Krasnodar

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Krasnodar

Краснодар
Krasnodar.png
Top: View of Rosneft Building and Kubanonaberezhnaya Street,
Middle upper left: Krasnodar Splash Fountain,
Middle lower left: Krasnodar Railway-1 Station,
Middle right: Catherine the Great Monument,
Bottom: Krasnodar Theater Square
Flag of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai) (2006).png
Flag
Coat of Arms of Krasnodar (Krasnodar krai).png
Coat of arms
Location of Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Outline Map of Krasnodarski Krai (with Crimea disputed).svg
Red pog.svg
Krasnodar
Location of Krasnodar
European Russia laea location map (Crimea disputed).svg
Red pog.svg
Krasnodar
Krasnodar (European Russia)
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Krasnodar
Krasnodar (Europe)
Coordinates: 45°02′N38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967 Coordinates: 45°02′N38°58′E / 45.033°N 38.967°E / 45.033; 38.967
Country Russia
Federal subject Krasnodar Krai [2]
FoundedJanuary 12, 1794 [3]
City status since1867 [4]
Government
  Body City Duma [5]
  Head [5] Evgeny Pervyshov [6]
Elevation
25 m (82 ft)
Population
  Total744,995
  Estimate 
(2018) [8]
899,541 (+20.7%)
  Rank 16th in 2010
  Subordinated to City of Krasnodar [1]
   Capital ofKrasnodar Krai [2] , City of Krasnodar [1]
  Urban okrugKrasnodar Urban Okrug [9]
   Capital ofKrasnodar Urban Okrug [9]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [10] )
Postal code(s) [11]
List
350000–350005, 350007, 350010–350012, 350014–350016, 350018–350020, 350033, 350035, 350038–350040, 350042, 350044, 350047, 350049, 350051, 350058, 350059, 350061–350067, 350072, 350075, 350078, 350080, 350086–350090, 350500, 350880, 350890, 350899–350901, 350910–350912, 350931, 350960, 350961, 350963–350965, 350991–350999
Dialing code(s) +7 861
OKTMO ID03701000001
City DayLast non-working day of September [3]
Website www.krd.ru
Krasnodar population
2010 Census 744,995 [7]
2002 Census 646,175 [12]
1989 Census 620,516 [13]
1979 Census 560,438 [14]

Krasnodar ( /ˌkrɑːsnəˈdɑːr,-n-/ ; [15] Russian:Краснода́р,IPA:  [krəsnɐˈdar] ), formerly Yekaterinodar (until 1920), is the largest city and the administrative centre of Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The city stands on the Kuban River in southern Russia, with a population of 932,629 residents, [16] and up to 1 million residents in the urban agglomeration. [17] Krasnodar is the sixteenth-largest city in Russia, and the second-largest city in Southern Russia, as well as the Southern Federal District.

Contents

The city originated in 1793 as a fortress built by the Cossacks, and became a trading center for southern Russia. The city sustained heavy damage in World War II but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. Krasnodar is a major economic hub in southern Russia. In 2012, Forbes named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia. [18] Krasnodar is home to numerous sights, including Krasnodar Stadium. Its main airport is Krasnodar International Airport.

Name

Oz Mall, the largest mall in southern Russia P O.jpg
Oz Mall, the largest mall in southern Russia
A 19th-century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar Krasnodar obelisk.jpg
A 19th-century photograph of the Kuban Cossacks Obelisk in Yekaterinodar

Krasnodar was founded on January 12, 1794 (Gregorian calendar) [3] as Yekaterinodar (Екатеринода́р). The original name meant "Catherine's Gift", recognizing both Catherine the Great's grant of land in the Kuban region to the Black Sea Cossacks [19] (created from former Zaporozhian Cossacks) and Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who is considered to be the patron of the city. City status was granted in 1867. [4]

On December 7, 1920, as a result of the October Revolution, Yekaterinodar was renamed Krasnodar (Gift of the Reds). [20] The new name consists of Krasno- (Красно- – 'red', i.e. Communist, but also archaic/poetic form of 'beautiful'); and dar (дар – 'gift'). [21]

History

Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century Yekaterinodar-from-south.jpg
Yekaterinodar in the early 20th century

The city originated in 1793 as a military camp, then as a fortress built by the Cossacks to defend imperial borders and to assert Russian dominion over Circassia, a claim which Ottoman Turkey contested. In the first half of the 19th century, Yekaterinodar grew into a busy center of the Kuban Cossacks, gaining official town status in 1867. [22] By 1888 about 45,000 people lived in the city, which had become a vital trade center for southern Russia. In 1897 an obelisk commemorating the two-hundred-year history of the Kuban Cossacks (seen as founded in 1696) was erected in Yekaterinodar.

