Limassol

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Limassol

Λεμεσός / Limasol
Limassol Montage 1.jpg
Limassol Municipality Logo.png
Seal
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Limassol
Coordinates: 34°40′29″N33°02′39″E / 34.67472°N 33.04417°E / 34.67472; 33.04417
CountryFlag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus
District Limassol District
Government
   Mayor Nicos Nicolaides (EDEK)
Area
  City45.87 km2 (17.71 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
  City101,000 [1]
   Urban
183,658 [1]
   Metro
239,842 [1]
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
3010–3150
Website www.limassolmunicipal.com.cy

Limassol ( /ˈlɪməsɒl/ ; Greek : Λεμεσός, romanized: Lemesós [lemeˈsos] ; Turkish : Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district. Limassol is the second largest urban area in Cyprus after Nicosia, with an urban population of 183,658 [1] and a metropolitan population of 239,842. [1] Limassol has been ranked by TripAdvisor as the 3rd up-and-coming destination in the world, in its Top 10 Traveler’s Choice Destinations on the Rise. [2] [3] The city is also ranked 89th worldwide in Mercer's Quality of Living Survey (2017). [4] In the ranking published by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Limassol has been classified global city in the 4th category (sufficiency level cities). [5]

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

Contents

History

Limassol was built between two ancient Greek cities, Amathus and Kourion, and during Byzantine rule it was known as Neapolis (new town). Limassol's historical centre is located around its medieval Limassol Castle and the Old Port. Today the city spreads along the Mediterranean coast and has extended much farther than the castle and port, with its suburbs stretching along the coast to Amathus. To the west of the city, is the Akrotiri Area of the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural and military force in Europe. "Byzantine Empire" is a term created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Limassol Castle archaeological museum

The medieval Limassol Castle is situated near the old harbour in the heart of the historical centre of the city of Limassol. The castle as it appears today is a structure rebuilt circa 1590 under the period of Ottoman rule.

British Overseas Territories territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom but not part of it

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories. These territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. They all share the British monarch as head of state.

Ancient

Ancient Amathus Amathus31.JPG
Ancient Amathus
Kourion Greco-Roman theatre. Episkopi 01-2017 img03 Kourion.jpg
Kourion Greco-Roman theatre.

The city of Limassol is situated between the ancient cities of Amathus and Kourion (Curium). Limassol was probably built after Amathus had been ruined. However, the town of Limassol has been inhabited since very ancient times. Graves found there date back to 2000 BC and others date back to the 8th and 4th centuries BC. These few remains show that a small colonisation must have existed which did not manage to develop and flourish. Ancient writers mention nothing about the foundation of the town. In 85 BC, Armenian emperor Tigranes the Great (Armenian : Տիգրան ՄեծTigran Mets; Greek : Τιγράνης ὁ ΜέγαςTigránes ho Mégas) had reached Limassol in order to establish security and protection of local Greek allies against Rome in a result followed by his conquest of Syria, Lebanon and Anatolia.

Amathus city-kingdom in ancient Cyprus

Amathus or Amathous was an ancient city and one of the ancient royal cities of Cyprus until about 300 BC. Some of its impressive remains can be seen today on the southern coast in front of Agios Tychonas, about 24 miles (39 km) west of Larnaca and 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Limassol. Its ancient cult sanctuary of Aphrodite was the second most important in Cyprus, her homeland, after Paphos.

Kourion

Kourion or Latin: Curium, was an important ancient city-state on the southwestern coast of Cyprus. In the twelfth century BCE, after the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces, Greek settlers arrived on this site.

Ancient history Human history from the earliest records to the end of the classical period

Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline.

Tigranes the Great and the Four Kings Tigranes four Kings.jpg
Tigranes the Great and the Four Kings

According to the Council of Chalcedon which took place in 451, the local bishop as well as the bishops of Amathus and Arsinoe were involved in the foundation of the city, which would be known by the names of Theodosiana and Neapolis. [6] Bishop Leontios of Neapolis was an important church writer in the 7th century. The records of the 7th Synod (757) refer to it as the bishop’s see. The town was known as Lemesos in the 10th century.

