Pine

Last updated

Pine
Temporal range: Barremian–Recent
Pinus densiflora Kumgangsan.jpg
Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine), North Korea
Scientific classification OOjs UI icon edit-ltr.svg
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Gymnospermae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Subfamily: Pinoideae
Genus: Pinus
L.
Type species
Pinus sylvestris
L.
Subgenera

See List of Pinus species for complete taxonomy to species level. See list of pines by region for list of species by geographic distribution.

Contents

Pinus range.png
Range of Pinus
Synonyms
  • Apinusde Necker ex Rydberg
  • CaryopitysSmall
  • CembraOpiz
  • DucampopinusChevalier
  • Haploxylon(Koehne) Komarov
  • LeucopitysNieuwland
  • PineaWolf ex Opiz
  • Strobus(Sweet ex Spach) Opiz

A pine is any conifer tree or shrub in the genus Pinus ( /ˈpns/ ) [1] of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae.

World Flora Online , created by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and Missouri Botanical Garden, accepts 187 species names of pines as current, together with more synonyms. [2] The American Conifer Society (ACS) and the Royal Horticultural Society accept 121 species.

Pines are commonly found in the Northern Hemisphere.

Pine may also refer to the lumber derived from pine trees; it is one of the more extensively used types of lumber.

The pine family is the largest conifer family, and there are currently 818 named cultivars (or trinomials) recognized by the ACS. [3] It is also a well-known type of Christmas tree .

Description

Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees (or, rarely, shrubs) growing 3–80 metres (10–260 feet) tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m (50–150 ft) tall. [4] The smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, and the tallest is an 81.8 m (268 ft) tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest. [4]

Ancient Pinus longaeva, California, United States Big bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva.jpg
Ancient Pinus longaeva , California, United States

Pines are long lived and typically reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more. The longest-lived is the Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva). One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,800 years old. This tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. [5] An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old. [6] [7] It was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. [7]

The spiral growth of branches, needles, and cones scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. [8] [9] The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; they are covered in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward at first, then later turn green and spread outward. These "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the soil and vigour of the trees.

Bark

Pinus taeda bark Tree Types and Barks 004.jpg
Pinus taeda bark

The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaky bark. [10] The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls", actually a very tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year.

Foliage

Pines have four types of leaf:

Cones

Pinus radiata female (ovulate) cone Pinus radiata cone.jpg
Pinus radiata female (ovulate) cone

Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree. [11] :205 The male cones are small, typically 1–5 cm long, and only present for a short period (usually in spring, though autumn in a few pines), falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years (depending on species) to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long. Each cone has numerous spirally arranged scales, with two seeds on each fertile scale; the scales at the base and tip of the cone are small and sterile, without seeds.

The seeds are mostly small and winged, and are anemophilous (wind-dispersed), but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, and are bird-dispersed. Female cones are woody and sometimes armed to protect developing seeds from foragers. At maturity, the cones usually open to release the seeds. In some of the bird-dispersed species, for example whitebark pine, [12] the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds. This is called serotiny. The most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire, for example in P. rigida .

Taxonomy

Pines are gymnosperms. The genus is divided into two subgenera based on the number of fibrovascular bundles in the needle. The subgenera can be distinguished by cone, seed, and leaf characters:

Phylogenetic evidence indicates that both subgenera have a very ancient divergence from one another. [14] Each subgenus is further divided into sections and subsections.

Many of the smaller groups of Pinus are composed of closely related species with recent divergence and history of hybridization. This results in low morphological and genetic differences. This, coupled with low sampling and underdeveloped genetic techniques, has made taxonomy difficult to determine. [15] Recent research using large genetic datasets has clarified these relationships into the groupings we recognize today.

Etymology

The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’ (source of English pituitary). [16] Before the 19th century, pines were often referred to as firs (from Old Norse fura, by way of Middle English firre). In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines — in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, and German Föhre — but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir (Abies) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga).

Phylogeny

Pinus is the largest genus of the Pinaceae, the pine family, which first appeared in the Jurassic period. [17] Based on recent Transcriptome analysis, Pinus is most closely related to the genus Cathaya , which in turn is closely related to spruces. These genera, with firs and larches, form the pinoid clade of the Pinaceae. [14] Pines first appeared during the Early Cretaceous, with the oldest verified fossil of the genus being Pinus yorkshirensis from the Hauterivian-Barremian boundary (~130-125 million years ago) from the Speeton Clay, England. [18]

The evolutionary history of the genus Pinus has been complicated by hybridization. Pines are prone to inter-specific breeding. Wind pollination, long life spans, overlapping generations, large population size, and weak reproductive isolation make breeding across species more likely. [19] As the pines have diversified, gene transfer between different species has created a complex history of genetic relatedness.

