Sakha Republic

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Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
Республика Саха (Якутия)
Other transcription(s)
  YakutСаха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ
Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Sakha Republic
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) (Crimea disputed).svg
Coordinates: 66°24′N129°10′E / 66.400°N 129.167°E / 66.400; 129.167 Coordinates: 66°24′N129°10′E / 66.400°N 129.167°E / 66.400; 129.167
Country Russia
Federal district Far Eastern [1]
Economic region Far Eastern [2]
EstablishedApril 27, 1922 [3]
Capital Yakutsk [3]
Government
  Body State Assembly (Il Tumen) [4]
   Head [4] Aysen Nikolayev
Area
[5]
  Total3,083,523 km2 (1,190,555 sq mi)
Area rank 1st
Population
 (2010 Census) [6]
  Total958,528
  Estimate 
(2018) [7]
964,330 (+0.6%)
  Rank 55th
  Density0.31/km2 (0.81/sq mi)
   Urban
64.1%
   Rural
35.9%
Time zone see Time zones
ISO 3166 code RU-SA
License plates 14
OKTMO ID98000000
Official languages Russian ; [8]   Yakut [9]
Website http://sakha.gov.ru/

The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Russian :Республика Саха (Якутия), tr. Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya),IPA:  [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə sɐˈxa jɪˈkutʲɪjə] ; Yakut : Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, romanized: Sakha Öröspüübülükete, IPA:  [saˈxa øɾøsˈpyːbylykete] , "Sakha Republic") is a federal Russian republic. It had a population of 958,528 at the 2010 Census, [6] mainly ethnic Yakuts and Russians.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, minorities in the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Yakut language Turkic language spoken in Sakha Republic, Russia

Yakut, also known as Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.

Contents

Comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi). [10] Its capital is the city of Yakutsk. It is also known for its extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, and regular winter averages commonly being below −35 °C (−31 °F) in Yakutsk. The hypercontinental tendencies also result in very warm summers for much of the republic.

Far Eastern Federal District Federal district of Russia

The Far Eastern Federal District is the largest of the eight federal districts of Russia but the least populated, with a population of 8,371,257 according to the 2010 Census. The entire federal district lies within the easternmost part of Asia and covers the territory of the Russian Far East.

Capital city Primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Yakutsk City under republic jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about 450 kilometers (280 mi) south of the Arctic Circle.

Geography

Fauna of the Sakha Republic: Ross's gull, the Siberian crane, polar bear, horse and reindeer. Russian post miniature sheet, 2006. Sakha Republic Fauna.jpg
Fauna of the Sakha Republic: Ross's gull, the Siberian crane, polar bear, horse and reindeer. Russian post miniature sheet, 2006.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug First-level administrative division of Russia

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Chukotka is the 2nd-least-populated federal subject at 50,526 (2010) and the least densely populated.

Magadan Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Magadan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Magadan Oblast has a population of 156,996, making it the least populated oblast and the third-least populated federal subject in Russia.

Khabarovsk Krai First-level administrative division of Russia

Khabarovsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the second largest city in the Russian Far East. Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, with a population of 1,343,869 as of the.

Sakha stretches to the Henrietta Island in the far north and is washed by the Laptev and Eastern Siberian Seas of the Arctic Ocean. These waters, the coldest and iciest of all seas in the Northern Hemisphere, are covered by ice for 9–10 months of the year. New Siberian Islands are a part of the republic's territory. After Nunavut was separated from Canada's Northwest Territories, Sakha became the largest subnational entity (statoid) in the world, with an area of 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi), [10] slightly smaller than the territory of India (3.3 million km2).

Henrietta Island island

Henrietta Island is the northernmost island of the De Long archipelago in the East Siberian Sea. Administratively it belongs to the Sakha Republic of the Russian Federation.

Laptev Sea Marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia between the Kara Sea and the East Siberian Sea

The Laptev Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the northern coast of Siberia, the Taimyr Peninsula, Severnaya Zemlya and the New Siberian Islands. Its northern boundary passes from the Arctic Cape to a point with co-ordinates of 79°N and 139°E, and ends at the Anisiy Cape. The Kara Sea lies to the west, the East Siberian Sea to the east.