Council of Chalcedon Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451; not accepted by Oriental Orthodoxy

The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451, at Chalcedon. The Council was called by Emperor Marcian to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus. Its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox catholic doctrine against the heresy of Eutyches and the Monophysites, although ecclesiastical discipline and jurisdiction also occupied the council's attention.

Leontios was Bishop of Neapolis (Limassol) in Cyprus in the 7th century CE. Works: Life of St. John the Merciful, commissioned by the archbishop of Constantia Arcadius, Life of Simeon the Holy Fool, a lost "Life of Spyridon" and an apologia against Jews. His works are considered among the few works giving any insight into the vernacular Greek of Early and Middle Byzantium.

Medieval

View of Kolossi Castle built in 1210 by the Frankish military. Kolossi Castle 01.JPG
View of Kolossi Castle built in 1210 by the Frankish military.

The history of Limassol is largely known by the events associated with the Third Crusade. The king of England, Richard the Lionheart, was travelling to the Holy Land in 1190. [7] His fiancée Berengaria and his sister Joan, Queen of Sicily, were also travelling on a different ship. Because of a storm, the ship with the queens arrived in Limassol. [7] Isaac Komnenos, the renegade Byzantine Greek governor of Cyprus invited the queens ashore, with the intention of holding them to ransom, but they refused. So he refused them fresh water and they had to put out to sea again or yield to capture. When Richard arrived in Limassol and met Isaac Komnenos, he asked him to contribute to the crusade for the liberation of the Holy Land. [7] While at the beginning Isaac had accepted, he later on refused to give any help. Richard then chased him and finally arrested him; the entire island was therefore taken over by the Anglo-Normans, bringing the long Byzantine dominion of Cyprus to an end. [8] Richard celebrated his marriage with Berengaria who had received the crown as queen of England in Cyprus. Richard destroyed Amathus and the inhabitants were transferred to Limassol. [7]

Third Crusade attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187. It was partially successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, and reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, which was the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus.

Richard I of England 12th-century King of England and crusader

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. He was also known in Occitan as: Oc e No, because of his reputation for terseness.

Holy Land Term used by Jews, Christians, and Muslims to describe the Land of Israel and Palestine

The Holy Land is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical Land of Israel and with the region of Palestine. The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory roughly corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, and parts of southern Lebanon and of southwestern Syria. Jews, Christians, and Muslims all regard it as holy.

A year later, in AD 1191 Cyprus was sold for the sum of 100,000 bezants to the Templars, rich monks and soldiers whose aim was the protection of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. [7] The knights enforced high taxes, in order to get back the money that had been given for the purchase of Cyprus. This led to the revolt of the Cypriots, who wished to get rid of the bond of the promise. Richard accepted their request and a new purchaser was found: Guy de Lusignan, a Roman Catholic from Poitou. Cyprus was therefore handed over to the French dynasty of the house of Lusignan, thus establishing the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus.

Bezant

In the Middle Ages, the term bezant was used in Western Europe to describe several gold coins of the east, all derived ultimately from the Roman solidus. The word itself comes from the Greek Byzantion, ancient name of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

Knights Templar Western Christian military order; medieval Catholic military order

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply the Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by the papal bull Omne datum optimum. The order was founded in 1119 and was active until 1312 when it was perpetually suppressed by Pope Clement V by the bull Vox in excelso.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church in Jerusalem, Israel

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as Calvary or Golgotha, and Jesus's empty tomb, where he is said to have been buried and resurrected. The tomb is enclosed by a 19th-century shrine called the Aedicula. The Status Quo, a 260-year-old understanding between religious communities, applies to the site.

For a period of about three centuries 1175–1489, Limassol enjoyed remarkable prosperity. Cyprus was characterised by its great number of Latin bishops. This lasted until the occupation of Cyprus by the Ottomans in AD 1570. Latin battalions which established monasteries were settled down there. The settlement of merchants in Cyprus and particularly in Limassol in the 13th century led to the financial welfare of its inhabitants. Its harbour as a centre of transportation and commerce, contributed greatly to the financial and cultural development.

