Sevastopol

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Sevastopol
1356 Pamiatnik zatoplennym korabliam.jpg
St Vladimir Chersonesos 2012 G8.jpg
Sevastopol Chersonesus Basilica of 1935 IMG 0704 1725.jpg
Sevastopol Institute of biology of the Southern Seas IMG 4276 1725.jpg
Chersonesos Bell.jpg
Balaklava, Sevastopol.jpg
Crimea-sevastopol-orthographic-projection2.svg
Orthographic projection of Sevastopol (in green)
Sevastopol location map.svg
Map of the Crimean Peninsula with Sevastopol highlighted
Outline Map of Crimea (disputed status).svg
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Sevastopol
Location of Sevastopol within Crimea
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Sevastopol
Location of Sevastopol within Europe
Coordinates: 44°36′00″N33°32′00″E / 44.6°N 33.5333°E / 44.6; 33.5333 Coordinates: 44°36′00″N33°32′00″E / 44.6°N 33.5333°E / 44.6; 33.5333
Country Disputed:
Status Independent city 1
Founded1783 (239 years ago)
Government
 ( de facto )
  Body Legislative Assembly
   Governor Mikhail Razvozhayev
Area
  City864 km2 (334 sq mi)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2021)
  City509,992
  Density590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
   Urban
479,394
Demonym(s) Sevastopolitan, Sevastopolian
Time zone UTC+03:00 (MSK, de facto)
Postal code
299000–299699 (Russian system)
Area code +7-8692 (Russian system) [1]
License plate 92 (Russian system)
Website sev.gov.ru (in Russian), ( de facto )
1 City with special status of Ukraine (de jure) or federal city of Russia (de facto)

Sevastopol ( /ˌsɛvəˈstpəl,səˈvæstəpl/ [lower-alpha 1] ), sometimes written Sebastopol, is the largest city in Crimea and a major port on the Black Sea. Due to its strategic location and the navigability of the city's harbours, Sevastopol has been an important port and naval base throughout its history. Since the city's founding in 1783 it has been a major base for Russia's Black Sea Fleet, and it was previously a closed city during the Cold War. The total administrative area is 864 square kilometres (334 sq mi) and includes a significant amount of rural land. The urban population, largely concentrated around Sevastopol Bay, is 479,394, and the total population is 509,992 (January 2021). [2]

Contents

Sevastopol, along with the rest of Crimea, is internationally recognised as part of Ukraine, and under the Ukrainian legal framework it is administratively one of two cities with special status (the other being Kyiv). However, it is administered by Russia, which annexed Crimea in 2014 and gives Sevastopol the status of a federal city. Both Ukraine and Russia consider the city administratively separate from the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. The city's population has an ethnic Russian majority, with a substantial minority of Ukrainians.

Sevastopol's unique naval and maritime features have been the basis for a robust economy. The city enjoys mild winters and moderate warm summers, characteristics that help make it a popular seaside resort and tourist destination, mainly for visitors from the former Soviet republics. The city is also an important centre for marine biology research. In particular, the military has studied and trained dolphins in the city for military use since the 1960s. [3]

Etymology

The name of Sevastopolis was originally chosen in the same etymological trend as other cities in the Crimean peninsula; it was intended to express its ancient Greek origins. It is a compound of the Greek adjective, σεβαστός ( sebastós , Byzantine Greek pronunciation:  [sevasˈtos] ; 'venerable') and the noun πόλις (pólis, 'city'). Σεβαστός is the traditional Greek equivalent (see Sebastian) of the Roman honorific Augustus , originally given to the first emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus and later awarded as a title to his successors.

Despite its Greek origin, the name is not from Ancient Greek times. The city was probably named after Empress ("Augusta") Catherine II of the Russian Empire who founded Sevastopol in 1783. She visited the city in 1787, accompanied by Joseph II, the Emperor of Austria, and other foreign dignitaries.

In the west of the city, there are well-preserved ruins of the ancient Greek port city of Chersonesos, founded in the 5th [4] century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica. This name means "peninsula", reflecting its immediate location. It is not related to the ancient Greek name for the Crimean Peninsula as a whole: Chersonēsos Taurikē ("the Taurian Peninsula").