New Siberian Islands island group in Russia

The New Siberian Islands are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

Sakha can be divided into three great vegetation belts. About 40% of Sakha lies above the Arctic circle and all of it is covered by permafrost which greatly influences the region's ecology and limits forests in the southern region. Arctic and subarctic tundra define the middle region, where lichen and moss grow as great green carpets and are favorite pastures for reindeer. In the southern part of the tundra belt, scattered stands of dwarf Siberian pine and larch grow along the rivers. Below the tundra is the vast taiga forest region. Larch trees dominate in the north and stands of fir and pine begin to appear in the south. Taiga forests cover about 47% of Sakha and almost 90% of the cover is larch.

Permafrost

In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, with a temperature that remains at or below the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. Most permafrost is located in high latitudes, but at lower latitudes alpine permafrost occurs at higher elevations. Ground ice is not always present, as may be in the case of non-porous bedrock, but it frequently occurs and it may be in amounts exceeding the potential hydraulic saturation of the ground material. Permafrost accounts for 0.022% of total water on Earth and the permafrost region covers 24% of exposed land in the Northern Hemisphere. It also occurs subsea on the continental shelves of the continents surrounding the Arctic Ocean, portions of which were exposed during the last glacial period.

Tundra biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons

In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes through Russian тундра from the Kildin Sami word тӯндар meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract". Tundra vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra regions. The ecotone between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.

Lichen Composite of algae or cyanobacteria with fungi

A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. The combined lichen has properties different from those of its component organisms. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like appearance (leprose), or other growth forms.

The Sakha Republic is the site of Pleistocene Park, a project directed at recreating Pleistocene tundra grasslands by stimulating the growth of grass with the introduction of animals which thrived in the region during the late Pleistocene  — early Holocene period.

In recent years, global warming has caused the melting of previously frozen soils. Thousands of homes are in danger of collapsing in the mud in summer, while northern villages are overwhelmed by floods. [11]

Time zones

Map of Sakha (Yakutia). Sakha Yakutia rep.png
Map of Sakha (Yakutia).

Sakha Republic is the only subject of Russia which uses more than one time zone. Sakha spans three time zones (no Daylight Saving Time in summer):

  1. Map of Russia - Yakutsk time zone.svg
    Yakutsk Time Zone (YAKT, UTC+9). Covers the republic's territory to the west of the Lena River as well as the territories of the districts located on both sides of the Lena River.
  2. Map of Russia - Vladivostok time zone.svg
    Vladivostok Time Zone (VLAT, UTC+10). Covers most of the republic's territory located between 127°E and 140°E longitude. Districts: Oymyakonsky, Ust-Yansky, Verkhoyansky. [12]
  3. Magadan Time Zone (SRET, UTC+11). Covers most of the republic's territory located east of 140°E longitude. Districts: Abyysky, Allaikhovsky, Momsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Srednekolymsky, Verkhnekolymsky.
Detailed map of the three time zones in the Sakha Republic (as of September 2011). UTC hue4map RUS-SA 2011-09-01.svg
Detailed map of the three time zones in the Sakha Republic (as of September 2011).

Rivers

Ura River. 120 Na stoianke v ust'e reki Ura.jpg
Ura River.
Olyokma River. Olyokma river.jpg
Olyokma River.
Lena Pillars. Lenskie stolby 2015 (121).JPG
Lena Pillars.

Navigable Lena River (4,400 km), as it moves northward, includes hundreds of small tributaries located in the Verkhoyansk Range. Other major rivers include:

Lakes

There are over 800,000 lakes in the republic. [13] Major lakes and reservoirs include:

Mountains

Sakha's greatest mountain range, the Verkhoyansk Range, runs parallel and east of the Lena River, forming a great arc that begins in the Sea of Okhotsk and ends in the Laptev Sea.

The Chersky Range runs east of the Verkhoyansk Range and has the highest peak in Sakha, Peak Pobeda (3,147 m). The second highest peak is Peak Mus-Khaya reaching 3,011 m.

