Larnaca

Last updated

Larnaca
Larnaca by the sea.JPG
Cyprus - Larnacacastle 1.JPG
Cyprus - Larnaka Hala Sultan Tekke and salt lake.JPG
Saint Lazarus church.JPG
From top, left to right: Athinon Avenue, Larnaca Castle, Larnaca Salt Lake and the Hala Sultan Tekke, the Church of Saint Lazarus
Larnaca-Municipality.jpg
Cyprus location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Larnaca
Location in Cyprus
Coordinates: 34°55′N33°38′E / 34.917°N 33.633°E / 34.917; 33.633 Coordinates: 34°55′N33°38′E / 34.917°N 33.633°E / 34.917; 33.633
CountryFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
District Larnaca District
Government
  TypeMunicipal council
  MayorAndreas Vyras (AKEL)
Elevation
26 m (85 ft)
Population
 (2015) [1]
  City51,468
   Urban
84,900
   Metro
144,200
 The urban population is the aggregate of the populations of Larnaca, Aradippou, Livadia, Dromolaxia, and Meneou
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Area code(s) +357 24
Website www.larnaka.org.cy

Larnaca (Greek : Λάρνακα [ˈlarnaka] ; Turkish : Larnaka) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and the capital of the district of the same name. It is the third-largest city in the country, after Nicosia and Limassol, with a metro population of 144,200 in 2015. [2]

Contents

Larnaca is known for its palm-tree seafront also called Foinikoudes as well as the Church of Saint Lazarus, Hala Sultan Tekke, Kamares Aqueduct, and Larnaca Castle. It is built on the ruins of ancient Citium, which was the birthplace of Stoic philosopher Zeno. Larnaca is home to the country's primary airport, Larnaca International Airport. It also has a seaport and a marina.

Names

The name Larnaca originates from the Ancient Greek noun λάρναξ larnax 'coffer, box; chest, e.g. for household stores; cinerary urn, sarcophagus, coffin; drinking trough, chalice'. An informal etymology attributes the origin of the name to the many larnakes (sarcophagi) that have been found in the area. [3] Sophocles Hadjisavvas, a state archeologist, states that "[the city's U.S.] consul of the last quarter of the 19th century, claimed to have explored more than 3,000 tombs in the area of Larnaca, so-called after the immense number of sarcophagi found in the modern town". [4]

In the vernacular, Larnaca is also known as Scala (Greek : Σκάλα [ˈskala] from the word σκάλα, a loanword from the Italian scala, meaning "ladder" or "landing stage") referring to the historical port.[ citation needed ]

During the Middle Ages, until the end of the 18th century, a small port-anchorage close to Larnaca Bay is referred to on maps, engravings, in travel descriptions and documents as 'Scala di Saline and may account for this second name; other names that appear on maps include: Porto delle Salines, Rada delle Saline, Ponta delle Saline, Punta delle Salino, Golfo delle Saline, Port Salines, Selines, Salines, Le Seline, Le Salline, Saline, Salin, Salinas, Arnicho di Salinas, Port of Lazarus, Lazare [o], Marine, Marina, and Commercio [customs].[ citation needed ]

History

Street in Larnaca in 1878 Street in Larnaca, Cyprus. Wellcome L0056669.jpg
Street in Larnaca in 1878
1880 drawing of market in Larnaca STEVENSON(1880) p046 BAZAAR AT LARNACA.jpg
1880 drawing of market in Larnaca

The former city-kingdom of Kition was originally established in the 13th century BC. [5] New cultural elements appearing between 1200 BC and 1000 BC (personal objects, pottery, new architectural forms and ideas) are interpreted as indications of significant political changes and the arrival of the Achaeans, the first Greek colonists of Kition. [6] Around the same time, Phoenicians settled the area.

At the archaeological sites of Kiteon, remains that date from the 13th century BC have been found. Around 1000 BC, Kition was rebuilt by Phoenicians and it subsequently became a center of Phoenician culture. The remains of the sites include cyclopean walls and a complex of five temples and a naval port.