The name of the city is spelled as:

History

The ruins of the ancient Greek theatre in Chersonesos Taurica Sevastopol 04-14 img36 Chersonesus.jpg
The ruins of the ancient Greek theatre in Chersonesos Taurica
Historical affiliations

Chersonesus founded in 6th century BC
Hellenic Colonies 6th century BC – 480 BC
Bosporan Kingdom 480 BC – 107 BC
Kingdom of Pontus 107 BC – 63 BC
Roman Republic 63 BC – 27 BC
Roman Empire 27 BC – 330
Byzantine Empire 330 – 1204
Empire of Trebizond 1204 – 1461
Principality of Theodoro 1461 – 1475
Crimean Khanate 1475 – 1783 (Ottoman vassal from 1478 to 1774)
Russian Empire 1783 – 1917
Founded as Sevastopol in 1783
Russian Republic 1917
Russian SFSR (Soviet Union) 1917 – 1942
Nazi Germany 1942 – 1944 (de facto)
Russian SFSR (Soviet Union) 1944 – 1954
Ukrainian SSR (Soviet Union) 1954 – 1991
Ukraine 1991 – 2014 (de facto; de jure – 1991–present)
Russian Federation 2014 – present (de facto)

Ancient Chersonesus

In the 6th century BC, a Greek colony was established in the area of the modern-day city. The Greek city of Chersonesus existed for almost two thousand years, first as an independent democracy and later as part of the Bosporan Kingdom. In the 13th and 14th centuries, it was sacked by the Golden Horde several times and was finally totally abandoned. The modern day city of Sevastopol has no connection to the ancient and medieval Greek city, but the ruins are a popular tourist attraction located on the outskirts of the city.

Part of the Russian Empire

"Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol "Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol.jpg
"Soldier and Sailor" Memorial to Heroic Defenders of Sevastopol
The Monument to the Sunken Ships, dedicated to ships scuttled during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, designed by Amandus Adamson 2012-09-09 Pamiatnik zatoplennym korabliam v Sevastopole (1).jpg
The Monument to the Sunken Ships, dedicated to ships scuttled during the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, designed by Amandus Adamson
Sevastopol in 1889, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC Sevastopol Panorama.jpg
Sevastopol in 1889, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC

Sevastopol was founded in June 1783 as a base for a naval squadron under the name Akhtiar [12] (White Cliff), [13] by Rear Admiral Thomas MacKenzie (Foma Fomich Makenzi), a native Scot in Russian service; soon after Russia annexed the Crimean Khanate. Five years earlier, Alexander Suvorov ordered that earthworks be erected along the harbour and Russian troops be placed there.

In February 1784, Catherine the Great ordered Grigory Potemkin to build a fortress there and call it Sevastopol. The realisation of the initial building plans fell to Captain Fyodor Ushakov who in 1788 was named commander of the port and of the Black Sea squadron. [14] It became an important naval base and later a commercial seaport. In 1797, under an edict issued by Emperor Paul I, the military stronghold was again renamed to Akhtiar. Finally, on 29 April (10 May), 1826, the Senate returned the city's name to Sevastopol.[ citation needed ]

British Memorial Complex, Sevastopol, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC Sevastopol British Memorial Complex.jpg
British Memorial Complex, Sevastopol, Department of Image Collections, National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, DC

Crimean War

From 1853 to 1856, the Crimean peninsula's strategic position in controlling the Black Sea caused it to be the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, where Russia lost to a French led alliance. [15]

After a minor skirmish at Köstence (now Constanța), the allied commanders decided to attack Sevastopol as Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea. After extended preparations, allied forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched to a point south of Sevastopol after winning the Battle of the Alma on 20 September. The Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but the British Army's forces were seriously depleted as a result. A second Russian counterattack, at Inkerman in November, ended in a stalemate as well. The front settled into the siege of Sevastopol, involving brutal conditions for troops on both sides.