The Stanovoi Range borders Sakha in the south.

Udachnaya pipe diamond mine. Udachnaya pipe.JPG
Udachnaya pipe diamond mine.

Peninsulas

The Republic's extensive coastline contains a number of peninsulas; from west to east the most prominent are:

Islands

From west to east the main islands of Sakha are:

Natural resources

Sakha is well endowed with raw materials. The soil contains large reserves of oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold, silver, tin, tungsten and many others. Sakha produces 99% of all Russian diamonds and over 25% of the diamonds mined in the world. [14] [15]

Climate

Sakha is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere. Some of the lowest natural temperatures ever recorded have been here. The Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold is at Verkhoyansk, where the temperatures reached as low as −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) in 1892, and at Oymyakon, where the temperatures reached as low as −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) in 1926.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yakutiya Russia [16] [17] [18] [19]
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Aldan 22.6/10.972.7/51.6−21.9/−30.6−7.4/−23.1
Olyokminsk 24.8/1275.2/53.6−26.2/−34.6−15.2/−30.28
Oymyakon 22.7/6.172.9/43−42.5/−50−44.5/−58
Verkhoyansk 23.5/9.774.3/49.5−42.4/−48.3−44.3/−54.9
Yakutsk 25.5/12.778/54.9−35.1/−41.5−31.2/−42.7

Average annual precipitation : 200 mm (central parts) to 700 mm (mountains of Eastern Sakha).

Administrative divisions

History

Pre-history

Siberia, and particularly Yakutia is of paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or permafrost. In 2015, the frozen bodies of Dina and Uyan the cave lion cubs were found. The region was also the location the bodies of Yuka and another Woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a Woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, and bison and horses from Yukagir. [20]

Ymyakhtakh culture (c. 2200–1300 BC) was a Late Neolithic culture of Siberia, with a very large archaeological horizon. Its origins were in Sakha, in the Lena river basin. From there it spread both to the east and to the west. [21]

Early history

The Turkic Sakha people or Yakuts probably settled in the area in the 13th and 14th centuries, migrating north from the Lake Baikal area to the middle Lena. From their new center along the middle Lena, they gradually expanded northeast and west beyond the Lena basin towards the Arctic Ocean.

The name Sakha is of Turkic origin, "saqa-saha" meaning "cue" or "bat". The term Yakut is a Turkic word, a corruption of zhaqut – yakut "precious stone", referring to the ruby. The Sakha displaced earlier, much smaller populations who lived on hunting and reindeer herding, introducing the pastoralist economy of Central Asia. The indigenous populations of Paleosiberian and Tungusic stock were mostly assimilated to the Sakha by the 17th century. [22]

Russian conquest

The Tsardom of Russia began its conquest of the region in the 17th century, moving east after the defeat of the Khanate of Sibir. Tygyn, a king of the Khangalassky Yakuts, granted territory for Russian settlement in return for a military pact that included war against indigenous rebels of all North Eastern Asia (Magadan, Chukotka, Kamchatka and Sakhalin). Kull, a king of the Megino-Khangalassky Yakuts, began a Sakha conspiracy by allowing the first stockade construction.[ citation needed ]

1821 map of Yakutsk Oblast. Map of Yakut oblast.jpg
1821 map of Yakutsk Oblast.

In August 1638, the Moscow Government formed a new administrative unit with the administrative center of Lensky Ostrog (Fort Lensky), the future city of Yakutsk, which had been founded by Pyotr Beketov in 1632.

The arrival of the Russian settlers at the remote Russkoye Ustye in the Indigirka delta likely also dates to the 17th century. [23] The Siberian Governorate was established as part of the Russian Tsardom in 1708.

Russian settlers began to form a community in the 18th century, which adopted certain Yakut customs and was often called Yakutyane (Якутя́не) or Lena Early Settlers (ленские старожилы). However, the influx of later settlers assimilated them into the Russian mainstream by the 20th century.

Russian Empire

In an administrative reform of 1782, Irkutsk Governorate was created. In 1805, Yakutsk Oblast was split from Irkutsk Governorate.