Jin et al. 2021 [20] Stull et al. 2021 [14]
Pinus
subgenus Strobus
section Parrya
subsection Nelsonii

P. nelsonii

subsection Balfouriana

P. aristata

P. balfouriana

P. longaeva

subsection Cembroides

P. pinceana

P. maximartinezii

P. rzedowskii

P. quadrifolia

P. monophylla

P. culminicola

P. discolor

P. remota

P. edulis

P. cembroides

section Quinquefoliae
subsection Gerardiana

P. bungeana

P. squamata

P. gerardiana

subsection Krempfii

P. krempfii

subsection Strobus

P. peuce

P. lambertiana

P. strobus

P. chiapensis

P. monticola

P. flexilis

P. strobiformis

P. ayacahuite

P. albicaulis

P. koraiensis

P. sibirica

P. cembra

P. parviflora

P. wallichiana

P. armandii

P. dabeshanensis

P. fenzeliana

P. mastersiana

P. bhutanica

P. morrisonicola

P. wangii

P. kwangtungensis

P. dalatensis

subgenus Pinus
section Pinus
subsection Pinaster

P. heldreichii

P. pinaster

P. halepensis

P. brutia

P. pinea

P. canariensis

P. roxburghii

subsection Pinus

P. latteri

P. merkusii

P. resinosa

P. nigra

P. densiflora

P. sylvestris

P. mugo

P. uncinata

P. massoniana

P. thunbergii

P. luchuensis

P. kesiya

P. yunnanensis

P. densata

P. henryi

P. tabuliformis

P. hwangshanensis

P. taiwanensis

section Trifoliae
subsection Sabiniana

P. jeffreyi

P. coulteri

P. torreyana

P. sabiniana

subsection Ponderosae

P. washoensis

P. ponderosa

P. hartwegii

P. engelmannii

P. durangensis

P. arizonica

P. devoniana

P. montezumae

P. pseudostrobus

P. douglasiana

P. maximinoi

subsection Attenuata

P. radiata

P. attenuata

P. muricata

subsection Contorta

P. contorta

P. banksiana

P. virginiana

P. clausa

subsection Australes

P. pungens

P. serotina

P. rigida

P. glabra

P. taeda

P. echinata

P. elliottii

P. palustris

P. caribaea

P. oocarpa

P. tecunumanii

P. greggii

P. patula

P. teocote

P. lawsonii

P. herrerae

P. pringlei

P. leiophylla

P. lumholtzii

P. praetermissa

P. jaliscana

P. luzmariae

P. georginae

Pinus
(Strobus)
section
subsection

P. nelsonii

Nelsonii
subsection

P. aristata

P. balfouriana

P. longaeva

Balfouriana
subsection

P. monophylla

P. juarezensis

P. quadrifolia

P. pinceana

P. maximartinezii

P. rzedowskii

P. edulis

P. discolor

P. johannis

P. culminicola

P. cembroides

P. remota

Cembroides
Parrya
section
subsection

P. bungeana

P. gerardiana

Gerardiana
subsection

P. krempfii

Krempfii
subsection
series

P. peuce

Macedonia
series

P. strobus

P. flexilis

P. ayacahuite

P. strobiformis

Strobi
series

P. parviflora

P. monticola

P. cembra

P. lambertiana

P. albicaulis

P. dalatensis

Cembrae
series

P. pumila

P. wallichiana

P. koraiensis

P. sibirica

P. squamata

P. morrisonicola

P. armandii

P. fenzeliana

P. kwangtungensis

P. bhutanica

P. wangii

Pumilae
Strobus
Quinquefoliae
(Pinus)
section
subsection

P. heldreichii

P. halepensis

P. brutia

P. pinaster

P. pinea

P. canariensis

P. roxburghii

Pinaster
subsection
series

P. densata

P. latteri

P. kesiya

P. nigra

P. resinosa

P. sylvestris

P. mugo

P. uncinata

Pinus
series

P. tropicalis

P. hwangshanensis

P. massoniana

P. merkusii

Tropicales
series

P. densiflora

P. thunbergii

P. taiwanensis

P. yunnanensis

P. luchuensis

P. tabuliformis

Tabuliformes
Pinus
Pinus
section
subsection

P. virginiana

P. contorta

P. clausa

Contorta
subsection

P. maximinoi

P. montezumae

P. sabiniana

P. torreyana

P. ponderosa

P. douglasiana

P. yecorensis

P. cooperi

P. durangensis

P. nubicola

P. coulteri

P. jeffreyi

P. washoensis

P. arizonica

P. engelmannii

P. devoniana

P. hartwegii

P. pseudostrobus

Ponderosae
subsection
series

P. patula

P. leiophylla

Leiophyllae
series

P. tecunumanii

P. muricata

P. radiata

P. attenuata

P. glabra

Attenuatae
Attenuata
subsection
series

P. herrerae

P. caribaea

P. palustris

P. echinata

P. occidentalis

Palustres

P. praetermissa

series

P. serotina

P. rigida

P. pungens

P. taeda

Taeda
series

P. elliottii

P. teocote

P. greggii

P. lumholtzii

P. jaliscana

P. luzmariae

P. georginae

P. maestrensis

P. pringlei

P. lawsonii

P. cubensis

P. oocarpa

Oocarpae
Australes
Trifoliae

Distribution and habitat