During the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) the city changed hands several times, coming successively under the control of the Red Army and of the Volunteer Army. Many Kuban Cossacks, as committed anti-Bolsheviks, supported the White Movement. Lavr Kornilov, a White general, captured the city on April 10, 1918, only to be killed a week later when a Bolshevik artillery shell blew up the farmhouse where he had set up his headquarters.

During World War II units of the German Army occupied Krasnodar between August 12, 1942, and February 12, 1943. The city sustained heavy damage in the fighting but was rebuilt and renovated after the war. German forces, including Gestapo and "mobile SS execution squads", killed thousands of Jews, Communists, and "supposed Communist 'partisans.'" Shooting, hanging, burning, and even gas vans were used. [23]

In the summer of 1943, the Soviets began trials, including of their own citizens, for collusion with the Nazis and for participation in war crimes. The first such trial took place at Krasnodar from July 14 to 17, 1943. The Krasnodar tribunal pronounced eight death sentences, which were summarily carried out in the city square in front of a crowd of about thirty thousand people.

On June 14, 1971, a bombing occurred on a bus in the city, when a homemade suitcase bomb placed near the gas tank by a mentally ill Peter Volynsky exploded. The bomb killed 10 persons and wounded 20–90 others.

Geography

Krasnodar is the largest city and capital of Krasnodar Krai by population and the second-largest by area. It is the 17th-largest city in Russia as of 2010. It is located on the right bank of the Kuban River. It is 1300 km south of the Russian capital, Moscow. The Black Sea is lies 120 km to the west.

Administrative and municipal status

Krasnodar is the administrative center of the krai. [2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with twenty-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Krasnodar—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Krasnodar is incorporated as Krasnodar Urban Okrug. [9]

Main sights

Shukhov's Hyperboloid Tower near Krasnodar's Circus Tower in Krasnodar photo by Yuriy Zaitsev.jpg
Shukhov's Hyperboloid Tower near Krasnodar's Circus
The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar Fountain in Krasnodar.jpg
The Splash Fountain in Krasnodar
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers Obelisk to Red Army soldiers who liberated Ekaterinodar city in 1920.jpg
Obelisk to Red Army soldiers

Krasnodar is home to the steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1928; it is located near Krasnodar Circus.

Other attractions include St. Catherine's Cathedral, the State Arts Museum, a park and theater named after Maxim Gorky, the beautiful concert hall of the Krasnodar Philharmonic Society, which is considered to have some of the best acoustics in southern Russia, State Cossack Choir and the Krasnodar circus

The most interesting place in Krasnodar is Krasnaya Street (which translates as "Red, Beautiful Street"). There are situated many sights of Krasnodar. At the beginning of the street, one can see the Central Concert Hall; at the other end, one can see the Avrora cinema center. A "Triumphal Arch" is situated in the middle of Krasnaya Street.

Theater Square is home to the largest splash fountain in Europe. [24] This fountain was officially inaugurated on September 25, 2011 along with an official ceremony to celebrate the City Day in Krasnodar.

Also in the city is the famous Krasnodar Park (also called Galitsky Park) — a city park located in the northeast of the center of Krasnodar in the Shkolny microdistrict, between Vostochno-Kruglikovskaya and Hero Vladislav Posadsky streets, next to the FC Krasnodar stadium. The park was built at the expense of entrepreneur Sergey Galitsky and opened on September 28, 2017. The area is 22.7 hectares. This is twice as much as the Novorossiysk forest! More than 2.5 thousand trees are planted in the park: oak, hornbeam, alder, bonsai, poplar, pine, tulip tree, maple, thuja, decorative plum.