Yakutsk Oblast in the early 19th century marked the easternmost territory of the Russian Empire, including such Far Eastern (Pacific) territories as were acquired, known as Okhotsk Okrug within Yakutsk Oblast. With the formation of Primorskaya Oblast in 1856, the Russian territories of the Pacific were detached from Yakutia.

Members of the Siberian Regional Duma from Yakutsk, 1917. Chleny Sibirskoi oblastnoi Dumy 1917.jpeg
Members of the Siberian Regional Duma from Yakutsk, 1917.

The Russians established agriculture in the Lena River basin. The members of religious groups who were exiled to Sakha in the second half of the 19th century began to grow wheat, oats, and potatoes. The fur trade established a cash economy. Industry and transport began to develop at the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the Soviet period. This was also the beginning of geological prospecting, mining, and local lead production. The first steam-powered ships and barges arrived.

Yakutia's remoteness, even compared to the rest of Siberia, made it a place of exile of choice for both Tsarist and Communist governments of Russia. Among the famous Tsarist-era exiles were the democratic writer Nikolay Chernyshevsky; Doukhobor conscientious objectors, whose story was told to Leo Tolstoy by Vasily Pozdnyakov; the Socialist Revolutionary and writer Vladimir Zenzinov, who left an interesting account of his Arctic experiences; and Polish socialist activist Wacław Sieroszewski, who pioneered in ethnographic research on Yakut people.

Soviet era

On April 27, 1922, former Yakutsk Oblast was proclaimed the Yakut ASSR, although in fact the eastern part of the territory, including the city of Yakutsk, was controlled by the White Russians (see Yakut revolt).

In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Yakutia was recognized in Moscow as the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.

Yakutia is historically part of Russian Siberia, but since the formation of the Far Eastern Federal District in 2000, it is administratively part of the Russian Far East.

Demographics

Population: 958,528(2010 Census); [6] 949,280(2002 Census); [24] 1,081,408(1989 Census). [25] Population density is 0.31 per km2 (2019), which is one of the lowest between Russian districts. Urban population - 65,45% (2018). [26]

Settlements

Vital statistics

Breakdown of population changes, 1939-2002. Sakha graph pop.png
Breakdown of population changes, 1939–2002.
Russian President Vladimir Putin with local residents in Lensk. Vladimir Putin 24 May 2001-1.jpg
Russian President Vladimir Putin with local residents in Lensk.
Statehood Day celebrations in Yakutsk. Il Kune - Den' gosudarstvennosti Respubliki Sakha 27.jpg
Statehood Day celebrations in Yakutsk.
Vitim, Sakha Republic. 234 Poselok Vitim.jpg
Vitim, Sakha Republic.
Dapparay. 078 Derevnia Dapparai, Olekminskii raion.jpg
Dapparay.
Cruise on the Lena River. Lenskie stolby 2015 (025).JPG
Cruise on the Lena River.
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
197067413,8995,7008,19920.68.512.2
197577515,6366,2429,39420.28.112.1
198088718,1327,50110,63120.48.512.0
19851,00222,8237,26615,55722.87.315.5
19901,11521,6627,47014,19219.46.712.72.46
19911,11019,8057,56512,24017.86.811.02.32
19921,09017,7968,7109,08616.38.08.32.17
19931,07216,7719,4197,35215.68.86.92.08
19941,05116,43410,3716,06315.69.95.82.07
19951,02915,73110,0795,65215.39.85.52.01
19961,01514,5849,6384,94614.49.54.91.88
19971,00313,9099,0944,81513.99.14.81.81
199898613,6408,8564,78413.89.04.91.80
199997012,7249,4803,24413.19.83.31.71
200096013,1479,3253,82213.79.74.01.77
200195413,2629,7383,52413.910.23.71.78
200295013,8879,7004,18714.610.24.41.85
200394914,2249,6604,56415.010.24.81.86
200495014,7169,6925,02415.510.25.31.91
200595013,5919,6963,89514.310.24.11.74
200695013,7139,2454,46814.49.74.71.73
200795115,2689,1796,08916.19.76.41.92
200895315,3639,5795,78416.110.16.11.92
200995515,9709,3536,61716.79.86.92.00
201095816,1099,4026,70716.89.87.02.02
201195716,4028,9927,41017.19.47.72.06
201295616,9988,9188,08017.89.38.52.17
201395516,7048,3518,35317.58.78.82.17
201495617,0108,2098,80117.88.69.22.25
201595816,4598,2338,22617.18.68.52.19
201696115,4248,0527,37216.08.47.62.08(e)
201796313,9547,8176,13714.58.16.4