Monterey pine in Sydney, Australia, which were introduced to the region in the late 19th century. Prospectsydneypineforest.jpg
Monterey pine in Sydney, Australia, which were introduced to the region in the late 19th century.

Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, and to a few parts from the tropics to temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species (Sumatran pine) crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N[ citation needed ] to as far south as 12°N. [21]

Pines may be found in a very large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 m (17,100 ft), from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth. They often occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. [22]

Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, where they are grown as timber or cultivated as ornamental plants in parks and gardens. A number of such introduced species have become naturalized, and some species are considered invasive in some areas [23] and threaten native ecosystems.

Ecology

Pine beauty moth (Panolis flammea) on pine needles Panolis.flammea.7102.jpg
Pine beauty moth (Panolis flammea) on pine needles

Pines grow well in acid soils, some also on calcareous soils; most require good soil drainage, preferring sandy soils, but a few (e.g. lodgepole pine) can tolerate poorly drained wet soils. A few are able to sprout after forest fires (e.g. Canary Island pine). Some species of pines (e.g. bishop pine) need fire to regenerate, and their populations slowly decline under fire suppression regimens.

Pine trees are beneficial to the environment since they can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Although several studies have indicated that after the establishment of pine plantations in grasslands, there is an alteration of carbon pools including a decrease of the soil organic carbon pool. [24]

Several species are adapted to extreme conditions imposed by elevation and latitude (e.g. Siberian dwarf pine, mountain pine, whitebark pine, and the bristlecone pines). The pinyon pines and a number of others, notably Turkish pine and gray pine, are particularly well adapted to growth in hot, dry semidesert climates. [25]

Pine pollen may play an important role in the functioning of detrital food webs. [26] Nutrients from pollen aid detritivores in development, growth, and maturation, and may enable fungi to decompose nutritionally scarce litter. [26] Pine pollen is also involved in moving plant matter between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. [26]

Wildlife

Pine needles serve as food for various Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species. Several species of pine are attacked by nematodes, causing pine wilt disease, which can kill some quickly. Some of these Lepidoptera species, many of them moths, specialize in feeding on only one or sometimes several species of pine. Beside that many species of birds and mammals shelter in pine habitat or feed on pine nuts.

The seeds are commonly eaten by birds, such as grouse, crossbills, jays, nuthatches, siskins, and woodpeckers, and by squirrels. Some birds, notably the spotted nutcracker, Clark's nutcracker, and pinyon jay, are of importance in distributing pine seeds to new areas. Pine needles are sometimes eaten by the Symphytan species pine sawfly, and goats. [27]

Uses

Logging Pinus ponderosa, Arizona, United States John Deere 2054 DHSP forestry swing machine, Kaibab National Forest 1.jpg
Logging Pinus ponderosa , Arizona, United States

Lumber and construction

Pines are among the most commercially important tree species valued for their timber and wood pulp throughout the world. [28] [29] In temperate and tropical regions, they are fast-growing softwoods that grow in relatively dense stands, their acidic decaying needles inhibiting the sprouting of competing hardwoods.[ citation needed ] Commercial pines are grown in plantations for timber that is denser and therefore more durable than spruce (Picea). Pine wood is widely used in high-value carpentry items such as furniture, window frames, panelling, floors, and roofing, and the resin of some species is an important source of turpentine.