Economy

Krasnodar is the economic center of southern Russia. For several years, Forbes magazine named Krasnodar the best city for business in Russia. [18] The industrial sector of the city has more than 130 large and medium-sized enterprises.

The main industries of Krasnodar:

Krasnodar is a highly developed commercial area, and has the largest annual turnover in the Southern Federal District of Russia. Retail trade turnover in 2010 reached 290 billion rubles. Per capita, Krasnodar has the highest number of malls in Russia. Note that in the crisis year 2009 turnover of Krasnodar continued to grow, while most of the cities showed a negative trend in the sale of goods.

Krasnodar has the lowest unemployment rate among the cities of the Southern Federal District at 0.3% of the total working-age population. In addition, Krasnodar holds the first place in terms of highest average salary - 21,742 rubles per capita. [25]

Tourism comprises a large part of Krasnodar's economy. There are more than 80 hotels in Krasnodar. The Hilton Garden Inn, opened in 2013, is the first world-class hotel in the city. [26]

Transportation

As in many other major cities in Russia, the primary mode of local transportation in Krasnodar is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light railways (projected), biking paths, and wide sidewalks. Public transportation within Krasnodar consists of city buses, trolleybuses, trams, and marshrutkas (routed taxis). Trolleybuses and trams, both powered by overhead electric wires, are the main form of public transportation in Krasnodar, which does not have a metro system.

The main airline was Kuban Airlines (at Krasnodar International Airport), but it closed down in 2012 and now the main ones are Aeroflot and Rossiya Airlines. The largest hotels in the city include the Intourist, Hotel Moskva, and Hotel Platan. Krasnodar uses a 220 V/50 Hz power supply with two round-pin outlets, like most European countries.

There are also two railway stations in Krasnodar: Krasnodar-1 and Krasnodar-2.

Education

In Krasnodar there are 15 gymnasiums (academic secondary schools) 5 lyceums (colleges of higher education), 110 schools of general education and 20 specialized schools, as well as 7 non-state lyceums and schools. [27]

The city has numerous institutions of higher education, including some state universities (Kuban State University, Kuban State Technological University, Kuban State Agrarian University, Kuban State Medical University, etc.). Other universities include: Marketing and Social Technology University of Krasnodar.

Demographics

As of 2020, the population of Krasnodar is 932,629 people, up from 744,995 in the 2010 census. [28]

Zapadnyy okrug in Krasnodar Zapadnyy okrug, Krasnodar, Krasnodarskiy kray, Russia - panoramio (9).jpg
Zapadnyy okrug in Krasnodar

Culture

Pushkin Library Pushkinskaia biblioteka.jpg
Pushkin Library

The oldest part of the city is Krasnodar Historic Center, which consists of many historic buildings, several from the 19th century. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction.

There are several major theater venues in Krasnodar:

Krasnodar has several major museums. The Kovalenko Krasnodar Regional Art Museum, the oldest public art museum in the North Caucasus, is one of the finest.

The largest public library of the city is the Pushkin Krasnodar Regional Universal Scientific Library, founded in 1900.

Sports

In amateur sport shinty in Russia has its centre in Krasnodar. Several professional sports clubs are active in the city:

ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Level
Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar (defunct) Football 1928
FC Krasnodar Football2008 Premier League 1st Krasnodar Stadium
WFC Krasnodar Football2020 Women's Supreme Division 1st Krasnodar Academy Stadium
Kubanochka Krasnodar (defunct)Football1988
Urozhay Krasnodar Football2018 PFL 3rd Kuban Stadium
Lokomotiv Kuban Basketball 2009 VTB United League 1st Basket Hall
Kuban Krasnodar Rugby union 1996 Professional Rugby League 1st Trud Stadium
Kuban Krasnodar (defunct) Ice hockey 2012
Dinamo Krasnodar Volleyball 1994 Volleyball Super League 3rd Olimp Sports Palace
Dinamo Krasnodar Volleyball1946 Women's Volleyball Super League 1stOlimp Sports Palace
SKIF Krasnodar Handball 1963 Handball Super League 1stOlimp Sports Palace
Kuban Krasnodar Handball1965 Women's Handball Super League 1stOlimp Sports Palace
Krasnodar Bisons American Football 2006 League of American Football 1st UTB Kuban

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Yekaterinodar was introduced in 1841 by the Cossack yesaul Ivan Chernik. The royal letter "E" in the middle is for Ekaterina II (Russian for Catherine II). It also depicts the date the city was founded, the Imperial double headed eagle (symbolizing Tsar's patronage of the Black Sea Cossacks), a bulawa of a Cossack ataman, Yekaterinodar fortress, and flags with letters "E", "P", "A", and "N" standing for Catherine II, Paul I, Alexander I and Nicholas I. Yellow stars around the shield symbolized 59 Black Sea stanitsas around the city.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Krasnodar has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa).