Sevastopol finally fell after eleven months, after the French had assaulted Fort Malakoff. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion by the West if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. France and Britain welcomed the development, owing to the conflict's domestic unpopularity. The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war and forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. [16] This hampered the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 and in the aftermath of that conflict, Russia moved to reconstitute its naval strength and fortifications in the Black Sea. [17]

World War II

During World War II, Sevastopol withstood intensive bombardment by the Germans in 1941–42, supported by their Italian and Romanian allies during the Battle of Sevastopol. German forces used railway artillery—including history's largest-ever calibre railway artillery piece in battle, the 80-cm calibre Schwerer Gustav —and specialised mobile heavy mortars to destroy Sevastopol's extremely heavy fortifications, such as the Maxim Gorky Fortresses. After fierce fighting, which lasted for 250 days, [18] [19] [20] the fortress city finally fell to Axis forces in July 1942. [21] It was intended to be renamed to "Theodorichshafen" [22] (in reference to Theodoric the Great and the fact that the Crimea had been home to Germanic Goths until the 18th or 19th century) in the event of a German victory against the Soviet Union, and like the rest of the Crimea was designated for future colonisation by the Third Reich. It was liberated by the Red Army on 9 May 1944 and was awarded the Hero City title a year later.

Part of Ukrainian SSR

During the Soviet era, Sevastopol became a so-called "closed city". This meant that any non-residents had to apply to the authorities for a temporary permit to visit the city.

On 29 October 1948, the Presidium of Supreme Council of the Russian SFSR issued an ukaz (order) which confirmed the special status of the city. [23] Soviet academic publications since 1954, including the Great Soviet Encyclopedia , indicated that Sevastopol, Crimean Oblast was part of the Ukrainian SSR. [24] [13]

In 1954, under Nikita Khrushchev, both Sevastopol and the remainder of the Crimean peninsula were administratively transferred from being territories within the Russian SFSR to being territories administered by the Ukrainian SSR. Administratively, Sevastopol was a municipality excluded from the adjacent Crimean Oblast.[ citation needed ][ further explanation needed ] The territory of the municipality was 863.5 km2 and it was further subdivided into four raions (districts). Besides the City of Sevastopol proper, it also included two towns—Balaklava (having had no status until 1957), Inkerman, urban-type settlement Kacha, and 29 villages. [25]

At the 1955 Ukrainian parliamentary elections on 27 February, Sevastopol was split into two electoral districts, Stalinsky and Korabelny (initially requested three Stalinsky, Korabelny, and Nakhimovsky). [23] Eventually, Sevastopol received two people's deputies of the Ukrainian SSR elected to the Verkhovna Rada, A. Korovchenko and M. Kulakov. [23] [26]

In 1957, the town of Balaklava was incorporated into Sevastopol.

Part of Ukraine

The Black Sea Fleet Museum Muzei Chernomorskogo flota.jpg
The Black Sea Fleet Museum

Following Ukraine's declaration of independence from the USSR in 1991, Sevastopol became the principal base of the Ukrainian navy. As the key naval base of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet, it was a source of tensions for Russia–Ukraine relations until a set-term lease agreement was signed in 1997.

On 10 July 1993, the Russian parliament passed a resolution declaring Sevastopol to be "a federal Russian city". [27] At the time, many supporters of the president, Boris Yeltsin, had ceased taking part in the Parliament's work. [28] On 20 July 1993 the United Nations Security Council denounced the decision of the Russian parliament. According to Anatoliy Zlenko, it was the first time that the council had to review actions and come up with qualification of them for a legislative body. [23]

On 14 April 1993, the Presidium of the Crimean Parliament called for the creation of the presidential post of the Crimean Republic. A week later, the Russian deputy, Valentin Agafonov, said that Russia was ready to supervise the referendum on Crimean independence and include the republic as a separate entity in the CIS. On 28 July 1993, one of the leaders of the Russian Society of Crimea, Viktor Prusakov, said that his organisation was ready for an armed mutiny and establishment of the Russian administration in Sevastopol.

In September, the commander of the joint Russian-Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet, Eduard Baltin  [ ru ], accused Ukraine of converting some of his fleet and conducting an armed assault on his personnel, and threatened to take countermeasures of placing the fleet on alert. (In June 1992, the Russian president Yeltsin and the Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk had agreed to divide the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet between Russia and Ukraine. Eduard Baltin had been appointed commander of the Black Sea Fleet by Yeltsin and Kravchuk on 15 January 1993.)