Because pine wood has no insect- or decay-resistant qualities after logging, in its untreated state it is generally recommended for indoor construction purposes only (indoor drywall framing, for example). For outside use, pine needs to be treated with copper azole, chromated copper arsenate or other suitable chemical preservative. [30]

Ornamental uses

"Pine Clouds", 1903 painting on fan by Wu Ku-hsiang 'Pine Clouds', 1903 painting by Wu Ku-hsiang.jpg
"Pine Clouds", 1903 painting on fan by Wu Ku-hsiang

Many pine species make attractive ornamental plantings for parks and larger gardens with a variety of dwarf cultivars being suitable for smaller spaces. Pines are also commercially grown and harvested for Christmas trees. Pine cones, the largest and most durable of all conifer cones, are craft favorites. Pine boughs, appreciated especially in wintertime for their pleasant smell and greenery, are popularly cut for decorations. [31] Pine needles are also used for making decorative articles such as baskets, trays, pots, etc., and during the U.S. Civil War, the needles of the longleaf pine "Georgia pine" were widely employed in this. [32] This originally Native American skill is now being replicated across the world. Pine needle handicrafts are made in the US, Canada, Mexico, Nicaragua, and India. Pine needles are also versatile and have been used by Latvian designer Tamara Orjola to create different biodegradable products including paper, furniture, textiles and dye. [33]

Farming

When grown for sawing timber, pine plantations can be harvested after 25 years, with some stands being allowed to grow up to 50 (as the wood value increases more quickly as the trees age). Imperfect trees (such as those with bent trunks or forks, smaller trees, or diseased trees) are removed in a "thinning" operation every 5–10 years. Thinning allows the best trees to grow much faster, because it prevents weaker trees from competing for sunlight, water, and nutrients. Young trees removed during thinning are used for pulpwood or are left in the forest, while most older ones are good enough for saw timber. [34]

A 30-year-old commercial pine tree grown in good conditions in Arkansas will be about 0.3 m (1 ft) in diameter and about 20 m (66 ft) high. After 50 years, the same tree will be about 0.5 m (1+12 ft) in diameter and 25 m (82 ft) high, and its wood will be worth about seven times as much as the 30-year-old tree. This however depends on the region, species and silvicultural techniques. In New Zealand, a plantation's maximum value is reached after around 28 years with height being as high as 30 m (98 ft) and diameter 0.5 m (1+12 ft), with maximum wood production after around 35 years (again depending on factors such as site, stocking and genetics). Trees are normally planted 3–4 m apart, or about 1,000 per hectare (100,000 per square kilometre). [35] [36] [37] [38]

Food and nutrients

The seeds (pine nuts) are generally edible; the young male cones can be cooked and eaten, as can the bark of young twigs. [39] Some species have large pine nuts, which are harvested and sold for cooking and baking. They are an essential ingredient of pesto alla genovese.

The soft, moist, white inner bark (cambium) beneath the woody outer bark is edible and very high in vitamins A and C. [3] It can be eaten raw in slices as a snack or dried and ground up into a powder for use as an ersatz flour or thickener in stews, soups, and other foods, such as bark bread. [40] Adirondack Indians got their name from the Mohawk Indian word atirú:taks, meaning "tree eaters". [40]

A tea is made by steeping young, green pine needles in boiling water (known as tallstrunt in Sweden). [40] In eastern Asia, pine and other conifers are accepted among consumers as a beverage product, and used in teas, as well as wine. [41] In Greece, the wine retsina is flavoured with Aleppo pine resin.

Pine needles from Pinus densiflora were found to contain 30.54 milligram/gram of proanthocyanidins when extracted with hot water. [42] Comparative to ethanol extraction resulting in 30.11 mg/g, simply extracting in hot water is preferable.

In traditional Chinese medicine, pine resin is used for burns, wounds and dermal complaints. [43]

Culture

A falling pine pictured in the coat of arms of Myrskyla, a small town in Finland Myrskyla.vaakuna.svg
A falling pine pictured in the coat of arms of Myrskylä, a small town in Finland

Pines have been a frequently mentioned tree throughout history, including in literature, paintings and other art, and in religious texts.

Literature

Writers of various nationalities and ethnicities have written of pines. Among them, John Muir, [44] Dora Sigerson Shorter, [45] Eugene Field, [46] Bai Juyi, [47] Theodore Winthrop, [48] and Rev. George Allan D.D. [49]

Art

The West Wind (1917), Canadian painter Tom Thomson's iconic portrait of red pines in Algonquin Park, Ontario Tom Thomson - The West Wind - Google Art Project.jpg
The West Wind (1917), Canadian painter Tom Thomson's iconic portrait of red pines in Algonquin Park, Ontario

Pines are often featured in art, whether painting and fine art, [50] drawing, [51] photography, or folk art.