Venetian rule

Cyprus was sold in 1489 to Venice by the Cypriot Queen Catherine Cornaro. [9] The Venetians did not have Cyprus' best interest at heart, they were only interested in receiving the taxes and in exploiting the country’s resources. The Venetians strengthened the Castle of Limassol.

Under the Ottoman Empire

The Limassol Medieval Castle was rebuilt in 1590 by the Ottomans. Limassol 01-2017 img21 Castle exterior.jpg
The Limassol Medieval Castle was rebuilt in 1590 by the Ottomans.

The Ottoman Empire invaded Cyprus in 1570–1577 and occupied it. [10] [11] Limassol was conquered in July 1570 without any resistance.

Some neighbourhoods, mostly to the east of the city were predominantly Greek, to the west predominantly Turkish with an evenly mixed area around the castle. The church played an important role in the education of Greeks during the years 1754–1821. During those years new schools were set up in all the towns. Greek intellectuals used to teach Greek history, Turkish and French. The following schools operated in the town of Limassol:

British Colonial administration

Limassol old town with British colonial architecture Limassol Old Town 19.JPG
Limassol old town with British colonial architecture
Barrels of wine in Limassol port in 1930s Tonneaux de vin sur le port de Limassol.jpg
Barrels of wine in Limassol port in 1930s

The British took over in Cyprus in 1878. The first British governor of Limassol was Colonel Warren. [12] He showed a particular interest in Limassol and even from the very first days the condition of the town showed an improvement. The roads were cleaned, the animals were removed from the centre, roads were fixed, trees were planted and docks were constructed for the loading and unloading of those ships that were anchored off-shore. Lanterns for the lighting of the central areas were also installed in the 1880. In 1912, electricity replaced the old lanterns. [12]

From the very first years of the British occupation, a post office, a telegraph office and a hospital began to operate. [12] In 1880 the first printing press started working. It was in this printing press that the newspapers Alithia and Anagennisis were published in 1897. The newspaper Salpinx was published at the same time.

At the end of the 19th century the very first hotels began to operate. Among these were Europe and Amathus.

These changes that the British brought about contributed to the development of an intellectual and artistic life. Schools, theatres, clubs, art galleries, music halls, sport societies, football clubs etc. were all set up and meant a great deal to the cultural life of Limassol.

Politics and government

European People's Party summit in Limassol in 2013 EPP Summit Limassol Jan. 2013 (8389039511).jpg
European People's Party summit in Limassol in 2013
Angela Merkel and Nicos Anastasiades attending the EPP summit in Limassol in 2013 Angela Merkel (9307209906).jpg
Angela Merkel and Nicos Anastasiades attending the EPP summit in Limassol in 2013

The first Marxist groups in Cyprus formed in Limassol in the early 1920s; in 1926, the Communist party of Cyprus was formed in the city. Its successor, AKEL, has dominated municipal elections since the first free elections in 1943, won by Ploutis Servas.

The European People's Party held an extraordinary party summit in Limassol in 2013. The list of participants in the summit included European Council members, government representatives, European Commission representatives, opposition members and leaders, and European Parliament representatives. The summit's agenda included topics such as the EU's multi-annual financial framework for the period 2014–2020 and the preparation for the 2014 European elections. [13] Notably, Andreas Christou, a Progressive Party of Working People member, was re-elected mayor of Limassol in December 2011 to serve his second five-year term.

Education

Limassol Armenian school Limassol Armenian school.JPG
Limassol Armenian school

There are over a hundred educational institutions in the city. Limassol hosts Saint Mary's school, a Catholic private school open to all religions and races, as well as other private schools, such as The Grammar School Limassol, American Academy, The Heritage Private School and Foley's Grammar School.

In addition to the various Greek-speaking Elementary schools, Limassol is home to the Limassol Nareg Armenian school.