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was: [6]

Historical population figures are shown below:

Ethnic
group
1926 Census1939 Census1959 Census1970 Census1979 Census1989 Census2002 Census2010 Census1
Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%Number%
Yakuts 235,92681.6%233,27356.5%226,05346.4%285,74943.0%313,91736.9%365,23633.4%432,29045.5%466,49249.9%
Dolgans 00.0%100.0%640.0%4080.0%1,2720.1%1,9060.2%
Evenks 13,5024.7%10,4322.5%9,5052.0%9,0971.4%11,5841.4%14,4281.3%18,2321.9%21,0082.2%
Evens 7380.3%3,1330.8%3,5370.7%6,4711.0%5,7630.7%8,6680.8%11,6571.2%15,0711.6%
Yukaghir 3960.1%2670.1%2850.1%4000.1%5260.1%6970.1%1,0970.1%1,2810.1%
Chukchis 1,2980.4%4000.1%3250.1%3870.1%3770.0%4730.0%6020.1%6700.1%
Russians 30,15610.4%146,74135.5%215,32844.2%314,30847.3%429,58850.4%550,26350.3%390,67141.2%353,64937.8%
Ukrainians 1380.0%4,2291.0%12,1822.5%20,2533.0%46,3265.4%77,1147.0%34,6333.6%20,3412.2%
Tatars 1,6710.6%4,4201.1%5,1721.1%7,6781.2%10.9761.3%17,4781.6%10,7681.1%8,1220.9%
Others5,2601.8%10,3032.5%14,9563.1%19,7703.0%32,7193.8%59,3005.4%48,0585.1%46,1244.9%
123,864 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. [27]

Languages

The official languages are both Russian and Sakha, also known as Yakut, which is spoken by approximately 40% of the population. The Yakut language is a member of the Turkic language family.

Religion

Religion in Sakha Republic as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [28] [29]
Russian Orthodoxy
37.8%
Protestantism
0.8%
Other Christians
0.8%
Islam
1.4%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
13%
Spiritual but not religious
16.6%
Atheism and irreligion
25.6%
Other and undeclared
4%

Before the arrival of the Russian Empire, the majority of the local population was Tengrist, similar to the other Turkic people of Central Asia, or in Paleoasian indigenous shamanism with both 'light' (community leading) and 'dark' (healing through spirit journey) shamans. Under the Russians, the local population was converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and required to take Orthodox Christian names, but in practice generally continued to follow traditional religions. During the Soviet era, most or all of the shamans died without successors.

In the 1990s, a neopagan shamanist movement called aiyy yeurekhé was founded by the controversial journalist Ivan Ukhkhan and a philologist calling himself Téris. [30] This group and others cooperated to build a shaman temple in downtown Yakutsk in 2002. [31]

Currently, while Orthodox Christianity maintains a following (however, with very few priests willing to be stationed outside of Yakutsk), there is interest and activity toward renewing the traditional religions. As of 2008, Orthodox leaders described the worldview of the republic's indigenous population (or, rather, those among the population who are not completely indifferent to religion) as dvoyeverie (dual belief system), or a "tendency toward syncretism", as evidenced by the locals sometimes first inviting a shaman, and then an Orthodox priest to carry out their rites in connection with some event in their life. [32]

According to the Information Center under the President of Sakha Republic (Информационный центр при Президенте РС(Я)), the religious demography of the republic was as follows: [33] Orthodoxy: 44.9%, Shamanism: 26.2%, Non-religious: 23.0%, New religious movements: 2.4%, Islam: 1.2%, Buddhism: 1.0%, Protestantism: 0.9%, Catholicism: 0.4%.

