Astrakhan Oblast

Last updated
Astrakhan Oblast
Астраханская область
Coat of Arms of Astrakhan Oblast.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem: [1]
Map of Russia - Astrakhan Oblast.svg
Coordinates: 47°14′N47°14′E / 47.233°N 47.233°E / 47.233; 47.233 Coordinates: 47°14′N47°14′E / 47.233°N 47.233°E / 47.233; 47.233
CountryRussia
Federal district Southern [2]
Economic region Volga [3]
EstablishedDecember 27, 1943 [4]
Administrative center Astrakhan [5]
Government
  Body State Duma [6]
   Governor [7] Igor Babushkin [8]
Area
[9]
  Total44,100 km2 (17,000 sq mi)
Area rank 55th
Population
  Rank 52nd
   Rural
33.3%
Time zone UTC+4 (MSK+1   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [10] )
ISO 3166 code RU-AST
License plates 30
OKTMO ID12000000
Official languagesRussian [11]
Website http://www.astrobl.ru/

Astrakhan Oblast (Russian : Астраха́нская о́бласть, Astrakhanskaya oblast; is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in southern Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Astrakhan. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,010,073. [12]

Contents

Geography

Astrakhan is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude. Its southern border is the Caspian Sea, eastern is Kazakhstan (Atyrau Region and West Kazakhstan Region), northern is Volgograd Oblast, and western is Kalmykia.

It is within the Russian Southern Federal District.

History

Astrakhan region is the homeland of the Buzhans, one of several Slavic tribes from which modern Russians evolved. [13] They lived in Southern Russia and inhabited the area around the Buzan river. Buzan oblast was created on December 27, 1943, on parts of the territories of the abolished Kalmyk ASSR and Astrakhan Okrug of Stalingrad Oblast. [4] August–December 1942, the Germans reached the edge of the Astrakhansky Oblast and crossed the edges into the Region, the Abwehr from 1942 to 1943 and Nazi Army stragglers, 1941–44.[ citation needed ]

Project Vega

From October 8, 1980 to October 27, 1984, and under the leadership of Nikolai Baibakov, [lower-alpha 1] the USSR held fifteen deep underground nuclear tests for Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy at the site Vega in the Ryn Desert in the east of the oblast less than 50 km from downtown Astrakhan to create reservoirs for natural gas storage. [14] [15] Because of the detonation depth (975 to 1,100 meters) and relatively low yield (3.2 to 13.5 kilotons), no radiation was released to the environment. [14] These blasts had lower yields than the Project Sapphire blasts, which were 40 km south-southwest of Orenburg, to reduce any possible seismic destruction to nearby towns in the Volga delta including Astrakhan. [15] [16] At that time, the natural gas fields near Astrakhan, which are at a depth of 3900 to 4,100 meters, could contain as much as 6 trillion cubic meters, which is an amount similar to Urengoy. In 2017, the Astrakhanskoye field, which is an area of 100 km by 40 km in the middle of the Astrakhan arch and is 60 km northeast of Astrakhan, is the ninth largest in Russia and the largest in European Russia with an estimated gas in place of 102 trillion cubic feet (2.9 trillion cubic metres). The deposit is operated by Gazprom Dobycha Astrakhan which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Gazprom. [17] The field produces large amounts of sulfur, too. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]

Modern history

On 30 October 1997, Astrakhan, alongside Kirov, Murmansk, Ulyanovsk, and Yaroslavl signed a power-sharing agreement with the government of Russia, granting it autonomy. [23] The agreement would be abolished on 21 December 2001. [24]

Politics

Governor and Government of Astrakhan Oblast Administration Building on Sovetskaya Street Zdanie gorodskikh uchrezhdenii 08.JPG
Governor and Government of Astrakhan Oblast Administration Building on Sovetskaya Street

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Astrakhan CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Astrakhan Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Astrakhan Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Administration, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population

1,010,073(2010 Census); [12] 1,005,276(2002 Census); [25] 998,114(1989 Census). [26]

Vital statistics

Total fertility rate: [28]

2009 - 1.77 | 2010 - 1.76 | 2011 - 1.78 | 2012 - 1.93 | 2013 - 1.91 | 2014 - 1.97 | 2015 - 1.97 | 2016 - 1.93(e)

Languages

The local group of Russian varieties is known as Astrakhan Russian and refers to several dialects spoken in and around the Astrakhan Oblast.