Moscow mayor Yuriy Luzhkov campaigned to claim the city, and in December 1996 the Russian Federation Council officially endorsed the claim, threatening negotiations. Spurred by these revanchist claims, Ukraine proposed a "special partnership" with NATO in January 1997. [29]

In May 1997, Russia and Ukraine signed the Peace and Friendship Treaty, ruling out Moscow's territorial claims to Ukraine. [30] This was followed by the Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet on 28 May 1997. A separate agreement established the terms of a long-term lease of land, facilities, and resources in Sevastopol and the Crimea by Russia.[ citation needed ] Russia kept its naval base, with around 15,000 troops stationed in Sevastopol. [31]

Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001 Vladimir Putin in Ukraine 28-29 July 2001-17.jpg
Vladimir Putin with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma on board the Black Sea Fleet's flagship, July 2001

The ex-Soviet Black Sea Fleet and its facilities were divided between Russia's Black Sea Fleet and the Ukrainian Naval Forces. The two navies co-used some of the city's harbours and piers, while others were demilitarised or used by either country. Sevastopol remained the location of the Russian Black Sea Fleet headquarters with the Ukrainian Naval Forces Headquarters also in the city. A judicial row periodically continued over the naval hydrographic infrastructure both in Sevastopol and on the Crimean coast (especially lighthouses historically maintained by the Soviet or Russian Navy and also used for civil navigation support).

As in the rest of Crimea, Russian remained the predominant language of the city, although following the independence of Ukraine there were some attempts at Ukrainisation, with very little success. The Russian society in general and even some outspoken government representatives never accepted the loss of Sevastopol and tended to regard it as temporarily separated from the homeland. [32]

In July 2009, the chairman of the Sevastopol city council, Valeriy Saratov (Party of Regions), [33] said that Ukraine should increase the amount of compensation it is paying to the city of Sevastopol for hosting the foreign Russian Black Sea Fleet, instead of requesting such obligations from the Russian government and the Russian Ministry of Defense in particular. [34]

On 27 April 2010, Russia and Ukraine ratified the Russian Ukrainian Naval Base for Gas treaty, extending the Russian Navy's lease of Crimean facilities for 25 years after 2017 (through 2042) with an option to prolong the lease in five-year extensions. The ratification process in the Ukrainian parliament encountered stiff opposition and erupted into a brawl in the parliament chamber. Eventually, the treaty was ratified by a 52% majority vote—236 of 450. The Russian Duma ratified the treaty by a 98% majority (without incident). [35]

Occupation and annexation by Russia

On 23 February 2014, a pro-Russian rally took place in Nakhimov Square declaring allegiance to Russia and protesting against the new government in Kyiv following the overthrow of the president, Viktor Yanukovych. [36] On 27 February, pro-Russian militia, including Russian troops, seized control of government buildings in Crimea, and by 28 February, controlled other strategic locations such as the military airport in Sevastopol. [37] [38]

On 16 March 2014, an internationally unrecognized referendum was held in Sevastopol with official results claiming a 89.51% turnout and 95.6% of voters choosing to join Russia. Almost all countries of the United Nations General Assembly, as well as Ukraine, consider the referendum illegal and illegitimate. [39] [40]

On 18 March, Russia annexed Crimea, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol as federal subjects of Russia. [41] [42] However, the annexation remains internationally unrecognized, with most countries recognizing Sevastopol as a city with special status within Ukraine. [43] While Russia has taken defacto control of Sevastopol and Crimea, the international community considers the area part of Ukraine. [44] [45] [46]

Geography

Satellite image of the Sevastopol area. Sevastopol, Ukraine.jpg
Satellite image of the Sevastopol area.
Vid na zaliv Sevastopole.jpg
A view of the Bay of Sevastopol.
Fiolent Sevastopol 2009 G1.jpg
Fiolent rocks formation on the coast of Sevastopol.

The city of Sevastopol is located at the southwestern tip of the Crimean peninsula in a headland known as Heracles peninsula on a coast of the Black Sea. The city is designated a special city-region of Ukraine which besides the city itself includes several of its outlying settlements. The city itself is concentrated mostly at the western portion of the region and around the long Bay of Sevastopol. This bay is a ria, a river canyon drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and the outlet of Chorna River. Away in a remote location southeast of Sevastopol is located the former city of Balaklava (since 1957 incorporated within Sevastopol), the bay of which in Soviet times served as a main port for the Soviet diesel-powered submarines.