Furthermore, Limassol is the base of Cyprus University of Technology one of three state universities, which was established in 2004.

Transport

Public transport in Limassol is served by buses. Limassol is connected to other cities in Cyprus via intercity buses.

The city is a highway hub, Limassol crosses some motorways:

Also, there is also B8 road from city to Troodos Mountains in north.

The city is close to two international airports: Larnaca International Airport (situated ~50 km (31 mi) north-east from city) and Paphos International Airport (situated ~50 km (31 mi) north-west from city).

Port of Limassol is main seaport in Cyprus.

Climate

The Troodos Mountains provide a cooler climate for the city's residents. Troodos Mountains.JPG
The Troodos Mountains provide a cooler climate for the city's residents.
Snow-covered mountains near Kellaki in the vicinity of Limassol. Xionia kellaki.jpg
Snow-covered mountains near Kellaki in the vicinity of Limassol.

Limassol has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) [14] with warm to hot and dry summers and very mild winters, which are separated by short springs and autumns which are generally warm and pleasant. From December to March the weather is unsettled and can be rainy and windy but you can also often expect great amounts of sunshine averaging around 6 hours a day. During this season there are a few days when the daytime highs might not exceed 12 °C (54 °F) and the night time lows might be as low as 2 °C (36 °F) but usually the temperature ranges from 16 °C (61 °F) to 20 °C (68 °F) in the day and from 7 °C (45 °F) to 12 °C (54 °F) in the night. Rain tends to be heavy this time of the year and thunderstorms occur often though they usually do not last for a long time.

Snow in Limassol is a very rare occurrence and usually falls mixed with rain every 7–13 years. In recent years, snow mixed with rain fell in February 2004, in January 2008 and in February 2012. In spring – March the weather is mild to warm and pleasant. It is sunny almost every day and the temperatures are around 19–20 °C (66–68 °F) in the day and 9 °C (48 °F) in the night. Rain showers and thunderstorms are common especially in late March and April. Sometimes during the spring dust comes from the Sahara desert which affects badly the visibility of the city. Summer for Limassol is the longest season of the year, and lasts about six months; it begins in May and ends in October. At this time of the year the weather is sunny every day and rain is rare. The temperatures range between 19 °C (66 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) in June and September and 22 °C (72 °F) to 40 °C (104 °F) in July and August. In June sea mist can sometimes occur usually resolves early in the mornings. Autumn is warm and usually sunny. It begins in the end of November and in December. During this period of the year expect temperatures from as low as 12 °C (54 °F) and as high as 20 °C (68 °F).

This season the weather differs from year to year and it can be very wet with violent thunderstorms sometimes (October 2009; rainfall of around 90 mm (3.5 in)) or very dry (October 2007; rainfall of 2-5mm). Finally Limassol receives around 410 mm (16.1 in) of rain each year but this varies from year to year and sometimes droughts do occur (every 3–5 years). The rainy season 2009–2010 was a wet one with precipitation being as high as 515 mm (20.3 in) in some areas whilst the rainy season of 2007–2008 was dry with only 300 mm (11.8 in) of rain. Hail is rare and usually falls between October–April.