Religious texts

Pine trees, as well as other conifers, are mentioned in some verses of the Bible, depending on the translation. In the Book of Nehemiah 8:15, the King James Version gives the following translation: [52]

"And that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine branches [emphasis added], and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written."

However, the term here in Hebrew (עץ שמן) means "oil tree" and it is not clear what kind of tree is meant. Pines are also mentioned in some translations of Isaiah 60:13, such as the King James:

"The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and I will make the place of my feet glorious."

Again, it is not clear what tree is meant (תדהר in Hebrew), and other translations use "pine" for the word translated as "box" by the King James (תאשור in Hebrew).

Some botanical authorities believe that the Hebrew word "ברוש" (bərōsh), which is used many times in the Bible, designates P. halepensis , or in Hosea 14:8 [53] which refers to fruit, Pinus pinea , the stone pine. [54] The word used in modern Hebrew for pine is "אֹ֖רֶן" (oren), which occurs only in Isaiah 44:14, [55] but two manuscripts have "ארז" (cedar), a much more common word. [56]

Chinese culture

The pine is a motif in Chinese art and literature, which sometimes combines painting and poetry in the same work. Some of the main symbolic attributes of pines in Chinese art and literature are longevity and steadfastness: the pine retains its green needles through all the seasons. Sometimes the pine and cypress are paired. At other times the pine, plum, and bamboo are considered as the "Three Friends of Winter". [57] Many Chinese art works and/or literature (some involving pines) have been done using paper, brush, and Chinese ink: interestingly enough, one of the main ingredients for Chinese ink has been pine soot.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Douglas fir</span> Species of tree

The Douglas fir is an evergreen conifer species in the pine family, Pinaceae. It is native to western North America and is also known as Douglas-fir, Douglas spruce, Oregon pine, and Columbian pine. There are three varieties: coast Douglas-fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir and Mexican Douglas-fir.

<i>Cedrus</i> Genus of plants (coniferous trees)

Cedrus, with the common English name cedar, is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Conifer</span> Group of cone-bearing seed plants

Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae. The division contains a single extant class, Pinopsida. All extant conifers are perennial woody plants with secondary growth. The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs. Examples include cedars, Douglas-firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri, larches, pines, hemlocks, redwoods, spruces, and yews. The division Pinophyta contains seven families, 60 to 65 genera, and more than 600 living species.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fir</span> Genus of plants in the conifer family Pinaceae

Firs are evergreen coniferous trees belonging to the genus Abies in the family Pinaceae. There are approximately 48–65 extant species, found on mountains throughout much of North and Central America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The genus is most closely related to Cedrus (cedar).

<i>Pinus sylvestris</i> Species of conifer

Pinus sylvestris, the Scots pine (UK), Scotch pine (US), Baltic pine, or European red pine is a species of tree in the pine family Pinaceae that is native to Eurasia. It can readily be identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pinaceae</span> Family of conifers

The Pinaceae, or pine family, are conifer trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, piñons, larches, pines and spruces. The family is included in the order Pinales, formerly known as Coniferales. Pinaceae are supported as monophyletic by their protein-type sieve cell plastids, pattern of proembryogeny, and lack of bioflavonoids. They are the largest extant conifer family in species diversity, with between 220 and 250 species in 11 genera, and the second-largest in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere, with the majority of the species in temperate climates, but ranging from subarctic to tropical. The family often forms the dominant component of boreal, coastal, and montane forests. One species, Pinus merkusii, grows just south of the equator in Southeast Asia. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, Mexico, central Japan, and California.

<i>Pinus sabiniana</i> Pine tree found in North America

Pinus sabiniana, with vernacular names including towani pine, foothill pine, gray pine, bull pine, and digger pine, is a pine endemic to California in the United States. Some sources discourage using the name "digger pine," considering it pejorative.

<i>Pinus peuce</i> Species of plant

Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains of North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo, the extreme southwest of Serbia, and the extreme north of Greece, growing typically at (600-) 1,000-2,200 (-2,300) m altitude. It often reaches the alpine tree line in this area. The mature size is up to 35–40 m height, and 1.5 m trunk diameter. However, the height of the tree diminishes strongly near the upper tree line and may even obtain shrub sizes.