It was conquered in the first millennium BC by a series of great powers of the region. First by the Assyrian Empire, then by Egypt. Like most Cypriot cities, Kition belonged to the Persian or Achaemenid Empire. In 450 BC, the Athenian general Cimon died at sea, while militarily supporting the revolt against Persia's rule over Cyprus. On his deathbed, he urged his officers to conceal his death from both their allies and the Persians.

Strong [7] earthquakes hit the city in 76 AD and the year after.

Earthquakes of 322 AD and 342 "caused the destruction not only of Kition but also of Salamis and Pafos". [7] Kition's harbor silted up, and the population moved to the seafront farther south, sometime after this. (Contributing factors to the silting are thought to have been earthquakes, deforestation and overgrazing.)

The commercial port was located at Skala, during the Ottoman Period. Skala is the name of the seashore immediately south of the Larnaca castle [8] —and its neighborhood.

The Kamares aqueduct was built in 1747—bringing water to the city from a source around 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the city.[ citation needed ]

Geography

The Salt Lake fills with water during the winter season and is visited by flocks of flamingoes who stay there from November until the end of March. It usually dries up in the summer. In the past,[ when? ] it yielded good quality salt scraped from the dried surface. The salt from the lake is now considered unsuitable for consumption.

Climate

The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as a hot semi-arid climate (BSh) due to its low annual rainfall and hot summer temperatures resulting in highly negative water balance. It is sometimes described as a mediterranean climate due to the pronounced rainy season in winter and virtually rainless summers, but this winter rainfall is below the required amount to avoid the semi-arid classification.

Climate data for Larnaca (extremes 1881-present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.6
(72.7)
26.2
(79.2)
30.3
(86.5)
34.1
(93.4)
38.3
(100.9)
40.1
(104.2)
41.1
(106.0)
40.9
(105.6)
39.7
(103.5)
34.8
(94.6)
31.5
(88.7)
26.6
(79.9)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F)16.8
(62.2)
16.8
(62.2)
19.1
(66.4)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
30.3
(86.5)
32.4
(90.3)
32.7
(90.9)
30.9
(87.6)
28.1
(82.6)
22.6
(72.7)
18.3
(64.9)
24.7
(76.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)12.1
(53.8)
11.8
(53.2)
13.9
(57.0)
17.1
(62.8)
21.2
(70.2)
25.0
(77.0)
27.3
(81.1)
27.6
(81.7)
25.4
(77.7)
22.6
(72.7)
17.5
(63.5)
13.7
(56.7)
19.6
(67.3)
Average low °C (°F)7.5
(45.5)
6.9
(44.4)
8.7
(47.7)
11.7
(53.1)
16.0
(60.8)
19.8
(67.6)
22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
19.9
(67.8)
17.1
(62.8)
12.5
(54.5)
9.2
(48.6)
14.5
(58.1)
Record low °C (°F)−0.9
(30.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.0
(35.6)
8.5
(47.3)
12.5
(54.5)
16.0
(60.8)
15.6
(60.1)
12.4
(54.3)
7.6
(45.7)
1.9
(35.4)
0.6
(33.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches)77.6
(3.06)
40.9
(1.61)
34.4
(1.35)
17.7
(0.70)
8.8
(0.35)
2.7
(0.11)
0.6
(0.02)
0.4
(0.02)
7.1
(0.28)
13.8
(0.54)
53.1
(2.09)
94.5
(3.72)
351.6
(13.85)
Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)7.95.74.53.10.70.30.10.10.52.14.78.037.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.3208.8238.7267.0331.7378.0387.5365.8312.0275.9216.0179.83,356.5
Source 1: Meteorological Service (Cyprus) [9]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows) [10]

Landmarks

Larnaca banner.jpg
Panoramic view of Phoinikoudes beach

The city's landmarks include: the Church of Saint Lazarus; the Catacomb of Phaneromeni Church; Hala Sultan Tekke; the Kamares Aqueduct; and the Fort of Larnaca.

So-called "Foinikoudes" is the promenade along Athenon Avenue on the seafront. A row of palm trees (Cypriot Greek: φοινικούδες, foinikoudes) lines either side of it.