Climate data for Limassol (1991–2005)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.3
(73.9)
24.4
(75.9)
29.0
(84.2)
33.6
(92.5)
38.6
(101.5)
40.3
(104.5)
38.8
(101.8)
40.2
(104.4)
39.3
(102.7)
35.6
(96.1)
32.5
(90.5)
24.6
(76.3)
40.3
(104.5)
Average high °C (°F)17.6
(63.7)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
22.9
(73.2)
26.9
(80.4)
30.8
(87.4)
33.2
(91.8)
33.3
(91.9)
31.3
(88.3)
28.6
(83.5)
23.5
(74.3)
18.9
(66.0)
25.4
(77.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)13.2
(55.8)
13.5
(56.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.0
(64.4)
21.8
(71.2)
25.5
(77.9)
27.8
(82.0)
28.0
(82.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.2
(73.8)
18.5
(65.3)
14.5
(58.1)
20.4
(68.8)
Average low °C (°F)8.8
(47.8)
8.5
(47.3)
10.4
(50.7)
13.1
(55.6)
16.7
(62.1)
20.1
(68.2)
22.4
(72.3)
22.7
(72.9)
20.6
(69.1)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
10.1
(50.2)
15.4
(59.7)
Record low °C (°F)2.1
(35.8)
1.0
(33.8)
3.4
(38.1)
5.0
(41.0)
11.1
(52.0)
13.9
(57.0)
19.0
(66.2)
18.9
(66.0)
13.8
(56.8)
8.8
(47.8)
3.8
(38.8)
0.5
(32.9)
0.5
(32.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)86.7
(3.41)
66.9
(2.63)
35.8
(1.41)
18.4
(0.72)
5.1
(0.20)
1.4
(0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
2.9
(0.11)
13.1
(0.52)
77.5
(3.05)
99.7
(3.93)
407.5
(16.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)9.37.15.63.31.10.20.00.00.31.95.58.843.1
Source: Meteorological Service (Cyprus) [15]
Average sea temperature [17]
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
17.8 °C
(64.0 °F)
17.0 °C
(62.6 °F)
17.3 °C
(63.1 °F)
18.1 °C
(64.6 °F)
20.8 °C
(69.4 °F)
24.4 °C
(75.9 °F)
27.2 °C
(81.0 °F)
28.0 °C
(82.4 °F)
27.2 °C
(81.0 °F)
25.2 °C
(77.4 °F)
22.1 °C
(71.8 °F)
19.6 °C
(67.3 °F)
22.0 °C
(71.6 °F)

Economy

Limassol Marina Limassol Marina 03.jpg
Limassol Marina
Cranes in Limassol Harbour. Limassol, Cyprus at night.jpg
Cranes in Limassol Harbour.
Columbia Plaza in the old city centre Columbia Plaza 1.jpg
Columbia Plaza in the old city centre
Fasouri Watermania, Cyprus' biggest waterpark Fasouri Watermania Water Park Limassol.jpg
Fasouri Watermania, Cyprus' biggest waterpark

The development of tourism in Limassol began after 1974 when Famagusta and Kyrenia, the principal tourist resorts of Cyprus, were occupied in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Limassol has many beaches, suitable for sunbathing and swimming. A bathing beach with all the necessary facilities, provided by the Cyprus Tourism Organisation (CTO), is operating in the town of Limassol, in Dasoudi area.

The Port of Limassol became the major sea port of the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. Before 1974, that role had been filled by Famagusta, which is now located in Northern Cyprus, and is not recognised as a legal port by any country except Turkey.

Limassol is the base for many of the island's wine companies, serving the wine-growing regions on the southern slopes of the Troodos Mountains including Commandaria. Companies include KEO, LOEL, SODAP and ETKO. Wines and cognacs (brandies) that are produced by the grapes here have won several awards in international exhibitions.[ citation needed ] There is a considerable consumption of wine products in Cyprus by the locals and the foreign visitors. Big quantities are exported to Europe.

The town of Limassol is the biggest industrial centre of the province. There are about 350 industrial units with 90 industry wares. These industries concern dressmaking, furniture, shoes, drinks, food, prints, metal industry, electric devices, plastic wares as well as many other different industries.

Limassol is an important trade centre of Cyprus. This is due to the presence of the UK sovereign base at Episkopi and Akrotiri, and to the displacement of the population in Limassol after the Turkish invasion in 1974. The trade markets are gathered in the centre of the town and in the tourist area along the coast that begins from the old harbour and ends in Amathus area. Most of the hotels, restaurants, confectioneries, discos and places of entertainment in general, are to be found in this area.