The coastline of the region is mostly rocky, in a series of smaller bays, a great number of which are located within the Bay of Sevastopol. The biggest of them are the Southern Bay (within Bay of Sevastopol), the Archer Bay, a gulf complex that consists of the Deergrass Bay, the Bay of Cossack, the Salty Bay, and many others. There are over thirty bays in the immediate region.

Through the region flow three rivers: the Belbek, Chorna, and Kacha. All three mountain chains of Crimean mountains are represented in Sevastopol, the southern chain by the Balaklava Highlands, the inner chain by the Mekenziev Mountains, and the outer chain by the Kara-Tau Upland (Black Mountain).

Climate

Sevastopol has a mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), closely bordering on a humid subtropical climate. Due to the summer mean straddling 22 °C (72 °F) it is also bordering on a four-season oceanic climate, with cool winters and warm to hot summers.

The average yearly temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) during the day and around 9 °C (48 °F) at night. In the coldest months, January and February, the average temperature is 5–6 °C (41–43 °F) during the day and around 1 °C (34 °F) at night. In the warmest months, July and August, the average temperature is around 26 °C (79 °F) during the day and around 19 °C (66 °F) at night. Generally, summer/holiday season lasts 5 months, from around mid-May and into September, with the temperature often reaching 20 °C (68 °F) or more in the first half of October.

The average annual temperature of the sea is 14.2 °C (58 °F), ranging from 7 °C (45 °F) in February to 24 °C (75 °F) in August. From June to September, the average sea temperature is greater than 20 °C (68 °F). In the second half of May and first half of October; the average sea temperature is about 17 °C (63 °F). The average rainfall is about 400 millimetres (16 in) per year. There are about 2,345 hours of sunshine duration per year. [47]

Climate data for Sevastopol
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)5.9
(42.6)
6.0
(42.8)
8.9
(48.0)
13.6
(56.5)
19.2
(66.6)
23.5
(74.3)
26.5
(79.7)
26.3
(79.3)
22.4
(72.3)
17.8
(64.0)
12.3
(54.1)
8.1
(46.6)
15.9
(60.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
2.8
(37.0)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.6)
15.1
(59.2)
19.5
(67.1)
22.4
(72.3)
22.1
(71.8)
18.1
(64.6)
13.8
(56.8)
8.8
(47.8)
5.0
(41.0)
12.1
(53.8)
Average low °C (°F)−0.2
(31.6)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.0
(35.6)
6.1
(43.0)
11.1
(52.0)
15.5
(59.9)
18.2
(64.8)
17.9
(64.2)
13.9
(57.0)
9.9
(49.8)
5.4
(41.7)
2.0
(35.6)
8.5
(47.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)26
(1.0)
25
(1.0)
24
(0.9)
27
(1.1)
18
(0.7)
26
(1.0)
32
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
42
(1.7)
32
(1.3)
42
(1.7)
52
(2.0)
379
(15)
Average precipitation days63422120132531
Mean monthly sunshine hours 727514520226731635632625417798642,352
Source: pogodaiklimat.ru [48]

Politics and government

Navy Day Sevastopol 2012 G03.jpg
2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Russian AF)
Navy Day Sevastopol 2012 G04.jpg
2012 Navy Day joint celebration (Ukrainian AF)
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol Boat U170 Skadovsk 2012 G1.jpg
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol
Victory Day in Sevastopol, 9 May 2014 Celebrating Victory Day and the 70th anniversary of Sevastopol's liberation (2493-07).jpg
Victory Day in Sevastopol, 9 May 2014

On 18 March 2014, Russia formally annexed Crimea with Sevastopol de facto becoming the third federal city in Russia, the two others being Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Executive

Until 2014, executive power in Sevastopol was exercised by the Sevastopol City State Administration, led by a chairman (also known as mayor) appointed by the Ukrainian president. [49] Since 2014, executive power is exercised by the Government of Sevastopol. The head of the executive branch in the city is the Governor of Sevastopol. According the city charter, amended on 29 November 2016, the governor is elected in a direct election for a term of five years and no more than two consecutive terms. [50]

Legislature

Until 2014, the Sevastopol City Council was the legislature of Sevastopol. However, during the annexation of Ukrainian Crimea by Russia, the pro-Russian City Council threw its support behind Russian citizen Alexei Chaly as the "people's mayor" and said it would not recognise orders from Kyiv. [51] [52] After Russia annexed Crimea, the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol replaced the City Council.