Monuments

Church of Saint Lazarus, Larnaca Lazarus-Kirche, Larnaka (03).jpg
Church of Saint Lazarus, Larnaca

Economy

Europe's square with government buildings Europe square.JPG
Europe's square with government buildings

Larnaca's economy has been growing since 1975,[ citation needed ] after the loss of the Port of Famagusta, which handled 80% of general cargo, and the closure of Nicosia International Airport, meant that Larnaca's airport and seaport had increasingly important roles in the economy of the island. A €650m upgrade of Larnaca Airport has been completed.

The service sector, including tourism, employs three-quarters of Larnaca's labour force.[ citation needed ] Many travel and tour operators and other travel-related companies have a head office Larnaca.

Education

The former Cornaro Institute in Larnaca was an art school and cultural centre prior to its closure by the municipality in 2017 The Cornaro art institute.JPG
The former Cornaro Institute in Larnaca was an art school and cultural centre prior to its closure by the municipality in 2017

There are over a hundred educational institutions in the city,[ citation needed ] including the American Academy, Larnaca Nareg Armenian school and the Alexander College.

Culture

Arts

Larnaca has a theatre and an art gallery, which are operated by the municipality. The Cornaro Institute was a cultural centre founded by the celebrated Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos in the Old Town in 2007, which staged contemporary art exhibitions and other cultural events, prior to its closure by Larnaca Municipality in 2017.

Music

The Municipal Wind Orchestra Larnaca band.JPG
The Municipal Wind Orchestra

Local institutions include the Municipal Wind Orchestra.

Sports

Local teams include (football:) AEK Larnaca FC and ALKI Larnaca FC. Due to the Turkish occupation of Famagusta, the two teams of Famagusta, Anorthosis and Nea Salamina, are located here.

Local sports arenas include AEK Arena - Georgios Karapatakis, GSZ Stadium, "Antonis Papadopoulos" and "Ammochostos".

International competitions held in the city, include the Larnaka International Marathon since 2017, the Shooting Shotgun European Championships in 2012, the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH Youth World Championship in 2012, the European Under-19 Football Championship final in 1998 and the European Under-17 Football Championship final in 1992.

Larnaca attracts windsurfers from around the world especially in autumn. Mackenzie Beach hosts windsurfing centre together with an extreme sports centre.

Festivals

Much of the activity is centered on the city promenade during the major festivals. The most important of these is Kataklysmos or the Festival of the Flood, celebrated in early summer with a series of cultural events. The festival used to last for about a week, but, in recent years, with the increased commercialism of peripheral stalls, rides and temporary Loukoumades restaurants, the festival has been extended to about three weeks, during which the seafront is closed to traffic in the evenings.

Museums

Museums found in Larnaca include the Larnaca District Archaeological Museum, Pierides Museum, Agios Lazaros Byzantine Museum, Kallinikeio Municipal Museum of Athienou, Larnaca Medieval Museum, Larnaca Municipal Museum of Natural History, Larnaca Municipal Historical Archives - Museum of Larnaca, Folklore Museum ‘Kostas Kaimakliotis’ - Aradippou, Theasis Museum, Kyriazis Medical Museum and Museum of Michel Platini.

Cuisine

The beaches of Larnaca are lined with nearly identical seafood restaurants catering to tourists. Although there are many continental and international restaurants in Larnaca, visitors do not miss out on indulging in the local food. Many of the staple dishes involve beans, such as fasolaki (French beans cooked in red wine with lamb), and louvi me lahana (black-eyed peas with chard). Some of the standard appetizers are potato salad, kohlrabi salad, and hot grilled black olives. The next course may include Cyprus village sausage and sheftalia, dolmades and keftedes, kolokassi in tomato sauce, and several aubergine-based dishes. Baked or grilled lamb ( souvla ) usually appears somewhere in the course of dining, as does some kind of fish.

Neighbourhoods

Larnaca's neighbourhoods include Skala, Prodromos, Faneromeni, Drosia, Kamares, Vergina and Agioi Anargyroi.