Ethnic groups

Volga Delta in Astrakhan Oblast Astrachan Volgadelta.jpg
Volga Delta in Astrakhan Oblast
Bogdo-Baskunchak Nature Reserve in Astrakhan Oblast Bogdo4.jpg
Bogdo-Baskunchak Nature Reserve in Astrakhan Oblast

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was: [12]

Religion

Religion in Astrakhan Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas) [31] [32]
Russian Orthodoxy
46%
Other Orthodox
4.3%
Other Christians
2.1%
Islam
14.6%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
1.7%
Spiritual but not religious
16.5%
Atheism and irreligion
6.2%
Other and undeclared
8.6%

According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people [31] 46% of the population of Astrakhan Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to any church or are members of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 14% are Muslims, and 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or other folk religions of the region. In addition, 16% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 6% is atheist, and 10% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. [31]

Smaller religious communities not represented in the poll cited above but present in the region include Jews and Buddhists, each having one temple in Astrakhan Oblast.

Settlements

See also

Notes

  1. In 1963, with support from individuals in the Krasnodarnefteproekt, Nikolai Konstantinovich Baibakov received the Lenin Prize in technology for his discovery and development of gas-condensate fields. Later, as Chairman of Gosplan from October 2, 1965, to October 14, 1985, he actively pursued the development of gas condensate fields across the Soviet Union.

Related Research Articles

Znamensk, Astrakhan Oblast Town in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Znamensk is a closed town in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 29,401 (2010 Census); 32,068 (2002 Census).

Akhtubinsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Akhtubinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north of the oblast. The area of the district is 7,810 square kilometers (3,020 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Akhtubinsk Population : 29,326 (2010 Census); 31,963 ; 37,043 (1989 Census).

Narimanov, Astrakhan Oblast Town in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Narimanov is a town and the administrative center of Narimanovsky District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia, located on the western bank of the Volga River, 48 kilometers (30 mi) northwest from Astrakhan, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 11,521 (2010 Census); 11,202 (2002 Census); 11,084 (1989 Census); 3,400 (1979).

Kamyzyak Town in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Kamyzyak is a town and the administrative center of Kamyzyaksky District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamyzyak River, 27 kilometers (17 mi) south of Astrakhan, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 16,314 (2010 Census); 16,052 (2002 Census); 15,084 (1989 Census).

Chernoyarsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Chernoyarsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north of the oblast. The area of the district is 4,217.99 square kilometers (1,628.58 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Chyorny Yar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 20,220, with the population of Chyorny Yar accounting for 38.5% of that number.

Ikryaninsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Ikryaninsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,950 square kilometers (750 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Ikryanoye. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 47,759, with the population of Ikryanoye accounting for 21.0% of that number.

Kamyzyaksky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Kamyzyaksky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,493 square kilometers (1,349 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kamyzyak. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 48,647, with the population of Kamyzyak accounting for 33.5% of that number.

Kharabalinsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Kharabalinsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central and eastern parts of the oblast. The area of the district is 7,100 square kilometers (2,700 sq mi). ts administrative center is the town of Kharabali. Population: 41,176 (2010 Census); 40,955 ; 42,273 (1989 Census). The population of Kharabali accounts for 44.0% of the district's total population.

Krasnoyarsky District, Astrakhan Oblast District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Krasnoyarsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 5,260.48 square kilometers (2,031.08 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Krasny Yar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 35,615, with the population of Krasny Yar accounting for 33.2% of that number.

Limansky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Limansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 5,234 square kilometers (2,021 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Liman. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 31,952, with the population of Liman accounting for 28.2% of that number.

Narimanovsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Narimanovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 6,100 square kilometers (2,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Narimanov. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 45,457, with the population of Narimanov accounting for 25.3% of that number.

Privolzhsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 840.9 square kilometers (324.7 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Nachalovo. Population: 43,647 (2010 Census); 38,649 ; 38,575 (1989 Census). The population of Nachalovo accounts for 12.5% of the district's total population.