Winters are cold and damp, with unstable snow cover. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 1 °C (34 °F). Weather conditions in winter vary greatly in the city; temperatures can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) for a few days, but temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) are not uncommon for Krasnodar as the city is not protected by mountains from cold waves. Summers are typically hot, with a July average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F).

The city receives 735 millimeters (28.9 in) of precipitation annually, fairly spread throughout the year. Extreme storms are rare in the Krasnodar area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −32.9 to 40.7 °C (−27.2 to 105.3 °F), recorded on January 11, 1940 and July 30, 2000, respectively.

Climate data for Krasnodar, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1940–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.8
(69.4)
22.2
(72.0)
28.5
(83.3)
34.7
(94.5)
35.1
(95.2)
39.3
(102.7)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104.0)
38.5
(101.3)
33.9
(93.0)
28.5
(83.3)
23.0
(73.4)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.8
(51.4)
18.0
(64.4)
23.2
(73.8)
27.1
(80.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.2
(86.4)
24.9
(76.8)
18.1
(64.6)
10.7
(51.3)
5.9
(42.6)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.6
(33.1)
1.0
(33.8)
5.5
(41.9)
12.1
(53.8)
17.2
(63.0)
21.3
(70.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
18.5
(65.3)
12.3
(54.1)
6.1
(43.0)
2.0
(35.6)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F)−2.2
(28.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.8
(35.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.1
(53.8)
16.4
(61.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
13.3
(55.9)
7.9
(46.2)
2.8
(37.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F)−32.9
(−27.2)
−29.8
(−21.6)
−25.5
(−13.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.9
(39.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−9.9
(14.2)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−32.9
(−27.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)66
(2.6)
54
(2.1)
58
(2.3)
51
(2.0)
68
(2.7)
86
(3.4)
56
(2.2)
44
(1.7)
46
(1.8)
56
(2.2)
73
(2.9)
77
(3.0)
734
(28.9)
Average rainy days13111415141410810121415150
Average snowy days111060.30000003939
Average relative humidity (%)81767266666863626875818272
Mean monthly sunshine hours 718413618124727730328623817388552,139
Source 1: Погода и Климат [29]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990) [30]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Krasnodar is twinned with: [31]

Partner cities

Krasnodar cooperates with: [31]

See also

Notable people

Related Research Articles

Krasnodar Krai First-level administrative division of Russia

Krasnodar Krai is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Krasnodar. The third most populous federal subject, the krai had a population of 5,226,647 as of the 2010 Census.

Armavir, Russia City in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Armavir is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River. Population: 188,832 (2010 Census); 193,964 (2002 Census); 160,983 (1989 Census); 144,000 (1969). As of 2020, the city has a population of 188,960, while the agglomeration has a population of 207,570. Armavir was formerly the second-largest industrial center of Krasnodar Krai, after Krasnodar.

Temryuk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Temryuk is a town and the administrative center of Temryuksky District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Taman Peninsula on the right bank of the Kuban River not far from its entry into the Temryuk Bay, amid a field of mud volcanoes. The seaport of Temryuk is situated 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) from the town itself. Population: 41,413 (2020), 38,046 (2010 Census); 36,118 (2002 Census); 33,163 (1989 Census); 26,600 (1975).

Slavyansk-na-Kubani Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Slavyansk-na-Kubani is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located in the Kuban River delta. Population: 63,842 (2010 Census); 64,136 (2002 Census); 57,790 (1989 Census); 56,000 (1975).

Labinsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Labinsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Bolshaya Laba River 145 kilometers (90 mi) southeast of Krasnodar and 50 kilometers (31 mi) southwest of Armavir. Population: 59,330 (2020), 62,864 (2010 Census); 61,446 (2002 Census); 57,958 (1989 Census); 53,000 (1972).

Abinsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Abinsk is a town and the administrative center of Abinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located 75 kilometers (47 mi) southwest of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 39,058 (2020), 34,928 (2010 Census); 33,734 (2002 Census); 29,182 (1989 Census); 23,000 (1968).

Belorechensk, Krasnodar Krai Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

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Tikhoretsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Tikhoretsk is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the administrative center of the Tikhoretsky urban settlement and the Tikhoretsky District of the Krasnodar Territory. Population: 57,098 (2020),61,823 (2010 Census); 65,005 (2002 Census); 67,105 (1989 Census).

Ust-Labinsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

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Goryachy Klyuch, Krasnodar Krai Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

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Kropotkin, Krasnodar Krai Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Kropotkin is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Kuban River.

Novokubansky District District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Novokubansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Novokubansky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,823 square kilometers (704 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Novokubansk. Population: 86,311 (2010 Census); 87,478 (2002 Census); 76,275 (1989 Census). The population of Novokubansk accounts for 40.4% of the district's total population.

Novokubansk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Novokubansk is a town and the administrative center of Novokubansky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kuban River. Population: 35,199 (2020), 34,880 (2010 Census); 35,400 (2002 Census); 30,201 (1989 Census). The population of Novokubansk accounts for 40.4% of the district's total population.

Kurganinsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Kurganinsk is a town and the administrative center of Kurganinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Bolshaya Laba River 248 kilometers (154 mi) east of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 48,194 people (2020), 47,970 (2010 Census); 46,618 (2002 Census); 40,763 (1989 Census).

Apsheronsky District District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Apsheronsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Apsheronsky Municipal District. It is located in the south of the krai. The area of the district is 2,443.2 square kilometers (943.3 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Apsheronsk. Population: 98,891 (2010 Census); 95,048 (2002 Census); 86,059 (1989 Census). The population of Apsheronsk accounts for 40.7% of the district's total population.

Krasnoarmeysky District, Krasnodar Krai District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Krasnoarmeysky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Krasnoarmeysky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the krai. The area of the district is 1,899 square kilometers (733 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Poltavskaya. Population: 102,508 (2010 Census); 103,874 (2002 Census); 93,434 (1989 Census). The population of Poltavskaya accounts for 25.8% of the district's total population.

Kurganinsky District District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Kurganinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kurganinsky Municipal District. It is located in the east of the krai. The area of the district is 1,590 square kilometers (610 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kurganinsk.

Timashyovsky District District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Timashyovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Timashyovsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the krai. The area of the district is 1,506.4 square kilometers (581.6 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Timashyovsk. Population: 106,130 (2010 Census); 107,189 (2002 Census); 91,851 (1989 Census). The population of Timashyovsk accounts for 50.8% of the district's total population.

Ust-Labinsky District District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Ust-Labinsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the thirty-eight in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Ust-Labinsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the krai. The area of the district is 1,511 square kilometers (583 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Ust-Labinsk. Population: 112,900 (2010 Census); 115,442 (2002 Census); 100,770 (1989 Census). The population of Ust-Labinsk accounts for 38.3% of the district's total population.

Timashyovsk Town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia

Timashyovsk is a town and the administrative center of Timashyovsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Kirpili River 73 kilometers (45 mi) north of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai. As of 2020, the city has a population of 50,792.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. 1 2 3 Charter of Krasnodar Krai, Article 13
  3. 1 2 3 Charter of Krasnodar, Article 1
  4. 1 2 Cities and Towns of Russia Encyclopedia, pp. 217–218
  5. 1 2 Charter of Krasnodar, Article 23
  6. Official website of Krasnodar. Evgeny Alekseevich Pervyshov Archived September 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine , Head of the Municipal Formation of the City of Krasnodar (in Russian)
  7. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. 1 2 3 Law #670-OZ
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
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  27. Рейтинг школ: кто первый? «Югополис», 05.01.2011
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Bibliography

Krasnaya Street boulevard, Krasnodar Krasnodar attraction.jpg
Krasnaya Street boulevard, Krasnodar