Limassol has two ports, commonly referred to as the "old port" and the "new port". The new port has the greatest commercial and passenger flow of traffic and it is the biggest port in the Republic of Cyprus. The old harbour has a breakwater 250 metres (820 feet) long and it is only able to receive three small ships at a time. It is thus normally used by fishing boats. The new harbour is 11 metres (36 feet) deep and has break-waters that are 1,300 metres (4,300 feet) long. It is able to receive about ten ships depending on their size. Exports of grapes, wines, carobs, citrus fruits and imports of cereals, vehicles, machines, textiles, agricultural medicines, fertilizers, iron etc. are exported and imported through these ports.

Limassol is today the largest ship management service centre in Europe[ citation needed ] with more than 60 ship management companies located in the city, as due to the Cyprus Shipping tax system (a choice between corporation tax or a tonnage tax system) it makes it very attractive for crew management companies and ship management companies to have their main offices in Limassol. These ship management companies employ more than 40,000 seafarers.[ citation needed ] In fact, the Cyprus registry today is ranked as the tenth among international fleets.[ citation needed ]

A marina located to the west of Limassol Castle, between the old and new ports, has been built. This new development allows berthing of ocean-going yachts and was opened to public in 2014, having hosted its first yachts in 2013. [18] The marina has a capacity of 1,000 vessels.

During the last years,[ when? ] Limassol has experienced a construction boom fuelled by the tourist sector as well as from increasing foreign investments in the city. Public projects like the redesigning of the city's one-kilometre (0.62-mile) promenade, are improving the quality of life of the people and the image of the city as a cosmopolitan destination. Infrastructure improvements partly funded by European programmes have helped solve traffic problems that the city faced with the construction of new highway flyovers and roundabouts.

The Port of Limassol is one of the busiest ports in the Mediterranean transit trade and the largest port in Cyprus. It has also become one of the most important tourism, trade, and service-providing centres in the area. Limassol is home to the Cyprus University of Technology, one of the best young universities in the entire Europe. A number of museums and archaeological sites are available to visitors. Limassol attracts a wide range of tourists mostly during an extended summer season to be accommodated in a wide range of hotels and apartments. A large marina lies near the old town, 500 metres (1,600 feet) from the Limassol medieval castle.

Demographics

Ayia Napa Church Limassol - Agia Napa 2 Innenraum.jpg
Ayia Napa Church

Internal migration since the 1960s and influx of displaced persons after 1974 significantly increased the population of Limassol and its suburbs. Greater Limassol today includes the municipality of Limassol (includes the suburb of Agia Fyla) and the municipalities of Polemidia, Mesa Geitonia, Agios Athanasios, Germasogeia and Ypsonas.

Limassol traditionally had a mixed population of Greek, Turkish Cypriots and Armenian Cypriots. The majority of Turkish Cypriots moved to the north in 1974. Accordingly, many Greek Cypriots from the north of Cyprus, who became refugees following the Turkish invasion, settled down in Limassol. During the 1990s several Cypriot Romani people (considered Turkish Cypriots according to the constitution) returned from the North of the island to the Turkish quarter of Limassol. Armenians remained in Limassol and continued residence in surroundings of Sourp Kevork Armenian Apostolic Church and maintain an elementary school named Nareg (Նարեկ Հայկական Վարժարան). There is also an Armenian village in Limassol District named Armenochori (Greek : Αρμενοχώρι).

The rise of the population birth rate during the late 19th and 20th centuries (1878–1960) was 70%. The number of inhabitants was 6,131 in 1881, while in 1960 the number had risen to 43,593. The number of the Greek population was estimated at 37,478, while the Turkish population at 6,115.

Limassol is home to a large community of Pontic Greeks, who settled in Cyprus after the collapse of Soviet Union.