<i>Pinus flexilis</i> Pine tree found in North America

Pinus flexilis, the limber pine, is a species of pine tree-the family Pinaceae that occurs in the mountains of the Western United States, Mexico, and Canada. It is also called Rocky Mountain white pine.

<i>Pinus rigida</i> Species of pine tree

Pinus rigida, the pitch pine, is a small-to-medium-sized pine. It is native to eastern North America, primarily from central Maine south to Georgia and as far west as Kentucky. It is found in environments which other species would find unsuitable for growth, such as acidic, sandy, and low-nutrient soils.

<i>Pinus serotina</i> Species of conifer

Pinus serotina, the pond pine, black bark pine, bay pine,marsh pine, or pocosin pine, is a pine tree found along the Southeastern portion of the Atlantic coastal plain of the United States, from southern New Jersey south to Florida and west to southern Alabama. Pond pine distribution may be starting to spread west towards Mississippi and Tennessee.

<i>Pinus wallichiana</i> Species of conifer

Pinus wallichiana is a coniferous evergreen tree native to the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu Kush mountains, from eastern Afghanistan east across northern Pakistan and north west India to Yunnan in southwest China. It grows in mountain valleys at altitudes of 1800–4300 m, reaching 30–50 m (98–164 ft) in height. It favours a temperate climate with dry winters and wet summers. In Pashto, it is known as Nishtar.

<i>Pinus ponderosa</i> Species of large pine tree in North America

Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, western yellow-pine, or filipinus pine is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to mountainous regions of western North America. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America.

<i>Pinus longaeva</i> Long-living species of bristlecone pine tree found in the western United States

Pinus longaeva is a long-living species of bristlecone pine tree found in the higher mountains of California, Nevada, and Utah. Methuselah is a bristlecone pine that is 4,855 years old and has been credited as the oldest known living non-clonal organism on Earth. To protect it, the exact location of this tree is kept secret. In 1987, the bristlecone pine was designated one of Nevada's state trees.

<i>Pinus sibirica</i> Species of conifer

Pinus sibirica, or Siberian pine, in the family Pinaceae is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Range in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower Yenisei valley, south to 45°N in central Mongolia.

<i>Pinus edulis</i> Species of plant

Pinus edulis, the Colorado pinyon, two-needle piñon, pinyon pine, or simply piñon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group native to the Southwestern United States, used for its edible pine nuts.

<i>Pinus roxburghii</i> Species of conifer

Pinus roxburghii, commonly known as chir pine or longleaf Indian pine, is a species of pine tree native to the Himalayas. It was named after William Roxburgh.

<i>Pinus kesiya</i> Species of conifer

Pinus kesiya is one of the most widely distributed pines in Asia. Its range extends south and east from the Khasi Hills in the northeast Indian state of Meghalaya, to northern Thailand, Philippines, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, southernmost China, and Vietnam. It is an important plantation species elsewhere in the world, including in southern Africa and South America.

<i>Pinus maximartinezii</i> Species of conifer

Pinus maximartinezii, called Martinez pinyon, big-cone pinyon or maxipiñon, is a pine in the pinyon pine group, native to west-central Mexico.