Administrative and municipal divisions

Sevastopol is administratively divided into four districts.

Districts of Sevastopol:
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Gagarin Raion (Gagarinsky District)
Lenin Raion (Leninsky District)
Nakhimov Raion (Nakhimovsky District)
Balaklava Raion (Balaklavsky District) Sevastopol-boroughs.svg
Districts of Sevastopol:
   Gagarin Raion (Gagarinsky District)
   Lenin Raion (Leninsky District)
   Nakhimov Raion (Nakhimovsky District)
   Balaklava Raion (Balaklavsky District)

Within the Russian municipal framework, the territory of the federal city of Sevastopol is divided into nine municipal okrugs and the town of Inkerman. While individual municipal divisions are contained within the borders of the administrative districts, they are not otherwise related to the administrative districts.

Economy

Apart from navy-related civil facilities, Sevastopol hosts some other notable industries. An example is Stroitel, [53] one of the leading plastic manufacturers in Russia.

Industry

Infrastructure

Trolleybuses ZiU-9 in Sevastopol Trolleybus Sevastopol 2012 G2.jpg
Trolleybuses ZiU-9 in Sevastopol

There are different types of transport in Sevastopol:

Sevastopol Shipyard comprises three facilities that together repair, modernise, and re-equip Russian Naval ships and submarines. [54] The Sevastopol International Airport is used as a military aerodrome at the moment and being reconstructed to be used by international airlines.

Sevastopol maintains a large port facility in the Bay of Sevastopol and in smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port handles traffic from passengers (local transportation and cruise), cargo, and commercial fishing. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol and naval bases of the Black Sea Fleet.

Sevastopol panorama.JPG
Panorama of the Sevastopol port entrance (left) with its monument to Russian ships which were sunk in the Crimean War to blockade the harbour (far right side).

Tourism

Due to its military history, most streets in the city are named after Russian and Soviet military heroes. There are hundreds of monuments and plaques in various parts of Sevastopol commemorating its military past.

Attractions include:

  • Chersonessos National Archaeological Reserve
  • MP Kroshitsky Sevastopol Art Museum
  • Sevastopol Museum of Local History
  • Aquarium-Museum of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • Dolphinarium of Sevastopol
  • Sevastopol Zoo
  • The Monument to the scuttled ships on the Marine Boulevard
  • The Panorama Museum (The Heroic Defence of Sevastopol during the Crimean War)
  • Malakhov Kurgan (Barrow) with its White Tower
  • Admirals' Burial Vault
  • The Black Sea Fleet Museum
  • The Storming of Sapun-gora of 7 May 1944, the Diorama Museum (World War II)
  • Naval museum complex "Balaklava", decommissioned underground submarine base, now opened to the public
  • Cheremetieff brothers museum "Crimean war 1853–1856"
  • Museum of the underground forces of 1942–1944
  • Museum Historical Memorial Complex "35th Coastal Battery"
  • The Naval Museum "Michael's battery"
  • Fraternal (Communal) War Cemetery

Demographics

The population of Sevastopol is 509,992, consisting of 479,394 urban residents and 30,598 rural (January 2021), making it the most populous city of the Crimean Peninsula. [2]

The city has retained an ethnic Russian majority throughout its history. In 1989 the proportion of Russians living in the city was 74.4%, [55] and by the time of the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups of Sevastopol included Russians (71.6%), Ukrainians (22.4%), Belarusians (1.6%), Tatars (0.7%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Armenians (0.3%), Jews (0.3%), Moldovans (0.2%), and Azerbaijanis (0.2%). [56]

Age structure
0–14 years old male 27,856 / female 26,532 (14.3% Increase2.svg)
15–64 years oldmale 126,918 / female 141,304 (70.3% Decrease2.svg)
65 years and over male 19,038 / female 39,826 (15.4% Increase2.svg)
Source: [ citation needed ][ disputed ]
Median age
Male 36.0 years Increase2.svg
Female 44.6 years Steady2.svg
Total 40.2 years Increase2.svg
Source: [ citation needed ]