According to a 2012 survey, [28] 37.8% of the population of Yakutia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 13% to Tengrism or Yakut shamanism, 2% to Islam, 1% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% to forms of Protestantism, and 0.4% to Tibetan Buddhism. In addition, 26% of the population deems itself atheist, 17% is "spiritual but not religious", and 1.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [28]

Politics

Russia Day celebrations in Mirny, June 12, 2014. Russia Day in Mirny, Sakha Republic 20.JPG
Russia Day celebrations in Mirny, June 12, 2014.

The head of government in Sakha is the Head (previously President). The first Head of the Sakha Republic was Mikhail Yefimovich Nikolayev. [34] As of 2010, the president is Yegor Borisov, who took office on May 31, 2010; his vice president is Yevgeniya Mikhaylova.

The supreme legislative body of state authority in Sakha is a unicameral State Assembly known as the Il Tumen. The government of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic is the executive body of state authority.

The republic fosters close cultural, political, economic, and industrial relations with the independent Turkic states through membership in organizations such as the Turkic Council and the Joint Administration of Turkic Arts and Culture. [35] [36] [37]

Economy

Unusual gold specimen from Bulun District, Lena River basin. Weight is about 6 grams. Gold-tuc1009a.jpg
Unusual gold specimen from Bulun District, Lena River basin. Weight is about 6 grams.

Industry generates slightly above 50%[ citation needed ] of the gross national product of Sakha, stemming primarily from mineral exploitation. Industrial enterprises are concentrated in the capital Yakutsk, as well as in Aldan, Mirny, Neryungri, Pokrovsk, and Udachny. The diamond, gold, and tin ore mining industries are the major focus of the economy. Uranium ore is beginning to be mined. The Turkic-speaking Sakha people are engaged in politics, government, finance, economy, and cattle-breeding (horses and cows for milk and meat). The Paleoasian indigenous peoples are hunters, fishermen, and reindeer herders. As of 2008, Sakha Republic is the 19th most developed federal subject in Russia.

The largest companies in the region include Alrosa, Yakutugol, Yakutskenergo, Yakutia Airlines. [38]

Transportation

Water transport ranks first for cargo turnover. There are six river ports, two seaports (Tiksi and Zelyony Mys). Four shipping companies, including the Arctic Sea Shipping Company , operate in the republic. The republic's main waterway is the Lena River, which links Yakutsk with the rail station of Ust-Kut in Irkutsk Oblast.

Air transport is the most important for transporting people. Airlines connect the republic with most regions of Russia. Yakutsk Airport has an international terminal.

Two federal roads pass the republic. They are Yakutsk–Skovorodino (A360 Lena highway) and Yakutsk–Magadan (M56 Kolyma Highway). However, due to the presence of permafrost, use of asphalt is not practical, and therefore the roads are made of clay. When heavy rains blow over the region, the roads often turn to mud, sometimes stranding hundreds of travelers in the process. [39]

The BerkakitTommot railroad is currently in operation. It links the Baikal Amur Mainline with the industrial centers in South Yakutia. Construction of the Amur Yakutsk Mainline continues northward; the railway was completed to Nizhny Bestyakh, across the river from Yakutsk, in 2013. Though this one track railroad from Tommot to Nizhny Bestyakh is under temporary operation (30% of its full capacity), the main customer – the Federal agency for railways declared that this railroad will be in full operation in fall of 2015.[ needs update ] Also the private company is now[ when? ] constructing the transport and logistics center in Nizhny Bestyakh.

Education

The most important facilities of higher education include North-Eastern Federal University (previously Yakutsk State University) and Yakutsk State Agricultural Academy.

Culture

Yakut dance with traditional clothing. Ohuokhai.jpeg
Yakut dance with traditional clothing.

The State Russian drama theatre named after A. S. Pushkin; the Sakha Theater named after P. A. Oiyunsky; the State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named after D. K. Sivtsev; and Suorun Omoloon, Young Spectator's Theatre are all points of interest in the city.

There are a number of museums as well. These include the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha, the Museum of Local Lore and History named after E. Yaroslavsky, and the Khomus Museum and Museum of Permafrost.