References

  1. "Pinus". Medical Definition of PINUS. Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary.
  2. "Pinus (L.)". World Flora Online. The World Flora Online Consortium. 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
  3. 1 2 "Pinus / pine | Conifer Genus". American Conifer Society. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  4. 1 2 Fattig P (23 January 2011). "Tallest of the tall". Mail Tribune. Medford, Oregon. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  5. Ryan M, Richardson DM (December 1999). "The Complete Pine". BioScience. 49 (12): 1023–1024. JSTOR   1313736.
  6. Miranda, Carolina A. (28 February 2015). "Follow-up: More tales of the Prometheus tree and how it died". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  7. 1 2 Eveleth, Rose (15 November 2012). "How One Man Accidentally Killed the Oldest Tree Ever". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  8. Zeng, Lanling; Wang, Guozhao (2009). "Modeling golden section in plants". Progress in Natural Science. 19 (2): 255–260. doi: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.07.004 . The ratio between two pine needles is 0.618 [...] the angle between the two neighbors is about 135° and the angle between the main stem and each branch is close to 34.4° which is the golden section of 90°
  9. Bracewell, Ronald; Rawlings, John. "Pinus (Pine) Notes". Trees of Stanford. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  10. Porter, VI (2018). Mystique Melodies. Dorrance Publishing.
  11. Judd, WS; Campbell, CS; Kellogg, EA; Stevens, PF; Donoghue, MJ (2002). Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach (2 ed.). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland MA, USA. ISBN   0-87893-403-0.
  12. Tomback DF (June 1982). "Dispersal of Whitebark Pine seeds by Clark's Nutcracker: a mutualism hypothesis". The Journal of Animal Ecology. 51 (2): 451–467. Bibcode:1982JAnEc..51..451T. doi:10.2307/3976. JSTOR   3976.
  13. 1 2 Burton Verne Barnes; Warren Herbert Wagner (January 2004). Michigan Trees: A Guide to the Trees of the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press. pp. 81–. ISBN   978-0-472-08921-5. Archived from the original on 2016-05-11.
  14. 1 2 3 Stull, Gregory W.; Qu, Xiao-Jian; Parins-Fukuchi, Caroline; Yang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Jun-Bo; Yang, Zhi-Yun; Hu, Yi; Ma, Hong; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Li, De-Zhu (July 19, 2021). "Gene duplications and phylogenomic conflict underlie major pulses of phenotypic evolution in gymnosperms". Nature Plants. 7 (8): 1015–1025. doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00964-4. ISSN   2055-0278. PMID   34282286. S2CID   236141481. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  15. Flores-Rentería L, Wegier A, Ortega Del Vecchyo D, Ortíz-Medrano A, Piñero D, Whipple AV, et al. (December 2013). "Genetic, morphological, geographical and ecological approaches reveal phylogenetic relationships in complex groups, an example of recently diverged pinyon pine species (Subsection Cembroides)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69 (3): 940–9. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.06.010. PMID   23831459.
  16. "Where Are You From? - Credo Reference". credoreference.com.
  17. Ran JH, Shen TT, Wu H, Gong X, Wang XQ (December 2018). "Phylogeny and evolutionary history of Pinaceae updated by transcriptomic analysis". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 129: 106–116. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.08.011. PMID   30153503. S2CID   52110440.
  18. Patricia E. Ryberg; Gar W. Rothwell; Ruth A. Stockey; Jason Hilton; Gene Mapes; James B. Riding (2012). "Reconsidering Relationships among Stem and Crown Group Pinaceae: Oldest Record of the Genus Pinus from the Early Cretaceous of Yorkshire, United Kingdom". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 173 (8): 917–932. doi:10.1086/667228. S2CID   85402168.
  19. Hernández-León S, Gernandt DS, Pérez de la Rosa JA, Jardón-Barbolla L (2013-07-30). "Phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation in pinus section trifoliae inferrred from plastid DNA". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e70501. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...870501H. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070501 . PMC   3728320 . PMID   23936218.
  20. Jin WT, Gernandt DS, Wehenkel C, Xia XM, Wei XX, Wang XQ (May 2021). "Phylogenomic and ecological analyses reveal the spatiotemporal evolution of global pines". PNAS. 118 (20): e2022302118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11822302J. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2022302118 . PMC   8157994 . PMID   33941644.
  21. Singh, Surendra P.; Inderjit; Singh, Jamuna S.; Majumdar, Sudipto; Moyano, Jaime; Nuñez, Martin A.; Richardson, David M. (2018-09-21). "Insights on the persistence of pines (Pinus species) in the Late Cretaceous and their increasing dominance in the Anthropocene". Ecology and Evolution. 8 (20): 10345–10359. Bibcode: 2018EcoEv...810345S . doi: 10.1002/ece3.4499 . ISSN   2045-7758. PMC   6206191 . PMID   30398478.
  22. "Pine Trees". Basic Biology. 30 August 2020. Retrieved 2019-10-31.
  23. "Pinus ssp. (tree), General Impact". Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group. 13 March 2006. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  24. Weber, M (202). "Impacts of pine plantations on carbon stocks of páramo sites in southern Ecuador". Carbon Balance and Management. 16 (1). doi: 10.1186/s13021-021-00168-5 . PMID   33559772.