Transport

Larnaca International Airport Larnaka International Airport.JPG
Larnaca International Airport

The city's transport hubs are Larnaca International Airport and Larnaca Port—the Republic's busiest airport and second busiest port.

Public transport

Public transport in Larnaca is served only by buses. Bus routes and timetables can be found here.

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Larnaca Municipality is twinned with the following: [11]

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

Limassol City on the southern coast of Cyprus

Limassol is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the district with the same name. Limassol is the second largest urban area in Cyprus after Nicosia, with an urban population of 183,658 and a metropolitan population of 239,842. In 2014 Limassol was ranked by TripAdvisor as the 3rd up-and-coming destination in the world, in its Top 10 Traveler's Choice Destinations on the Rise list. The city is also ranked 89th worldwide in Mercer's Quality of Living Survey (2017). In the 2020 ranking published by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Limassol was classified as a "Gamma −" global city.

Famagusta City in eastern Cyprus

Famagusta is a city on the east coast of Cyprus. It is located east of Nicosia and possesses the deepest harbour of the island. During the Middle Ages, Famagusta was the island's most important port city and a gateway to trade with the ports of the Levant, from where the Silk Road merchants carried their goods to Western Europe. The old walled city and parts of the modern city are under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus, claimed by Cyprus. Famagusta is the capital of the Gazimağusa District of Northern Cyprus.

Ancient history of Cyprus

The ancient history of Cyprus shows a precocious sophistication in the Neolithic era visible in settlements such as at Choirokoitia dating from the 9th millennium BC, and at Kalavassos from about 7500 BC.

Ottoman Cyprus Ottoman province (1571–1878)

The Eyalet of Cyprus was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way they administered Cyprus multiple times. It was a sanjak (sub-province) of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, and again from 1784 onwards; a fief of the Grand Vizier ; and again an eyalet for the short period from 1745 to 1748.

Larnaca District District of Cyprus

Larnaca District is one of the six districts of Cyprus. Its capital is Larnaca. It is bordered on the east by Famagusta District, on the north by Nicosia District and on the west by Limassol District.

AEK Larnaca FC Association football club in Cyprus

AEK Larnaca FC is a Cypriot professional football club from Larnaca, Cyprus. Their home ground as from the 2016–2017 season is the brand new AEK Arena – Georgios Karapatakis stadium with a capacity of 8,000 spectators. The club was formed in 1994 after a merger of two Larnaca clubs, EPA Larnaca and Pezoporikos. The club has also basketball sections for men AEK Larnaca BC and a volleyball section for women.

Hala Sultan Tekke

Hala Sultan Tekke or the Mosque of Umm Haram is a mosque and tekke complex on the west bank of Larnaca Salt Lake, in Larnaca, Cyprus. Umm Haram was the wife of Ubada bin al-Samit, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and foster sister of Muhammad’s mother, Aminah bint Wahb.

Larnaca Salt Lake Body of water

Larnaca Salt Lake is a complex network of four salt lakes of different sizes to the west of the city of Larnaca. The largest is lake Aliki, followed by lake Orphani, lake Soros and lake Spiro. They form the second largest salt lake in Cyprus after the Limassol Salt Lake. The total surface area of the lakes adds up to 2.2 km2 and being just off the road leading to Larnaca International Airport is one of the most distinctive landmarks of the area. It is considered one of the most important wetlands of Cyprus and it has been declared a Ramsar site, Natura 2000 site, Special Protected Area under the Barcelona Convention and an Important Bird Area (IBA). It is surrounded by halophytic scrubland and on its bank lies the Hala Sultan Tekke, one of the holiest of shrines within Ottoman Islam. It houses the tomb of Umm Haram, Muhammad's 'wet-nurse'.

Trikomo, Cyprus Place in Famagusta District, Cyprus

Trikomo is a town in North-Eastern Mesaoria in Cyprus. It is under the de facto control of Northern Cyprus and is the administrative center of the İskele District of Northern Cyprus. It gained municipality status in 1998.