National days

See also

Related Research Articles

Verkhoyansk Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Verkhoyansk is a town in Verkhoyansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Yana River near the Arctic Circle, 92 kilometers (57 mi) from Batagay, the administrative center of the district, and 675 kilometers (419 mi) north of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,311. The town holds the Guinness world record for the greatest temperature range on Earth: 105 °C (189 °F).

Aldan, Russia Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Aldan is a gold-mining town and the administrative center of Aldansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located in the Aldan highlands, in the Aldan River basin, on the stream Orto-Sala near its mouth in the Seligdar River, about 470 kilometers (290 mi) south of the republic's capital of Yakutsk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 21,275.

Tommot Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Tommot is a town in Aldansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Aldan River 390 kilometers (240 mi) southwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic, and 70 kilometers (43 mi) southwest of Aldan, the administrative center of the district. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 8,057.

Khandyga Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Khandyga is an urban locality and the administrative center of Tomponsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the northeast corner of the Aldan River, where the river turns from north to west, the Kolyma Highway, 380 kilometers (240 mi) northeast of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 6,638.

Olyokminsk Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Olyokminsk is a town and the administrative center of Olyokminsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River, 651 kilometers (405 mi) southwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,494.

Aldansky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Aldansky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic on the right bank of the Lena River near the mouth of the Aldan River and borders with Khangalassky and Amginsky Districts in the north, Ust-Maysky District in the northeast, Khabarovsk Krai in the east, Neryungrinsky District in the south, and with Olyokminsky District in the west and southwest. The area of the district is 156,800 square kilometers (60,500 sq mi). Its area is larger than the country of Bangladesh. Its administrative center is the town of Aldan. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 42,632, with the population of Aldan accounting for 49.9% of that number.

Amginsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Amginsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic and borders with Churapchinsky District in the north, Ust-Maysky District in the east and southeast, Aldansky District in the south and southwest, and with Khangalassky and Megino-Kangalassky Districts in the northwest. The area of the district is 29,400 square kilometers (11,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Amga. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 17,183, with the population of Amga accounting for 38.0% of that number.

Gorny District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Gorny District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Vilyuysky and Kobyaysky Districts in the north, Namsky District and the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the east, Khangalassky District in the south, Olyokminsky District in the southwest, and Verkhnevilyuysky District in the west. The area of the district is 45,600 square kilometers (17,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Berdigestyakh. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 11,706, with the population of Berdigestyakh accounting for 55.2% of that number.

Khangalassky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Khangalassky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Megino-Kangalassky District in the east, Amginsky and Aldansky Districts in the south, Olyokminsky District in the southwest, Gorny District in the northwest, and the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the north. The area of the district is 24,700 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Pokrovsk. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district, excluding its administrative center, was 24,557.

Kobyaysky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Kobyaysky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic on the Vilyuy River, 334 kilometers (208 mi) by road north of the republic's capital of Yakutsk. The area of the district is 107,800 square kilometers (41,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Sangar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 13,680, with the population of Sangar accounting for 32.0% of that number.

Namsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Namsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. The district is located in the center of the republic and borders Ust-Aldansky District in the east, Megino-Kangalassky District in the southeast, the territory of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the south, Gorny District in the west, and Kobyaysky District in the north. The area of the district is 11,900 square kilometers (4,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Namtsy. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 23,198, with the population of Namtsy accounting for 38.3% of that number.

Ust-Aldansky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Ust-Aldansky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders with Kobyaysky District in the north, Tomponsky District in the northeast, Tattinsky District in the east, Churapchinsky District in the southeast, Megino-Kangalassky District in the south, and with Namsky District in the west. The area of the district is 18,300 square kilometers (7,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Borogontsy. Population: 22,155 (2010 Census); 22,372 ; 21,389 (1989 Census). The population of Borogontsy accounts for 23.6% of the district's total population.

Serebryany Bor, Sakha Republic Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Serebryany Bor is an urban locality in Neryungrinsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) from Neryungri, the administrative center of the district, on the Amur–Yakutsk Mainline, in the Aldan Highlands. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 4,163.