In recent years, the city has also become increasingly popular with Russian or other post-Soviet nationals and expatriates. Today, some 17% of the population of Limassol are Russian-speaking, and 8% of the population are Russian citizens. [19]

Landmarks

Limassol castle Cyprus - Limassol castle 10.JPG
Limassol castle
View from the coastal front. Limassol, Cyprus 2.jpg
View from the coastal front.
The medieval (Crusader) castle. Limassol Castle Square 6.JPG
The medieval (Crusader) castle.
Night panorama of Limassol, Cyprus.jpg
Limassol panorama by night.
Night panorama of tourist area of Limassol, Cyprus.jpg
Tourist area of Limassol with Hotels and Resorts

Festivals

Sirtaki dance in Wine Festival of Cyprus Sirtaki au festival du vin de Limassol.jpg
Sirtaki dance in Wine Festival of Cyprus
Tour during Limassol Wine Festival Foudres de stockage des vins a la cave de Limassol.jpg
Tour during Limassol Wine Festival
The Cypriot Carnival Festival in Limassol Carnival in Limassol 2014 (12888019003).jpg
The Cypriot Carnival Festival in Limassol

Limassol is famous in Cyprus for its festivals, like the Carnival and Wine Festival. [20] The Limassol Carnival festival lasts for ten (10) days, with jolly and amusing masquerading. This custom is very old, going back to pagan rituals. [20] With the passage of time it has acquired a different, purely entertaining character, with a large, popular following. The festival starts with the entrance parade of the King Carnival, followed by a fancy-dress competition for children. During the Carnival parade in the main streets, large crowds from all over the island gather to watch the floats with the serenade and other masqueraded groups. Many fancy-dress balls and parties take place at many hotels every night.

During the first quarter of September, the great Wine Festival of Cyprus takes place in the Limassol Municipal Garden, every evening between 8.00 hrs – 23.00 hrs. [20] During the festival the visitor has the chance to taste some of the best Cyprus wines, which are offered free of charge. On some evenings, various groups from Cyprus and abroad perform folk dancing and there are also choirs and others.

Other festivals are Yermasogeia Flower Festival (May), Festival of the Flood (June), Shakespearean nights and Festival of Ancient Greek Drama. [20]

Furthermore, the city of Limassol introduced the first Beer festival in July 2003. This is a three-day dance festival by the sea in the heart of the city centre. Visitors can drink a variety of Cypriot beers and imported beers. The entrance to the festival is free of charge and beers are sold at low prices, complemented by a mix of international music. [21]

The sixth Junior Eurovision Song Contest was held in Limassol, in the Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre.

Sports

Limassol Marathon Annual Race Limassol marathon logo.png
Limassol Marathon Annual Race
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center Spyros Kiprianou Sports Centre Limassol.jpg
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Center
Skatepark in Molos area Limassol new seaside skateboard desk night Limassol Republic of Cyprus.jpg
Skatepark in Molos area

Apollon Limassol and AEL FC are the two major sport clubs in Limassol, which have football, basketball and volleyball teams. In basketball, Apollon and AEL are very powerful teams). In football, both teams Apollon and AEL play in First Division. Aris Limassol is another football team which plays in First Division and like AEL is one of the founding teams of the Cyprus Football Association (KOP). AEL women volleyball teams is the permanent champion of Cyprus. There are also teams in athletics, bowling, cycling and other sports.

The football stadium of Limassol is Tsirion, with capacity of 13 331, which hosts the three football teams of Limassol and in the past it hosted Cyprus national football team. It was used also for athletics. There are various other stadiums for other sports in Limassol.

The Apollon Limassol basketball stadium, hosted the 2003 FIBA Europe South Regional Challenge Cup Final Four. The two basketball teams of Limassol participated and AEL became the first Cypriot sport team to win a European Trophy. In 2006, Limassol hosted the FIBA Europe All Star Game in Spyros Kiprianou Sports Centre, as it had the year before. Also, in the Limassol district the Cyprus Rally was hosted for World Rally Championship and currently is organising the Intercontinental Rally Challenge.

The Limassol Marathon is part of an annual race series which takes place in Limassol, Cyprus. It was first run in 2006 and the ninth marathon was held on 29 March 2015. 2016 was a key year for Opap Limassol Marathon since the participation has broken any previous record with 13.000 runners from more than 50 countries around the world.

There are various races including a marathon, a half marathon, a 10-kilometre (6.2-mile) health Race, a 5-kilometre (3.1-mile) corporate race and a 1-kilometre (0.62-mile) children’s fun run.

