|Pruned black pines in Japanese National Garden, Tokyo|
|Subgenus:||P. subg. Pinus|
|Section:||P. sect. Pinus|
|Subsection:||P. subsect. Pinus|
Pinus thunbergii (syn: Pinus thunbergiana), also called black pine,Japanese black pine, and Japanese pine, is an East Asian pine native to coastal areas of Japan (Kyūshū, Shikoku and Honshū) and South Korea.
It is called gomsol (곰솔) in Korean, hēisōng (黑松) in Chinese, and kuromatsu (黒松) in Japanese.
Black pines can reach the height of 40 m, but rarely achieves this size outside its natural range. The needles are in fascicles of two with a white sheath at the base, 7–12 cm long; female cones are 4–7 cm in length, scaled, with small points on the tips of the scales, taking two years to mature. Male cones are 1–2 cm long borne in clumps of 12-20 on the tips of the spring growth. Bark is gray on young trees and small branches, changing to black and plated on larger branches and the trunk; becoming quite thick on older trunks.
In North America this tree is subject to widespread mortality by the native American pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , spread by means of beetle vectors. Subsequently, blue stain fungus invades the plant, leading to a rapid decline and death. This nematode has also been introduced to Japan accidentally, leading to the species becoming endangered in its native area.
Because of its resistance to pollution and salt, it is a popular horticultural tree. In Japan it is widely used as a garden tree both trained as Niwaki and untrained growing as an overstory tree. The trunks and branches are trained from a young age to be elegant and interesting to view. It is one of the classic bonsai subjects, requiring great patience over many years to train properly.
Pinus mugo, known as bog pine, creeping pine, dwarf mountain pine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine, or Swiss mountain pine, is a species of conifer, native to high elevation habitats from southwestern to Central Europe and Southeast Europe.
Pinus nigra, the Austrian pine or black pine, is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from the Iberian Peninsula to the eastern Mediterranean, on the Anatolian peninsula of Turkey on Corsica and Cyprus as well as Crimea and in the high mountains of Northwest Africa.
Pinus peuce is a species of pine native to the mountains of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo, the extreme southwest of Serbia, and the extreme north of Greece, growing typically at (600-) 1,000-2,200 (-2,300) m altitude. It often reaches the alpine tree line in this area. The mature size is up to 35–40 m height, and 1.5 m trunk diameter. However, the height of the tree diminishes strongly near the upper forest limit and may even obtain shrub sizes.
Pinus canariensis, the Canary Island pine, is a species of gymnosperm in the conifer family Pinaceae. It is a large, evergreen tree native and endemic to the outer Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. It is a subtropical pine and does not tolerate low temperatures or hard frost, surviving temperatures down to about −6 to −10 °C. Within its natural area, it grows under extremely variable rainfall regimes, from less than 300 mm (12 in) to several thousands, mostly due to differences in mist-capturing by the foliage. Under warm conditions, this is one of the most drought-tolerant pines, living even with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rainfall per year. It is the vegetable symbol of the island of La Palma.
Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and also known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America. It is common near the ocean shore and in dry montane forests to the subalpine, but is rare in lowland rain forests. Like all pines, it is an evergreen conifer.
Pinus rigida, the pitch pine, is a small-to-medium-sized pine. It is native to eastern North America, from central Maine south to Georgia and as far west as Kentucky, and in two pockets along the St. Lawrence River in southern Quebec and Ontario. It is found in environments which other species would find unsuitable for growth such as acidic, sandy, and low nutrient soils. This species occasionally hybridizes with other pine species such as loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, and pond pine ; the last is treated as a subspecies of pitch pine by some botanists.
Pinus parviflora, also known as five-needle pine, Ulleungdo white pine, or Japanese white pine, is a pine in the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, native to Korea and Japan.
Pinus pumila, the Siberian dwarf pine, dwarf Siberian pine, dwarf stone pine, Japanese stone pine, or creeping pine, is a species of tree in the family Pinaceae. It is native to northeastern Asia, including the islands of Japan. It shares the common name creeping pine with several other plants.
Pinus densiflora, also called the Japanese red pine, the Japanese pine, or Korean red pine, has a home range that includes Japan, the Korean Peninsula, northeastern China and the extreme southeast of Russia. This pine has become a popular ornamental and has several cultivars, but in the winter it becomes yellowish. The height of this tree is 20–35 m. The plant prefers full sun on well-drained, slightly acidic soil.
The Coulter pine or big-cone pine, Pinus coulteri, is a native of the coastal mountains of Southern California and northern Baja California (Mexico). Isolated groves are found as far north as Clearlake Ca on the flanks of Mt Konocti and Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve. The species is named after Thomas Coulter, an Irish botanist and physician.
Pinus ponderosa, commonly known as the ponderosa pine, bull pine, blackjack pine, western yellow-pine, or filipinus pine is a very large pine tree species of variable habitat native to mountainous regions of western North America. It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America.
Pinus brutia is a pine native to the eastern Mediterranean region. The bulk of its range is in Turkey, but it also extends to southeasternmost Bulgaria, the East Aegean Islands of Aegean Sea, Crete, the Crimea, Iran, Georgia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, western Syria, Israel, north-west Jordan, Lebanon, and Cyprus. It generally occurs at low altitudes, mostly from sea level to 600 metres (2,000 ft), up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) in the south of its range.
Pinus koraiensis is a species of pine known commonly as the Korean pine. It is native to eastern Asia: Korea, northeastern China, Mongolia, the temperate rainforests of the Russian Far East, and central Japan. In the north of its range, it grows at moderate elevations, typically 600 to 900 metres, whereas further south, it is a mountain tree, growing at 2,000 to 2,600 m elevation in Japan. Other common names include Chinese pinenut.
Podocarpus macrophyllus is a conifer in the genus Podocarpus, family Podocarpaceae. It is the northernmost species of the genus, native to southern Japan and southern and eastern China. Common names in English include yew plum pine, Buddhist pine, and fern pine. Kusamaki (クサマキ) and inumaki (犬槇) are Japanese names for this tree. In China, it is known as 羅漢松 or luóhàn sōng, which literally means "arhat pine".
Pinus tabuliformis, also called Manchurian red pine, Southern Chinese pine or Chinese red pine, is a pine native to northern China from Liaoning west to Inner Mongolia and Gansu, and south to Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi, and also northern Korea. In some older texts the name is spelled "Pinus tabulaeformis".
Pinus roxburghii, commonly known as chir pine or longleaf Indian pine, is a species of pine, native to the Himalayas. It was named after William Roxburgh.
Pinus armandii, the Armand pine or Chinese white pine, is a species of pine native to China, occurring from southern Shanxi west to southern Gansu and south to Yunnan, with outlying populations in Anhui. It grows at altitudes of 2200–3000 m in Taiwan, and it also extends a short distance into northern Burma. In Chinese it is known as "Mount Hua pine" (华山松).
Pinus hwangshanensis, or Huangshan pine, is a pine endemic to the mountains of eastern China, in the provinces of Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang; it is named after the Huangshan Mountains in Anhui, from where it was first described.
Pinus massoniana is a species of pine, native to Taiwan, and a wide area of central and southern China, including Hong Kong, and northern Vietnam, growing at low to moderate altitudes, mostly below 1,500 m but rarely up to 2,000 m altitude.
Pinus morrisonicola, is a species of conifer in the family Pinaceae. It is a large tree, up to 15–25 m (49–82 ft) high and 1.2 m (4 ft) in diameter. The trunk is often crooked. Needles are in bundles of five. Mature cones are large, to 10 cm (4 in) long and 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) in diameter.
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