  25. "Pinus sabiniana Dougl". www.srs.fs.usda.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  26. 1 2 3 Filipiak M (2016-01-01). "Pollen Stoichiometry May Influence Detrital Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Webs". Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 4: 138. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2016.00138 .
  27. "Pine Sawflies". Penn State Extension. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  28. "Choosing a Timber Species - Timber Frame HQ". Timber Frame HQ. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  29. "Trees for pulp" (PDF). Paper.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-18. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  30. "Timber treatment". weathertight.org.nz. 2010-10-18. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
  31. "5 Ways to Decorate with Pine Boughs". Home Decorating Trends - Homedit. 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  32. McAfee MJ (1911). The pine-needle basket book. The Library of Congress. New York : Pine-Needle Pub. Co.
  33. Solanki S (2018-12-17). "5 radical material innovations that will shape tomorrow". CNN Style. Retrieved 2018-12-17.
  34. "The Pine Plantation Rotation" (PDF). Forests NSW. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  35. Frank A. Roth II, Extension Forester. "Thinning to improve pine timber" (PDF). University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  36. "NZ Farm Forestry - Radiata pine silviculture in Chile". www.nzffa.org.nz. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  37. "NZ Farm Forestry - NZFFA guide sheet No. 1: An Introduction to Growing Radiata Pine". www.nzffa.org.nz. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  38. Manley, Bruce (2020-07-01). "Impact on profitability, risk, optimum rotation age and afforestation of changing the New Zealand emissions trading scheme to an averaging approach". Forest Policy and Economics. 116: 102205. doi:10.1016/j.forpol.2020.102205. ISSN   1389-9341. S2CID   219518345.
  39. The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. United States Department of the Army. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. 2009. p. 78. ISBN   978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC   277203364. Archived from the original on 2022-09-22. Retrieved 2022-06-20.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  40. 1 2 3 Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp. 166–167. ISBN   0-8117-0616-8. OCLC   799792.
  41. Zeng WC, Jia LR, Zhang Y, Cen JQ, Chen X, Gao H, Feng S, Huang YN (March 2011). "Antibrowning and antimicrobial activities of the water-soluble extract from pine needles of Cedrus deodara". Journal of Food Science. 76 (2): C318–23. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.02023.x. PMID   21535752.
  42. Park YS, Jeon MH, Hwang HJ, Park MR, Lee SH, Kim SG, Kim M (August 2011). "Antioxidant activity and analysis of proanthocyanidins from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles". Nutrition Research and Practice. 5 (4): 281–7. doi:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.4.281. PMC   3180677 . PMID   21994521.
  43. Ulukanli Z, Karabörklü S, Bozok F, Ates B, Erdogan S, Cenet M, Karaaslan MG (December 2014). "Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils". Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 12 (12): 901–10. doi:10.1016/s1875-5364(14)60133-3. PMID   25556061.
  44. Muir J. The Yosemite.
  45. Shorter DS. The Secret. Archived from the original on 2018-01-05. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  46. Field, Eugene. "Norse Lullaby". Poems of Childhood/Norse Lullaby. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  47. Bai Juyi "The Pine Trees in the Courtyard" Archived 2018-01-04 at the Wayback Machine
  48. Winthrop T. Life in the Open Air. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  49. "Is your war-pipe asleep". The Book of Scottish Song. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  50. Pissarro C (1903). "Work by Camille Pissarro" . Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  51. Britton NL, Brown A (1913). "Pinus strobus L". Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 1. USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  52. "NEHEMIAH 8:15 KJV". www.kingjamesbibleonline.org. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  53. "Hosea 14:8".
  54. Wycliffe Bible Dictionary. entry Plants: Fir: Hendrickson Publishers. 1975.
  55. "Isaiah 44:14".
  56. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia ad loc.
  57. Eberhard, Wolfram (2003 [1986 (German version 1983)]), A Dictionary of Chinese Symbols: Hidden Symbols in Chinese Life and Thought. London, New York: Routledge. ISBN   0-415-00228-1, sub "Pine".

Bibliography

  • Farjon A (2005). Pines (2nd ed.). Leiden: E. J. Brill. ISBN   90-04-13916-8.
  • Little Jr EL, Critchfield WB (1969). Subdivisions of the Genus Pinus (Pines). Misc. Publ. 1144 (Superintendent of Documents Number: A 1.38:1144) (Report). US Department of Agriculture.
  • Richardson DM, ed. (1998). Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 530. ISBN   0-521-55176-5.
  • Sulavik SB (2007). Adirondack; Of Indians and Mountains, 1535-1838. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Press. pp. 244 pages. ISBN   978-1-930098-79-4.
  • Mirov NT (1967). The Genus Pinus. New York, NY: Ronald Press.
  • "Classification of pines". The Lovett Pinetum Charitable Foundation. Archived from the original on 2004-06-03. Retrieved 2004-01-17.
  • Mirov NT, Stanley RG (1959). "The Pine Tree". Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 10: 223–238. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.10.060159.001255.
  • Philips R (1979). Trees of North America and Europe . New York, NY: Random House, Inc. ISBN   0-394-50259-0.
  • Earle, Christopher J., ed. (2018). "Pinus". The Gymnosperm Database.