Vital statistics for 2015:

Life expectancy

In 2015, Sevastopol had the largest decrease in life expectancy at birth among all regions of Russia.
In 2020, after beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, Sevastopol became the only region of Russia where there was increase of life expectancy.
In 2021, average life expectancy at birth in Sevastopol was 72.25 years (67.87 for males and 76.43 for females). [57] [58]

Culture

There are many historical buildings in the central and eastern parts of the city and Balaklava, some of which are architectural monuments. The Western districts have modern architecture. More recently, numerous skyscrapers have been built. Balaklava Bayfront Plaza (on hold), currently under construction, will be one of the tallest buildings in Ukraine, at 173 m (568 ft) with 43 floors. [59]

After the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea the city's monument to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny was removed and handed over to Kharkiv. [60]

Education

Notable people

Ileana Leonidoff, 1919 Leonidoff-ileana1919.jpg
Ileana Leonidoff, 1919
Aleksandr Nosatov, 2018 Alexandr Nosatov (2018).jpg
Aleksandr Nosatov, 2018

Sport

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crimea</span> Peninsula in Europe

Crimea is a peninsula in Eastern Europe, on the northern coast of the Black Sea. It has a population of 2.4 million, made up mostly of ethnic Russians, with significant Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities. The peninsula is almost entirely surrounded by the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. The Isthmus of Perekop connects the peninsula to Kherson Oblast in mainland Ukraine. To the east, the Crimean Bridge, constructed in 2018, spans the Strait of Kerch, linking the peninsula with Krasnodar Krai in Russia. The Arabat Spit, located to the northeast, is a narrow strip of land that separates the Sivash lagoons from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to the west lies Romania and to the south is Turkey.

Balaklava is a settlement on the Crimean Peninsula and part of the city of Sevastopol. It is an administrative center of Balaklava Raion that used to be part of the Crimean Oblast before it was transferred to Sevastopol Municipality. Population: 18,649 .

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chersonesus</span> Ancient Greek colonial ruins in Sevastopol, Crimea

Chersonesus, is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. Settlers from Heraclea Pontica in Bithynia established the colony in the 6th century BC.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Black Sea Fleet</span> Regional command of the Russian and former Soviet Navy

The Black Sea Fleet is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea. The Black Sea Fleet, and other Russian ground and air forces in Crimea, are subordinate to the Southern Military District of the Russian Armed Forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taurida Governorate</span> 1802–1921 governorate of the Russian Empire

The Taurida Governorate or the Government of Taurida, was a historical governorate of the Russian Empire. It included the Crimean Peninsula and the mainland between the lower Dnieper River and the coasts of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. It was formed after the Taurida Oblast was abolished in 1802 in the course of Paul I's administrative reform of the southwestern territories that had been annexed from the Crimean Khanate. The governorate's centre was the city of Simferopol. The province was named after the ancient Greek name of Crimea - Taurida.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Crimea</span> Aspect of history

The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris, Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast, the most important of which was Chersonesos near modern day Sevastopol, with Scythians and Tauri in the hinterland to the north. The southern coast gradually consolidated into the Bosporan Kingdom which was annexed by Pontus and then became a client kingdom of Rome. The south coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years including under Roman successor states, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire of Trebizond, and the independent Principality of Theodoro. In the 13th century, some Crimean port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese, but the interior was much less stable, enduring a long series of conquests and invasions. In the medieval period, it was partially conquered by Kievan Rus' whose prince Vladimir the Great was baptised at Sevastopol, which marked the beginning of the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, the north and centre of Crimea fell to the Mongol Golden Horde, and in the 1440s the Crimean Khanate formed out of the collapse of the horde but quite rapidly itself became subject to the Ottoman Empire, which also conquered the coastal areas which had kept independent of the Khanate. A major source of prosperity in these times was frequent raids into Russia for slaves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Crimean People's Republic</span> Autonomy of the Russian Republic in Crimea from 1917 to 1918

