reuven Amitai; Michal Biran (2005). Mongols, Turks, and Others: Eurasian Nomads and the Sedentary World. Brill. p. 222. ISBN   978-90-04-14096-7.
  128. André Wink (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th–13th centuries. BRILL. pp. 69–. ISBN   978-0-391-04174-5.
  129. Pritsak O. & Golb. N: Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century, Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.
  130. "Timur Archived 2013-09-22 at the Wayback Machine ", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05, Columbia University Press.
  131. Encyclopædia Britannica article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.
  132. Walton, Linda (2013). World History: Journeys from Past to Present. p. 210.
  133. Foster, John (1939). The Church of the Tang Dynasty. Macmillan. p. 13.
  134. Turkic Language family tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions.
  135. 1 2 Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd. ISBN   978-0-415-25004-7.
  136. Across Central Asia, a New Bond Grows – Iron Curtain's Fall Has Spawned a Convergence for Descendants of Turkic Nomad Hordes
  137. "Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!" [The number of Kurds in Turkey!]. Milliyet (in Turkish). 6 June 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  138. Substantial numbers (possibly several millions) of maghrebis of the former Ottoman colonies in North Africa are of Ottoman Turkish descent. Finnish Tatars
  139. The Karakalpak Gene Pool (Spencer Wells, 2001); and discussion and conclusions at www.karakalpak.com/genetics.html
  140. Turkic people, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2008
  141. Vasiliev D.D. Graphical fund of Turkic runiform writing monuments in Asian areal, М., 1983, p. 44
  142. Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees – Altaic" . Retrieved 2007-03-18.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  143. Georg, S., Michalove, P.A., Manaster Ramer, A., Sidwell, P.J.: "Telling general linguists about Altaic", Journal of Linguistics 35 (1999): 65–98 Online abstract and link to free pdf
  144. Turkic peoples, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2008
  145. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Horseback Kitchen of Central Asia". Food on the Move. Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery. 1996. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  146. mrreese. "The Ancient Practice of Tengriism, Shamanism and Ancient Worship of the Sky Gods". www.ancient-origins.net. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  147. "关于回鹘摩尼教史的几个问题" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  148. "元明时期的新疆藏传佛教". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  149. "回鹘文《陶师本生》及其特点". Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  150. 回鹘观音信仰考
  151. "回鶻彌勒信仰考" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  152. Guide to Russia:Chuvash Archived 2005-05-01 at the Wayback Machine
  153. "景教艺术在西域之发现" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  154. 高昌回鹘与环塔里木多元文化的融合 Archived 2011-08-17 at the Wayback Machine
  155. 唐代中围景教与景教本部教会的关系 Archived 2011-11-30 at the Wayback Machine
  156. "景教在西域的传播". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  157. "新闻_星岛环球网" . Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  158. 7–11 世紀景教在陸上絲綢之路的傳播
  159. "Kyrgyz Religious Hatred Trial Throws Spotlight On Ancient Creed". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  160. "Religion in Kazakhstan". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
  161. Mayor, Adrienne. The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton University Press.
  162. Burak, Sansal. "Turkish Jereed (Javelin)". All About Turkey. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  163. Christensen, karen; Levinson, David. Encyclopedia of World Sport: From Ancient Times to the Present.
  164. "jigs".

Further reading