Limassol also has an independent civilian Rugby Union team, the Limassol Crusaders, who play at the AEK Achileas Stadium and participate in the Joint Services Rugby League. There is a professional handball team, APEN Agiou Athanasiou. An annual marathon event takes place each year in Limassol the Limassol International Marathon GSO.

Rowing and canoeing are rapidly becoming very popular in Limassol,[ citation needed ] due to the 3 Nautical clubs in the city of Limassol. The Germasoyia dam is the place for both practising and competitions.

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Limassol is twinned with: [22]

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

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AEL Limassol professional association football club based in Limassol

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AEL Limassol B.C.

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Armenochori, Cyprus village in Limassol District, Cyprus

Armenochori is an Armenian village located in the Limassol District of Cyprus, 10 kilometres northeast of the city of Limassol. Armenochori means “Armenian village” in Greek. In 1958, the Turkish Cypriots adopted the alternative name Esenköy, literally meaning “windy village.”

Koilani Place in Limassol District, Cyprus

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Silikou Village in Limassol District, Cyprus

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Limnatis, Limassol village in Limassol District, Cyprus

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Fotios Papoulis Greek footballer

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Limassol Marathon

The Limassol Marathon is part of an annual European race series which takes place in Limassol, Cyprus. It was first run in 2006 and the tenth anniversary marathon was held on 10 April 2016. There are various races including a marathon, a half marathon, a 10 km health Race, a 5 km corporate race and a 1 km children’s fun run.

Limassol District District in Cyprus

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Amathus sarcophagus Sarcophagus from Ancient Cyprus

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Στατιστική Υπηρεσία - Πληθυσμός και Κοινωνικές Συνθήκες - Πληθυσμός - Ανακοινώσεις". www.mof.gov.cy. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  2. KPMG: Cyprus Tourism Market Report
  3. CNN, Katia Hetter. "TripAdvisor names 10 Destinations on the Rise". cnn.com.
  4. "2017 Quality of Living City Rankings". Mercer. 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  5. Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. "The World According to GaWC 2016".
  6. The acts of the Council of Chalcedon by Council of Chalcedon, Richard Price, Michael Gaddis 2006 ISBN   0-85323-039-0
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Cypnet.co.uk (2011). "Cyprus History: Cyprus under Richard I – cypnet.co.uk". cypnet.co.uk. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  8. Wolff and Hazard, pp. 63–64
  9. Churchill, Lady Randolph Spencer; Davenport, Cyril James Humphries (1900). The Anglo-Saxon Review. John Lane. pp. 215–22. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  10. Turnbull (2000), p. 57
  11. Abulafia (20018), p. 447
  12. 1 2 3 Daedalus Informatics (2006). "The History of Cyprus – The British occupation". daedalus.gr. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  13. "Bulgaria PM to Participate in European People's Party Summit in Limassol – Novinite.com – Sofia News Agency". novinite.com.
  14. "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Archived from the original on 2010-09-06.
  15. "Meteorological Service – Climatological and Meteorological Reports".
  16. Climate: Limassol – Climate-Data.org
  17. Limassol average sea temperature – seatemperature.org
  18. "Limassol Marina open to the public". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  19. Στατιστική Υπηρεσία – Πληθυσμός και Κοινωνικές Συνθήκες – Απογραφή Πληθυσμού – Κυριότερα Στοιχεία (in Greek). Mof.gov.cy. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  20. 1 2 3 4 CyprusEvents.net (2011). "Limassol events". cyprusevents.net. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  21. "Limassol Festivals – Limassol Annual Events". limassol.com.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Limassol Twinned Cities". Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality. Archived from the original on 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2014-08-11.
  23. e-Patras.gr (2011). "e-patras.gr – Διεθνείς Σχέσεις". e-patras.gr (in Greek). Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  24. 1 2 "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  25. "Twinning Cities". City of Thessaloniki. Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  26. "Twin City activities". Haifa Municipality. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-11-20.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 34°40′N33°02′E / 34.667°N 33.033°E / 34.667; 33.033