The Crimean People's Republic existed from December 1917 to January 1918 in the Crimean Peninsula, a modern day Ukrainian territory currently occupied by the Russian Federation. The Crimean People's Republic was the first Turkic and Muslim democratic republic in the world. In its founding, the Crimean People's Republic was one of many short-lived attempts to create new states after the 1917 Russian Revolution caused the collapse of the Russian Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sevastopol Shipyard</span> Shipyard in Sevastopol, Crimea

Sevastopol Shipyard is a shipyard located in Sevastopol, Crimea, founded as a dockyard for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Naval museum complex Balaklava</span>

Naval museum complex Balaklava is an underground submarine base in Balaklava, Crimea. It was a top-secret military facility during the Cold War, located in Balaklava Bay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Greek Battalion of Balaklava</span> Military unit

The Greek Battalion of Balaklava was a military unit of the Imperial Russian Army which participated in the Russo-Turkish wars of 1768–1774, 1787–1792 and 1806–1812. It consisted of Greek expatriates who were living in the Balaklava area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Port of Sevastopol</span> Main port serving the Crimean peninsula

Sevastopol Marine Trade Port (SMTP) is a port in Sevastopol. It is located mainly at the Bay of Sevastopol, and at smaller bays around the Heracles peninsula. The port infrastructure is fully integrated with the city of Sevastopol and naval bases of the Russian Navy and the Black Sea Fleet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aleksei Chaly</span> Russian activist

Aleksei Mikhailovich Chaly is a businessman and formerly de facto mayor of Sevastopol. He declared himself mayor in February 2014, amidst the Crimean crisis, after the resignation of Volodymyr Yatsuba, the Viktor Yanukovych-appointed mayor. With Chaly as mayor, Sevastopol participated in the March 2014 referendum in which Crimea voted to separate itself politically from Ukraine and accede to Russia. On 1 April 2014 he was appointed as Governor of Sevastopol City by Russia. On 14 April, he was replaced by Sergey Menyaylo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Autonomous Republic of Crimea</span> Autonomous republic of Ukraine

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea, commonly known as Crimea, is a autonomous republic of Ukraine encompassing most of Crimea that was annexed by Russia in 2014. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea occupies most of the peninsula, while the City of Sevastopol occupies the rest.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Republic of Crimea</span> First-level administrative division of Russia, annexed territory of Ukraine

The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject (republic) of Russia. Before its invasion and annexation by Russia in 2014, the territory was administered by Ukraine as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and most countries recognize it as such.

FK Chernomorets Sevastopol is a professional football club based in Sevastopol, Crimea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Administrative and municipal divisions of Sevastopol</span> Municipal government of Sevastopol

Sevastopol is a city on the Black Sea, located in the southwest of the Crimean Peninsula—a territory disputed between Russia and Ukraine as a result of the 2014 Crimean crisis. It has been under the de facto Russian control since March 2014, when it was incorporated into Russia as one of its federal subjects, with a status of a federal city. Being a disputed territory, Sevastopol has two sets of laws governing how its administrative and municipal divisions are set up. Under both Ukrainian and Russian laws, the city is administratively divided into four districts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sevastopol Naval Base</span> Russian naval base

The Sevastopol Naval Base is a naval base located in Sevastopol, in the disputed Crimean peninsula. The base is used by the Russian Navy, and it is the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.

<i>Monument to the Sunken Ships</i>

The Monument to the Sunken Ships is the symbol of the city of Sevastopol, on the disputed Crimean peninsula. Located in Sevastopol Bay, it was designed by Amandus Adamson and built by Valentin Feldmann in 1905.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Coat of arms of Sevastopol</span> Heraldic symbol of the city of Sevastopol, Crimea

The coat of arms of Sevastopol is a heraldic symbol representing the city of Sevastopol, Crimea. It is featured in the middle of the Flag of Sevastopol on a red background.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ukrainian sovereignty over Crimea</span>

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence Crimean peninsula was reorganized as the Republic of Crimea, after a 1991 referendum with the Crimean government pushing for more independence from Ukraine and closer links with Russia. The referendum ballot carried a following sentence: "Do you support re-establishing the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a subject of the Union SSR and a participant of the Union Treaty?" There were also intermittent tensions with Russia over the Soviet Fleet, although a 1997 treaty partitioned the Soviet Black Sea Fleet allowing Russia to continue basing its fleet in Sevastopol with the lease extended in 2010.

References

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