Zhatay Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Zhatay is an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Yakutsk in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River, 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) downstream of Yakutsk. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,504.

Zhigansk Selo in Sakha Republic, Russia

Zhigansk is a rural locality and the administrative center of Zhigansky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Lena River near where it is joined by its tributary the Nuora, approximately 600 kilometers (370 mi) northwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic. Population: 3,420 (2010 Census); 3,346 (2002 Census); 4,511 (1989 Census).

Nagorny, Sakha Republic Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Nagorny is an urban locality in Neryungrinsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located 100 kilometers (62 mi) from Neryungri, the administrative center of the district, on the right bank of the Timpton River on the northern flank of the Stanovoy Highlands, only 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) from the border with Amur Oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 68.

Zolotinka Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Zolotinka is an urban locality in Neryungrinsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located 73 kilometers (45 mi) from Neryungri, the administrative center of the district, in the southern reaches of the Aldan Highlands, on the Kholodnikan River, close to where it flows into the Iyengra, a tributary of the Timpton. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 552.

Leninsky, Sakha Republic Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Leninsky is an urban locality in Aldansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) from Aldan, the administrative center of the district. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,866.

Almazny, Sakha Republic Urban-type settlement in Sakha Republic, Russia

Almazny is an urban locality in Mirninsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located 20 kilometers (12 mi) from Mirny, the administrative center of the district, on the border of the Lena and Vilyuy Plateaus, on the Irelyakh River, at its confluence with the Ochchuguy-Botuobuya, a tributary of the Vilyuy. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,527.

References

Notes

  1. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. 1 2 Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1630ff.
  4. 1 2 Constitution of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic  53.1
  5. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  8. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. Constitution of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, Article 46
  10. 1 2 Rosstat (Russian Statistical Service), 2010 Archived October 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (xls). Retrieved June 15, 2012.
  11. https://www.lemonde.fr/big-browser/article/2019/03/28/aux-etats-unis-des-centaines-de-villes-croulant-sous-leurs-dechets-ne-recyclent-plus_5442790_4832693.html
  12. New Russian Time Zones as of August 31, 2011 according to Decree 725 of the Government of the Russian Federation, World Time Zone, August 31, 2011.
  13. Archived January 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  14. Yakovleva, Natalia P. (2000). "Natural resource use in the Russian North: a case study of diamond mining in the Republic of Sakha". Environmental Management and Health. 11 (4): 318–336. doi:10.1108/09566160010372743 . Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  15. Bohlen, Celestine (1992). "Poor Region in Russia Lays Claim to Its Diamonds". New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
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  19. "CLIMATE Yakutsk". pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
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  23. А. И. Гоголев. "История Якутии: (Обзор исторических событий до начала ХХ в.)". (A. I. Gogolev. History of Yakutia: Review of Historical Events to the beginning of the 20th century Archived May 27, 2005, at the Wayback Machine ) Yakutsk, 1999.
  24. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  25. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  26. "Population of Russian Federation on 1 January 2018". GKS. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018.
  27. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  28. 1 2 3 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  29. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  30. Yakutia (Sakha) Faces a Religious Choice: Shamanism or Christianity
  31. Whose Steeple is Higher? Religious Competition in Siberia
  32. Елена Дятлова (Yelena Dyatlova) (October 1, 2008). "В Якутии господствует двоеверие (Ч. 1) (Yakutia is dominated by a dual belief system)". Во многих случаях нам говорили, что при совершении тех или иных обрядов или просто действий приглашают сначала шамана, потом священника. Правда, именно в таком порядке, признавая христианство чем-то высшим по отношению к местной магической языческой традиции, но это соединяя. Даже среди тех представителей якутской интеллигенции, с которыми мы общались, это стремление к синкретизму было отчетливо приметно. (An interview with Maxim Kozlov, a Moscow priest who had recently returned from a missionary trip down the Lena along with the Bishop of Yakutsk).
  33. "РЕЛИГАРЕ – Современная религиозная ситуация в Республике Саха (Якутия): проблемы и перспективы". Religare.ru. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
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  36. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  38. Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved October 20, 2018.
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