Volodarsky District, Astrakhan Oblast District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Volodarsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,883 square kilometers (1,499 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Volodarsky. Population: 47,825 (2010 Census); 47,351 ; 46,638 (1989 Census). The population of the administrative center accounts for 20.9% of the district's total population.

Yenotayevsky District District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Yenotayevsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eleven in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the west of the oblast. The area of the district is 6,300 square kilometers (2,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Yenotayevka. Population: 26,786 (2010 Census); 27,625 ; 29,093 (1989 Census). The population of Yenotayevka accounts for 28.4% of the district's total population.

Kharabali Town in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia

Kharabali is a town and the administrative center of Kharabalinsky District in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Akhtuba River 142 kilometers (88 mi) northwest of Astrakhan, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 18,117 (2010 Census); 18,296 (2002 Census); 18,566 (1989 Census).

Nachalovo is a rural locality and the administrative center of Privolzhsky District of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 5,451 (2010 Census); 4,830 (2002 Census); 3,922 (1989 Census).

Yenotayevka is a rural locality and the administrative center of Yenotayevsky District of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 7,616 (2010 Census); 9,022 (2002 Census); 7,836 (1989 Census).

Volodarsky is a rural locality and the administrative center of Volodarsky District of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 10,005 (2010 Census); 9,553 (2002 Census); 9,326 (1989 Census).

Nizhny Baskunchak is an urban-type settlement in Akhtubinsky District of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 2,789 (2010 Census); 3,167 (2002 Census); 3,360 (1989 Census).

Kirovsky is an urban-type settlement in Kamyzyaksky District of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Population: 2,249 (2010 Census); 2,259 (2002 Census); 2,446 (1989 Census).

References

  1. Article 8 of the Charter of Astrakhan Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2014, no such law is in place.
  2. Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. 1 2 Decree of December 27, 1943
  5. Charter of Astrakhan Oblast, Article 9
  6. Charter of Astrakhan Oblast, Article 15
  7. Charter of Astrakhan Oblast, Article 22
  8. Official website of Astrakhan Oblast. Igor Yurevich Babushkin (in Russian)
  9. Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  13. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Russia". w.w.w.newadvent.org. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  14. 1 2 Mikhaylov, Victor H. (ed.). Ядерные испытания в СССР [Nuclear tests in the USSR]. Ministry of Atomic Energy and the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (in Russian). Archived from the original on March 27, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  15. 1 2 Nordyke, M. D. (September 1, 2000). "Underground Cavities for Storage of Gas Condensate". The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions (PDF). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. pp. 36–41. doi:10.2172/793554. Report no.: UCRL-ID-124410 Rev 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 23, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2017. U. S. Department of Energy contract no.: W-7405-Eng48.
  16. Nordyke, Milo D. (July 24, 1996). The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions (PDF). IAEA. pp. 36–9. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  17. 1 2 "Gazprom Dobycha Astrakhan". Gazprom . Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  18. Borg, I.Y. (1982). "Underground nuclear explosions at Astrakhan, USSR". IAEA . Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA). Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  19. "USSR: Astrakhn Natural Gas Project" (PDF). CIA . December 3, 1982. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  20. Kondratyev, А.Н.; Molodih, G.H.; Razmishlyaev, A.A. (January 13, 1982). Особенности формирования Астраханского газоконденсатного месторождения [Features of the Astrakhan gas condensate field] (in Russian). Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  21. Астраханская область. Объект "Вега" готовят к консервации. [Astrakhan Region: The site "Vega" is being prepared for conservation]. regions.ru (in Russian). November 27, 2003. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  22. Yablokov, Alexei Vladimirovich. Миф о безопасности и эффективности мирных подземных ядерных взрывов [The Myth of the Safety and Efficiency of Peaceful Underground Nuclear Explosions]. Yabloko (in Russian). Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  23. "Yeltsin Signs Power-Sharing Agreements With Five More Russian Regions". Jamestown. November 3, 1997. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  24. Chuman, Mizuki. "The Rise and Fall of Power-Sharing Treaties Between Center and Regions in Post-Soviet Russia" (PDF). Demokratizatsiya: 146. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  25. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  26. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  27. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  28. http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  29. This figure includes ethnic Avars, Dargins, Lezgins, Kumyks, Tabasarans, and Laks.
  30. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  31. 1 2 3 "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  32. 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.

Sources