Religion in Cyprus is characterised by two main religious beliefs and practices. Christianity makes up 73% of the population of the island. Most Greek Cypriots, and thus the majority of the population of Cyprus, are members of the autocephalous Greek Orthodox. Most Turkish Cypriots are officially Sunni Muslims. There are also Baháʼí, Catholic, Jewish, Protestant, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and non-religious communities in Cyprus.

Neoklis Kyriazis

Neoklis Kyriazis was a Cypriot medical doctor and historian known for his significant contributions to the history of Cyprus. He was a member of the National Council of Cyprus.

The practice of medicine and therapeutics in Cyprus has its roots into ancient times. Many of the classical practices were well documented at the time by Greek or Roman physicians, and some therapies have originated from Cyprus itself.

Alexis Michaelides served as the deputy mayor of Larnaca, Cyprus between 2001 and 2012.

Ebubekir Pasha, also referred to as Koca Bekir Pasha and Abu Bakr Pasha, was an Ottoman statesman. He served as Kapudan Pasha ; as governor (beylerbey) of the provinces of Egypt, Jeddah, Cyprus, and Bosnia; and as head of the Imperial Mint. He was the husband of Safiye Sultan and thus son-in-law (damat) of Sultan Mustafa II.

Kition Ancient Helleno-Phoenician city in Cyprus

Kition was a city-kingdom on the southern coast of Cyprus. According to the text on the plaque closest to the excavation pit of the Kathari site, it was established in the 13th century BC by Greek (Achaean) settlers, after the Trojan war.

Kamares Aqueduct

Kamares Aqueduct, also known as the Bekir Pasha Aqueduct, is an aqueduct near Larnaca, Cyprus. Located outside the city, near the old road to Limassol, it was built starting in 1747. Tassos Mikropoulos has described it as the most prominent water supply built in Cyprus.

Larnaca Castle Castle in Larnaca, Cyprus

Larnaca Castle is a castle located on the southern coast of Cyprus. It was constructed to defend the southern coast of Cyprus and the harbour town of Larnaca and was later used as an artillery station, prison, and a museum.

Larnaca District Archaeological Museum

Larnaca District Museum is a museum in Larnaca, Cyprus that has displays that show the "historical development of the city of Kition and the District of Larnaka in general." It was inaugurated in 1969. and was formerly named Larnaca District Archaeological Museum. It is controlled by the Department of Antiquities.

Pierides Museum (Larnaca)

The Pierides Museum is a museum in Larnaca, Cyprus that was founded by the Pierides Foundation. It is the nation's oldest private museum.

The Chrysosotiros church, also known as the Cathedral of the Holy Transfiguration of the Saviour is a church in Larnaca, Cyprus.

References

  1. "Population - Place of Residence, 2011". Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT). 17 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
  2. "Στατιστική Υπηρεσία - Πληθυσμός και Κοινωνικές Συνθήκες - Πληθυσμός - Ανακοινώσεις". www.mof.gov.cy. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
  3. "The great number of sarcophagoi (larnakes) found at Larnaca may have given to the modern city its name." Excerpt of wall mounted text at Larnaca District Museum, under the title "Kition: The necropolis"
  4. The Phoenician Period Necropolis of Kition, Volume I Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  5. According to the text on the only plaque at the Kathari site (as of 2013).
  6. Excerpt of text on the only plaque at the Kathari site (as of 2013).
  7. 1 2 Flourentzos, P. (1996). A Guide to the Larnaca District Museum. Ministry of Communications and Works – Department of Antiquities. p. 18. ISBN   978-9963-36-425-1.
  8. Road & Tourist Map of Larnaka. SELAS LTD. ISBN   978-9963-566-92-1.
  9. "Meteorological Service – Climatological and Meteorological Reports". Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
  10. "Station Maceio" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  11. Οι αδελφοποιήσεις της Λάρνακας. Larnaca Municipality (in Greek). Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  12. "Se llevan a cabo gestiones para realizar hermanamiento entre Lárnaca y Acapulco" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  13. "Archived copy". www.bratislava-city.sk. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Αδελφοποιήσεις – Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2014.